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Title: Toadstools, mushrooms, fungi, edible and poisonous; one thousand American fungi

Author: Charles McIlvaine
        Robert K. Macadam

Release Date: March 8, 2016 [EBook #51393]
[Last updated: March 21, 2016]

Language: English

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Revised Edition
Copyright 1900, 1902
The Bowen-Merrill Company
All Rights Reserved


List of Illustrations v
Preface xiii
Introduction xv
Instructions to Students xxix
Abbreviations of the Names of Authors of Species xxxv
Names of the Principal Reporters of American Species xxxvii
Text 1
Toadstool Poisoning and its Treatment 621
Recipes for Cooking and Preparing for the Table 635
Glossary 651
Index to Genera 690
Index to Species 692
Index to Recipes for Cooking and Preparing for the Table 702
Index to General Contents 703


Frontispiece, colored.
I. Tabular view of the genera of Agaricaceæ 2
II. Leucosporæ. Chart of Genera 2
III. Progressive growth of Agarics 2
IV. Gill shapes 2
V. Ring shapes and positions; volva shapes 2
VI. Colored 6
1. Amanita spreta 11
2. phalloides (white var.) 7
3. phalloides (brown var.) 7
4. muscaria 14
5. Frostiana 16
6. Gyromitra esculenta 546
VII. Section of Amanita phalloides showing parts of an Agaric 3
VIII. Colored 18
1. Amanita chlorinosma 25
2. rubescens and section 21
3. strobiliformis 19
IX. Amanita muscaria. Half-tone 14
X. Colored 28
1. Amanitopsis vaginata 28
2. vaginata, var. livida 29
3. nivalis 29
4. strangulata 30
5. Mycena galericulata 127
6. prolifera 126
7. prolifera (section) 126
XI. 1. Lepiota procera. Section 33
XII. Colored 32
1. Lepiota Americana 48
2. naucinoides 45
3. cepæstipes 46
4. Amanita rubescens 21
XIII. Lepiota procera. Half-tone 34
XIV. Lepiota Morgani. Half-tone 36
XV. naucinoides. Half-tone 44
XVa. Americana 48
viXVI. Colored 52
1. Armillaria mellea 55
2. mellea, var. exannulata 56
3. Lentinus lepideus 230
XVII. Armillaria mellea. Section 52
XVIII. Colored 60
1, 2. Tricholoma personatum 79
3. russula 65
4. terreum 71
5. columbetta 68
6. humile 81
XIX. Tricholoma (section) 59
XX. Tricholoma decorosum 67
XXI. Tricholoma rutilans 70
XXII. Tricholoma terreum 71
XXIII. Tricholoma imbricatum 73
XXIV. Colored 82
1, 2, 3. Clitocybe ochropurpurea 108
4. ochropurpurea (section) 108
5. maxima 99
6. maxima (section) 99
7. nebularis 85
8. amethystina 107
9. odora 90
10. laccata 107
11. infundibuliformis 100
XXV. Clitocybe clavipes 86
XXVI. Clitocybe media 87
XXVII. Clitocybe monadelpha. Half-tone 88
XXVIIa. 1. Clitocybe multiceps 94
2. multiceps, var. 94
XXVIII. Colored 112
1. Collybia platyphylla 114
2. platyphylla, after rain 114
3. dryophila 120
4. fusipes 116
XXIX. Collybia radicata. Half-tone 112
XXIXa. Colored 96
Clitocybe illudens 96
XXIXb. Collybia velutipes 118
XXX. Collybia butyraceæ 117
XXXI. Collybia acervata 122
XXXII. Mycena galericulata 124
XXXIII. Hiatula Wynniæ 132
XXXIV. Omphalia umbellifera 132
XXXV. Pleurotus ostreatus. Half-tone 134
viiXXXVI. Pleurotus sapidus (section) 141
XXXVII. Colored 146
1. Hygrophorus pratensis (white var.) 152
2. pratensis (colored var.) 152
3. pratensis (after rain) 152
4. miniatus 159
5. cantharellus 156
6. virgineus 153
7. niveus 153
XXXVIII. Hygrophorus pratensis 147
XXXIX. Hygrophorus flavo-discus 157
XL. Hygrophorus fuligineus 158
XLa. Lactarius blennius 165
XLI. Colored 160
1. Lactarius piperatus 168
2. indigo 171
3. deliciosus 170
4. volemus 180
XLII. Lactarius hygrophoroides 180
XLIII. Lactarius subdulcis 182
XLIV. Colored 184
1. Russula cyanoxantha 198
2. emetica 201
3. flavida 197
4. sordida 190
5. roseipes 209
6. virescens 194
7. puellaris 208
XLV. Russula (section) 185
XLVa. Russula purpurina. Half-tone 188
XLVb. Russula brevipes 189
XLVI. Colored 214
1. Cantharellus floccosus 218
2. Morchella esculenta 542
3. Cantharellus cibarius 215
4. cibarius 215
5. brevipes 219
XLVII. Cantharellus cibarius 216
XLVIII. Cantharellus rosellus 218
XLIX. Cantharellus brevipes 219
L. Nyctalis parasiticus 220
LI. Marasmius oreades 221
LII. Lentinus (section) 228
LIII. Lentinus tigrinus 229
LIV. Panus torulosus 232
LV. Panus strigosus. Half-tone 232
LVa. Panus strigosus 234
viiiLVI. Xerotus degener 237
LVII. Lenzites 238
LVIII. Trogia crispa 237
LVIIIa. Schizophyllum commune 238
LVIIIb. Colored 238
Rhodosporæ. Chart of Genera.
LIX. Volvaria bombycina. Half-tone 240
LIXa. Volvaria bombycina 240
LX. Volvaria volvacea 241
LXI. Colored 242
1. Pluteus cervinus 242
2. cervinus var. 245
LXII. Entoloma sinuatum 251
LXIII. Colored 254
1. Clitopilus abortivus 257
2. abortivus (aborted) 258
3. abortivus (aborted section) 258
4. prunulus 255
5. prunulus (section) 255
LXIV. Clitopilus prunulus 254
LXV. Clitopilus Orcella 256
LXVI. Leptonia 263
LXVII. Nolanea pascua 264
LXVIII. Eccilia atropuncta 265
LXIX. Eccilia carneo-grisea 265
LXX. Claudopus variabilis 266
LXXI. Colored 268
1. Hebeloma glutinosum 285
2. Pholiota caperata 270
3. squarrosa 273
4. subsquarrosa 275
LXXIa. Colored 268
Ochrosporæ. Chart of Genera.
LXXII. Pholiota præcox 272
LXXIII. Pholiota squarrosa 273
LXXIV. Pholiota adiposa 276
LXXV. Inocybe lanuginosa 281
LXXVI. Pluteolus reticulatus 282
LXXVIa. Hebeloma fastibile 284
LXXVIb. Flammula alnicola 290
LXXVII. Tubaria furfuracea 293
LXXVIII. Naucoria semiorbicularis 294
LXXVIIIa. striapes 296
LXXIX. Galera tenera 300
LXXX. Bolbitius fragilis 303
LXXXa. Bolbitius nobilis 303
LXXXI. Crepidotus mollis 304
ixLXXXII. Colored 306
1. Cortinarius squamulosus 318
2. violaceus 314
3.  ochraceus 319
4. Cortinarius turmalis 309
5. armillatus 323
LXXXIII. Cortinarius collinitus 313
LXXXIV. Cortinarius albo-violaceus 316
LXXXV. Cortinarius asper 317
LXXXVI. Cortinarius squamulosus 318
LXXXVIa. Cortinarius autumnalis 319
LXXXVIb. Cortinarius annulatus 320
LXXXVII. Cortinarius cinnamomeus 322
LXXXVIII. Cortinarius armillatus 323
XC. Paxillus involutus 328
XCI. Colored 332
1. Agaricus variabilis 346
2. silvicola 343
3. placomyces 345
4. campester 332
5. campester 332
XCII. Colored 330
Porphyrosporæ. Chart of Genera.
XCIII. Chitonia rubriceps 330
XCIV. Agaricus magnificus. Colored 342
XCV. Pilosace Algeriensis (section) 348
XCVI. Stropharia æruginosa 349
XCVIa. Stropharia semiglobata (section) 351
XCVII. Colored 352
1. Hypholoma appendiculatum 363
2. perplexum 354
3. sublateritium 359
4. Gomphidius rhodoxanthus 394
5. rhodoxanthus (section) 394
XCVIIa. Hypholoma incertum. Half-tone 362
XCVIII. Hypholoma fascicularis 352
XCIX. Psilocybe spadicea 365
C. Psathyra gyroflexa 367
CI. Colored 368
Melanosporæ. Chart of Genera.
CII. Colored 372
1. Coprinus atramentarius 373
2. micaceus 378
3. Panæolus solidipes 385
4. solidipes (section) 385
CIII. Coprinus comatus. Half-tone 370
xCIV. Coprinus macrosporus 375
CV. Coprinus fimetarius 376
CVI. Coprinus domesticus 381
CVII. Coprinus silvaticus 382
CVIII. Panæolus 384
CIX. Anellaria separata 388
CX. Psathyrella graciloides 390
CXI. Psathyrella disseminata 391
CXII. Gomphidius viscidus 394
CXIIa. Boletinus paluster 401
CXIII. Boletinus porosus. Half-tone 402
CXIV. Colored 414
1. Boletus gracilis 467
2. subaureus 414
3. castaneus 472
CXV. Boletus spectabilis 408
CXVa. Boletus subluteus 412
CXVI. Colored 420
1. Boletus eccentricus 470
2. badiceps 436
3. fulvus 465
4. subsanguineus 420
5. crassipes 452
CXVII. Colored 424
1,2. Boletus bicolor 425
3. rubropunctus 429
4. pallidus 429
CXVIII. Colored 436
1. Boletus separans 445
2. Russelli 436
3. illudens 439
4. scaber areolatus 461, 463
5. edulis 445
CXIX. 1. Boletus edulis, var. clavipes 445
2,3. edulis 445
CXX. Boletus affinis 448
CXXI. Boletus scaber 462
CXXII. Colored 468
1. Boletus indecisus 468
2,3,4. felleus 469
CXXIV. Strobilomyces strobilaceus 475
CXXV. Colored 476
1. Fistulina hepatica 477
2. Polyporus sulphureus 485
xiCXXVI. Etching 478
1. Polyporus fumosus 479
2. Polystictus versicolor
3. Merulius corium 490
4. Polyporus perennis and section
5. Dædalea quercina
6. Fomes igniarius
7. Trametes gibbosa
CXXVIII. Polyporus frondosus. Half-tone 482
CXXIX. Polyporus intybaceus (section) 483
CXXX. Polyporus squamosus. Half-tone 480
CXXXI. Hydnum scabrosum 496
CXXXII. Hydnum repandum 497
CXXXIII. Hydnum albidum 499
CXXXIV. Hydnum coralloides. Half-tone 500
CXXXV. Hydnum caput-Medusæ 502
CXXXVI. Colored 508
1. Spathularia clavata 549
2. Peziza coccinea 559
3. aurantia 557
4. Cantharellus aurantiacus 216
5. Hypomyces lactifluorum 562
6. Hygrophorus coccineus 156
7. Craterellus sinuosus, var. crispus 510
8. cornucopoides 509
9. Cantharellus lutescens 218
CXXXVII. Sparassis crispa. Half-tone 512
CXXXVIII. Colored 522
1. Clavaria fusiformis 523
2. pistillaris (yellow var.) 524
3. Clavaria pistillaris (dark var.) 524
CXXXIX. Colored 516
1. Clavaria amethystina 516
2. aurea 520
3. formosa 520
CXL. Clavaria cinerea 518
CXLI. Clavaria cristata. Half-tone 518
CXLII. Clavaria circinans 522
CXLIII. Hirneola auricula-Judea 528
CXLIV. Tremella mesenterica 530
CXLIVa. Tremella mycetophila 531
CXLV. Tremellodon gelatinosum 533
CXLVI. Helvella crispa 536
CXLVII. Leotia lubrica 541
CXLVIII. Gyromitra brunnea 547
CXLVIIIa. Gyromitra esculenta. Section 546
xiiCXLIX. Morchella semilibera 545
CL. Mitrula vitellina 548
CLI. Geoglossum glutinosum 550
CLII. Peziza badia. Half-tone 554
CLIII. Tuber niveum (Terfezia leonis) 565
CLIV. Tuber æstivum 566
CLV. Pachyma cocos (Tuckahoe) 567
CLVI. 1. Lycoperdon, parts described (section) 568
2. echinatum 568
CLVIII. Phallus impudicus. Half-tone 572
CLIX. Mutinus caninus 575
CLX. Geaster hygrometricus 580
CLXI. Tylostoma Myenianum 582
CLXII. Calvatia cyathiformis. Half-tone 584
Lycoperdon cyathiforme.
CLXIII. Calvatia craniiformis 586
CLXIV. Calvatia elata 588
CLXV. Lycoperdon constellatum 592
CLXVI. Lycoperdon glabellum 595
CLXVII. Lycoperdon rimulatum 597
CLXVIII. Lycoperdon Wrightii, var. separans 604
CLXIX. Lycoperdon pedicellatum 600
CLXX. Lycoperdon eximium 601
CLXXa. Lycoperdon Curtisii 601
CLXXb. Lycoperdon Turneri 602
CLXXI. Lycoperdon pyriforme. Half-tone 602
CLXXII. Lycoperdon subincarnatum 604
CLXXIII. Lycoperdon pusillum 606
CLXXIV. Lycoperdon cepæsforme 606
CLXXV. Lycoperdon coloratum 607
CLXXVI. Lycoperdon acuminatum 607
CLXXVIa. Bovistella Ohiensis (section) 608
CLXXVII. Bovistella Ohiensis 608
CLXXVIII. Catastoma circumscissum 609
CLXXIX. Bovista minor 610
CLXXX. Scleroderma vulgare 615
CLXXXI. Polysaccum pisocarpium 618
CLXXXII. Mycenastrum spinulosum 613


A score of years ago (1880–1885) I was living in the mountains of West Virginia. While riding on horseback through the dense forests of that great unfenced state, I saw on every side luxuriant growths of fungi, so inviting in color, cleanliness and flesh that it occurred to me they ought to be eaten. I remembered having read a short time before this inspiration seized me a very interesting article in the Popular Science Monthly for May, 1877, written by Mr. Julius A. Palmer, Jr., entitled “Toadstool Eating.” Hunting it up I studied it carefully, and soon found myself interested in a delightful study which was not without immediate reward. Up to this time I had been living, literally, on the fat of the land—bacon; but my studies enabled me to supplement this, the staple dish of the state, with a vegetable luxury that centuries ago graced the dinners of the Cæsars. So absorbing did the study become from gastronomic, culinary and scientific points of view, that I have continued it ever since, with thorough intellectual enjoyment and much gratification of appetite as my reward. I hope to interest students in the study as I am myself interested.

For twenty years my little friends—the toadstools—have been my constant companions. They have interested me, delighted me, fed me, and I have found much pleasure in making the public acquainted with their habits, structure, lusciousness and food value.

My researches have been confined to the species large enough to appease the appetite of a hungry naturalist if found in reasonable quantity; and my work has been devoted to segregating the edible and innocuous from the tough, undesirable and poisonous kinds. To accomplish this, because of the persistent inaccuracy of the books upon the subject, it was necessary to personally test the edible qualities of hundreds of species about which mycologists have either written nothing or have followed one another in giving erroneous information. While often wishing I had not undertaken the work because of the unpleasant results xivfrom personally testing fungi which proved to be poisonous, my reward has been generous in the discovery of many delicacies among the more than seven hundred edible varieties I have found.

For ten years I have planned to publish in book form what I know about toadstools; each effort to compile my information has shown me how much more I ought to know before going into print. Even now my work is still unfinished.

I am urged by my many toadstool friends (as I lovingly call those who, from all over the land, send me specimens for identification, and grow interested with me in the work), to publish what I already know upon the subject, that they, and others, may have a helpful book to guide them to a goodly portion of the edible species, and away from those that are inedible or poisonous.

In this book I comply with these requests. I have selected over seven hundred of the most plentiful and best varieties for the table, from my toadstool bill of fare; and I describe and caution against several species, some of which are deadly in their effects, if eaten; others of which induce ill-effects more or less serious. One thousand species and varieties are named and described.

Birds, flowers, insects, stones delight the observant. Why not toadstools? A tramp after them is absorbing, study of them interesting, and eating of them health-giving and supremely satisfying.

Charles McIlvaine.


America is without a text-book of the American species of Fungi, among which the edible and poisonous varieties are found. Many excellent but expensive foreign volumes describe species common to both continents, and several special but widely scattered monographs have been published here. The need of the mycologist, mycophagist and amateur toadstool student is a book giving the genus, names and descriptions of the prominent American toadstools whose edibility has been tested, or whose poisonous qualities have been discovered. The absence of such a book, and the universal and rapidly-growing interest all over the United States in edible fungi, have led to the publication of the present work, which includes every species known to be esculent in North America. As a precautionary measure, full explications of all those known or suspected to be poisonous are included.

Many species found in this country only have been described and named by various authors, from the time of Schweinitz (1822) to the present day. These have been published in the botanical magazines and in the papers of scientific societies and colleges. The greater number have as author Professor Charles H. Peck, New York State Botanist, who has contributed an annual report each year from 1868. These appear in the reports of the State Museum of New York, and coming from the pen of our ablest mycologist are of great value to everyone interested in the study. The classifications and (in many instances) modified descriptions by such an eminent authority upon fungoid growth should therefore be the guides to American forms, that the confusion created by numerous descriptions of the same fungus by different observers may be avoided.

Professor N.L. Britton, editor of the Torrey Botanical Club, has courteously given permission to use the descriptions of new species given in its instructive Bulletins.

Professor A.P. Morgan and Laura V. Morgan, with equal courtesy, xvigrant the use of text and illustrations contained in the most complete monograph published upon the Lycoperdaceæ (puff-balls, etc.) of America.

While the scientific classifications and descriptions have been strictly followed, the language has been simplified—with no sacrifice of scientific accuracy—that this volume may be fully adapted to popular use.

Professor Peck has given his valuable assistance in the identification of many species, all that were difficult or obscure having been submitted to him, and the writer is deeply indebted to him for many and long-continued courtesies, aiding in study and in the preparation of this work.

Several new species have been found by the writer, the greater part of excellent food value. He preferred that these should be named, described and placed in their proper genus and section by Professor Peck, believing it to be best for the discoverers of new species to defer to one whose vast experience enables him to name and classify in accordance with the demands of American species.

Where a species is vouched for as edible, it has been personally tested by the author and his willing undertasters up to eating full meals of it, or at least beyond all doubt as to its safety. Where others have eaten species which he has not had the opportunity to test, their names and opinions are given. When species heretofore under the ban of suspicion are in this volume, for the first time, announced to be edible (there are many of them), personal tests have not been considered sufficient, as idiosyncrasy might have affected the results. Others, at the writer’s request, have eaten of the species until their innocence was fully established. In some cases, where the reputation of the fungi eaten was especially bad, scientists of note have made elaborate and exhaustive physiological tests of their substances, and in every instance confirmed the human testing.

While species which contain deadly poisons are few, their individuals are produced in great number. Nicety in distinguishing their botanic variance from edible species closely resembling them is necessary. No charm will detect the poison. Eating toadstools before their certain identification as belonging to edible species, is neither bravery nor common sense. The amateur should go slow.

The question often asked is: By what rule do you distinguish between edible and poisonous mushrooms? The answer usually surprises the questioner—there is no general rule. All such rules which have been given are false and unreliable. The quality of each was learned, one at xviia time. Sweet and sour apples alike grow on large and small trees, may be red or green, large or small, oblong or globular, and no visible appearance gives the least clue to the quality.

In a few genera certain rules may be applied, as in Clavaria--all not bitter or tough are edible. But such generalizations are each limited to its own genus.

The toadstools containing deadly poisons are thought to be confined to one genus of the gilled kind—Amanita, and to Helvella esculenta, now Gyromitra esculenta, to which are charged fatal results. The poisonous qualities of Gyromitra esculenta are not proven. Recent testings of this species prove it to be harmless and of good quality. By far the greater number of species contained in Amanita are notable for their tender substance and delicious flavor. By their stately beauty and unusual attractiveness both the poisonous and harmless kinds are seductive. Any toadstool with white or lemon-yellow gills, casting white spores when laid—gills downward—upon a sheet of paper, having remnants of a fugitive skin in the shape of scabs or warts upon the upper surface of its cap, with a veil or ring, or remnants or stains of one, having at the base of its stem—in the ground—a loose, skin-like sheath surrounding it, or remnants of one, should never be eaten until the collector is thoroughly conversant with the technicalities of every such species, or has been taught by one whose authority is well known, that it is a harmless species. This rule purposely includes the renowned Amanita Cæsaria, everywhere written as luscious. I regard it as the most dangerous of toadstools, because of its close resemblance to its sister plant—the Amanita muscaria—which is deadly. In the description of these species, other forcible reasons are given.

Another deadly species—the Amanita phalloides—is frequently mistaken by the inexperienced for the common mushroom. Safety lies in the strict observance of two rules: Never eat a toadstool found in the woods or shady places, believing it to be the common mushroom. Never eat a white- or yellow-gilled toadstool in the same belief. The common mushroom does not grow in the woods, and its gills are at first pink, then purplish-brown or black.

If through carelessness, or by accident, a poisonous Amanita has been eaten, and sickness results, take an emetic at once, and send for a physician with instructions to bring hypodermic syringe and atropine sulphate. The dose is 1180 of a grain, and doses should be continued xviiiheroically until the 120 of a grain is administered, or until, in the physician’s opinion, a proper quantity has been injected. Where the victim is critically ill the 120 of a grain may be administered.

In every case of toadstool poisoning, the physician must be guided by the symptoms exhibited. Professor W.S. Carter, by numerous exhaustive trials upon animals, has proved that atropine, while valuable as against the first, is not an antidote for the late effects of the greater toadstool poisons. (See his chapter on toadstool poisons, especially prepared for this work.)

There are other species which contain minor poisons producing very undesirable effects. These are soon remedied by taking an emetic, then one or two doses of whisky and sweet oil; or vinegar may be substituted for the whisky. A few species of fungi are innocuous to the majority of persons and harmful to a few. So it is with many common foods—strawberries, apples, tomatoes, celery, even potatoes. The beginner at toadstool eating usually expects commendation for bravery, and fearfully watches for hours the coming of something dreadful. Indigestion from any other cause is always laid to the traditionary enemy, fright ensues, a physician is called, the scare spreads, and a pestilential story of “Severe Poisoning by Toadstools,” gets into the newspapers. The writer has traced many such publications to imprudences in eating, with which toadstools had nothing to do.

The authoritative analysis of several common food species by Lafayette B. Mendel, of Sheffield Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University, is given, and will correct the popular error about the great nutritive value of fungi, arising from previous erroneous analyses.

While species are reported as found in certain localities, it by no means follows that their growth is confined to these places. A species reported as found in the Adirondack mountains, unless belonging to the few peculiar to northern regions and high altitudes, is reasonably sure to be more plentiful in a like habitat south and west of them. South it will appear earlier and its season last longer.

Size is largely dependent upon latitude and may vary greatly in the same group. Temperature, moisture, favorable nourishment are important factors in growth.

Each species has its favorite habitat, and will thrive best upon it. There are few things under the sun upon which fungi do not grow. Their mission is particularly directed toward converting decaying matter, xixor matter which has accomplished its work in one direction, into usefulness in another. They are the wood-choppers, stewards, caterers of the forest, converters in the fields and chemists everywhere. They can not assimilate inorganic matter because of the absence of chlorophyl in their composition, but in organic matter they are omnivorous. When they feed on dead substances they are called saprophytes; when their support is derived from living tissues, parasites.

Scores of species of fungi were found in the forests, ravines and clearings of the West Virginia mountains from 1881 to 1885 inclusive, and eaten by the writer years before he had the opportunity to learn their names from books or obtain the friendly assistance of experts in identifying them. He knew the individuals without knowing their names, as one knows the bird song and plumage before formal introduction to the pretty creatures that charm him.

After he was able to get European publications upon the subject, and by their aid trace the species he had eaten to their names, descriptions and qualities, he was surprised to read that many of them were warned against as deadly. As informed by these books, he properly ought to have died several times. It soon became evident that authors had followed one another in condemning species, some because they bore brilliant hues, others because they were unpleasant when raw (just as is a potato), rather than investigate their qualities by testing them. Here was a realm of food-giving plants almost entirely unexplored. The writer determined to explore it. Instead of the one hundred and eleven species then recorded by the late Doctor Curtis as edible, my number of edible species now exceeds his by over six hundred.[A]

A.  This book contains one hundred and fifty pages more than were originally estimated and promised to the subscribers. That all known edible and poisonous species might be fully described and published within one volume, the author was compelled to cut fifty thousand words from his manuscript. The localities from which species have been reported and the names of the reporters have been taken out, excepting where it was desirable to show that foreign species have been found in the United States, and where tested species have been found by the author. The principal cut has been from the notes of the author and of enlarged descriptions.

Let us clear away the rubbish and superstition that have so long obscured the straight path to a knowledge of edible toadstools. Let us bear in mind that a mushroom is a toadstool and a toadstool is a mushroom—the terms are interchangeable. If toads ever occupied the one-legged seat assigned them from time immemorial, they have learned in xxthis enlightened age that the ground is much more reliable, and so squat upon it, except when exercising their constitutional right to hop. Snails, slugs, insects of many kinds, mice, squirrels and rabbits prey upon good and bad, each to its liking, notwithstanding oft-repeated assertion that snails and slugs infect noxious varieties only, or that animals select the innocuous only. We are warned against those which grow in the dark or damp; the mushroom of commerce is grown by the ton in the subterranean quarries of France, and everywhere in vaults and cellars for domestic use. The valued truffle never sees the light until it is taken from darkness to be eaten, and other varieties of the best prefer seclusion.

The wiseacres tell us that they must have equal gills, must not have thin tops, must not turn yellow when sprinkled with salt, must not blacken a silver spoon, that we must not eat of those changing color when cut or broken, of those exuding milk, or those which are acrid, hot, or bitter, and give many other specifics for determining the good from the bad. These tests are all worse than worthless, for if confidence is placed in them they will not only lead us away from esculent and excellent varieties but directly into eating venomous ones.

There are whole genera of fungi which are innocuous; but in the Family of Agaricaceæ, where the greatest variety of the edible and poisonous species are found, it is necessary to master one by one the details of their construction and learn to distinguish their differences as one does those of the many kinds of roses, or pinks, or hundreds of bright-faced pansies, and in the mastery of them lies the only charm that will safely guide.

Carefully remove the first toadstool found from whatever it is growing upon, and with it a portion of that from which it springs. If it is the earth a curious white network is discernible, fine as the delicate spinning of the spider, spreading its meshes throughout the mass. It will often remind of miniature vines climbing over miniature lattices. This is the mycelium from which the toadstool grew. In many instances it penetrates the earth to a considerable depth, and takes possession of large territory. It is often seen as the gardener turns up the soil or its fertilizer, and is perhaps taken for a mold. If the specimen is gathered from mat of wood leaves, the same white vine is observable slipping in between its layers. If taken from a tree, the decaying wood is traversed xxiby it. From wherever a toadstool is plucked, it is removed from its mycelium.

This mycelium is but a thread-like mass of simple cells joined together at their ends and interlacing in a way a thousand-fold more intricate than a Chinese puzzle. Nothing in its structure indicates what its special product will be. The fungus which is plucked from it is in all its parts simply a mass of these threads—cells strung together, interlacing and ramifying.

When the season favors, the mycelium—which has, winter and summer and from year to year, lived its hidden life, or has sprung from a germinating spore—develops a number of its cells in a minute knob, small as a pin head. At this point the cells make special growth efforts to bring themselves within the favoring influences of heat and moisture; this tiny knob labors within itself, producing cell after cell, which takes shape and function for the future toadstool.

As it rapidly enlarges it pushes its way toward the surface of the ground, becomes more or less egg-shaped in this stage of its growth, and if cut in half longitudinally and examined, it will display what it is going to be when it grows up.

Suppose that it belongs to the first of the two great sections into which fungi are divided under the classification of Fries, who modified that of Persoon. The first has the spores—which represent the seeds in plants—naked, and it is called sporifera or spore-bearing. The second, which has the spores enclosed in cells or cysts, is called sporidifera or sporidia-bearing. If the cap of a gill-bearing toadstool be laid, gills downward, on a watch crystal or piece of white paper for a few hours, or, in some instances, a few minutes, a complete representation of the spaces between the gills will be found deposited as an impalpable powder. These are the spores.

The first section is divided into four cohorts. Two of these have hymeniums or spore-bearing surfaces more or less expanded. These are Hymenomycetes and Gastromycetes. In Hymenomycetes the hymenium is always exposed in matured plants, as with the common mushroom. When young, some plants are covered with a membrane. In Gastromycetes the hymenium is always concealed within a covering which bursts at maturity, as with the Lycoperdons or puff-balls. Cohort Coniomycetes includes rusts, smuts, etc., formed for the most part on living plants. There is no hymenium present. The spores are produced xxiion the ends of inconspicuous threads, free or enclosed in a bottle-like receptacle called a perithecium. Cohort Hypomycetes is composed of those species of fungi commonly called molds. The spores are produced, naked, from the ends of inconspicuous threads.

In the Agaricaceæ—the first family in Hymenomycetes—the young plant is completely enveloped. (Plate III, fig. B, p. 2.) Its head is as yet undefined and its body may be classed as dumpy, but shut in and protected are a great quantity of knife-like plaits (Plate III, fig. C., p. 2), on the outer surface of which, when the plant matures, will be borne its spores. It therefore belongs to the Hymenomycetes, and to the Family Agaricaceæ—gill-bearing.

If the ground becomes moist or there comes a heavy dew or a rain, the young plant, closely compacted and very solid, which has been under the surface for many days waiting its chance to get forth to light and air, rapidly swells, breaks through the moistened earth, goes rapidly to cell-making, ruptures its outside covering, the head expands and in so doing spreads out its gills or hymenium. (Plate III, figs. C, D, E, p. 2.) The membrane which covered the gills either vanishes, or gathers round the stem in the form of a ring or circular apron, or it may partially adhere to the edges of the top, cap or pileus and hang as a fringe from it; the stem elongates; the whole plant assumes the colors of its species and in a few hours or days at most it stands forth, a marvel of beauty, structure and workmanship.

But little is known of how these spores reproduce themselves. The microscope fails to completely penetrate the mystery. A whole fungus is but a mass of cells, the spore is but one of them. That these simple cells do produce after their kind there is no doubt, but so minute is the germ and hidden its methods that science has failed to solve them.

The first Family of Hymenomycetes is Agaricaceæ. Its members always have gills or modifications of them. In some cases—notably in Cantharellus—the gills have the appearance of smooth, raised veins over which is the spore-bearing surface. The hymenium is but an extension of the fibers of the cap, folded up like the plaits and flutings of ruffles, and laundered with exquisite neatness. If it is carefully detached and spread out like a fan it will cover a large surface, many times the size of the cap from which it has been taken, and will show that what is a consumption of material in dress ornamentation is utilized by economical Dame Nature to increase the spore-bearing xxiiisurface within a small space and for purely business purposes—spore-bearing. The color of these spores has much to do with the classification. The microscope with high light reveals the delicate shades of their coloring, but the main colors are readily distinguished by the naked eye when the spores are collected in a mass on glass or paper.

The Polyporaceæ have in place of gills closely packed tubes on the inside of which is the spore-bearing surface; each has a mouth from which to eject the spores.

The Hydnaceæ bear their spores from spines or spicules of various length protruding from the external surface of the cap. Sometimes the spines mock in miniature the stalactites of the Caverns of Luray, sometimes the shaggy mane of the lion, sometimes flowing locks of hair. These three Families belong to the Cohort Hymenomycetes, having their spore-bearing surface exposed early in life by the rupture of the universal veil.

The Lycoperdons or Puff-balls have the hymenium enclosed within an outer case, just as the apple with its seeds is enclosed for a dumpling. When the spores are matured the sack is ruptured and they escape as the dusty powder so well known to all. The Puff-ball belongs to the Cohort Gastromycetes, because its spores are protected within the hymenium until they are matured.

There are other Families which contain edible species. The Clavariaceæ—branched or club-shaped—often found in as beautiful forms as delight us in coral, includes a few.

In Ascomycetes, of the covered spore division Sporidifera, there are several species which are excellent, and as they dry readily are much valued for flavoring purposes when winter forbids the growth of outdoor fungi. Of these the Morell has preference. The cap is covered with sinuosities and pits which bear the spores. There are several varieties of the Morell in the United States. They are known among the country people who cook and pickle them, as Honey-comb mushrooms.

The Tuberaceæ are subterranean fungi. The common truffle so much prized by epicures is a good representative. It is found a foot or more under the surface of the earth, and of such value is it that in some countries pigs are trained to hunt it from its hiding place. It is one of the few foreign growths apparently not taking kindly to our country. Efforts have been made to import and cultivate it, but without success. xxivIt is possible, even probable, that it may yet be found in America by assiduous search.

I have said that there is but one way to distinguish the edible from the non-edible fungi; that is by mastering the characteristics of each species one by one. There are signs which point to the evil and those which point to the good, but they must be used as signals, not directors.

A nauseous, fetid odor should condemn a species as non-edible at once. Those having the flavor of flour or fresh meal are generally accepted as worthy of trial. Slimy, water-soaked, partially decomposed plants, or those impressing one as unpleasant in any way, should never find their place upon the table. Do not eat of any toadstool, unknown to the collector, beyond the careful and systematic testing required to determine whether it is edible or not.

A few species have a serious charge remaining against them; that of partiality. They unmistakably signify with whom they will agree and with whom they will not. These are notably Clitocybe illudens, Lepiota Morgani, Panæolus papilionaceus, all specialized in their places in the text.

Other species have hereditary taints upon their reputations. Most, if not all of them have stood present tests and relieved themselves of suspicion. But, alas that it should be so! The stigma must rest upon them for yet a while and until their defenders are so numerous that their purity, without a smirch, is popularly proclaimed.

Wherever wood grows and decays as it will, Polyporus, Panus, Lenzites, Schizophyllum and kindred genera stand prominently forth in countless numbers. The great majority of them are inedible because of their woody substance. A few are valued as food. Very many of them yield their soluble matter and flavor when boiled, and in this way make excellent soups and gravies, just as flax-seed and the bark of the slippery elm yield succulent matter. These, however, are not, with a few exceptions, mentioned in this book. Numbers of Clavarieæ and Hydneæ are in the same category. M.C. Cooke tersely says: “Fruits that are not peaches or apricots may be very good plums.” In the introductions to genera their attributes are given; under “Instructions to Students” every guide to identification and selection will be found.

A Glossary, containing the botanic terms used in this book and, it is believed, all other terms used by mycologists in describing fungi, follows the descriptive text. It is strongly advised that it be carefully studied. xxvThe roots and derivatives of the botanic terms are fully and carefully given by Dr. John W. Harshberger, professor of botany, University of Pennsylvania, to whom the author is specially indebted.

The excellent Glossary published by Dr. Edwin A. Daniels, Boston, has furnished many comprehensive definitions. It is the property of the Boston Mycological Club, and can be obtained from its secretary for twenty-five cents.

The determination of the proper accentuation of the generic and specific terms has been in many cases a difficult task, and, in some cases, owing to the dubious origin of the words in question, there is certainly room for difference of opinion. This task has been kindly and conscientiously performed by Prof. M.W. Easton, professor of Comparative and English Philology, University of Pennsylvania. Thanks are due to the Hon. Addison Brown, president of the Torrey Botanical Club, and Dr. Nathaniel L. Britton, professor of Botany in Columbia College, authors of “Illustrated Flora,” for the determination of the accentuation of non-classical words ending in inus.

Three indexes are given: the first refers to the general contents, the second to the genera, the third to species and their genera, alphabetically arranged.

Mrs. Emma P. Ewing and Mrs. Sarah T. Rorer have kindly furnished some of their recipes for the preparation of several varieties of toadstools. The best results of the author’s long experience in cooking toadstools are given in the chapter “Recipes for Cooking and Preparing for the Table,” together with others selected from many sources. The personal taste of the server must be guide to the choice.

A child-friend of the writer, in telling him of her mother’s cook, said: “She’s a good cooker, but she has a bad temper.” A good “cooker” will soon learn how to best display the individual flavor of each species. And be it known that each species of toadstool has a flavor of its own. These flavors vary as much as among meats and vegetables. No one species can be taken as standard of excellence.

The greatest care has been taken to secure illustrations correct in every botanic detail. With few exceptions the colored figures were drawn and painted by the writer. To obtain this important feature the requirements of art have frequently been sacrificed. An artist can make a picture of a toadstool; the mycologist must guide his brush or pencil in the making of a correct presentation. The happy combination of xxviartist and mycologist occurs in Mr. Val. W. Starnes, Augusta, Ga., to whom this volume owes many of its illustrations. Mr. Frank D. Briscoe, widely known as an artist of rare ability, has arranged and painted in groups the studies made by the writer from typical plants, and added to the illustrations many excellent drawings of his own.

The unfailing reliability of the sun has been masterfully used by Dr. J.R. Weist, ex-Secretary of the American Society of Surgeons, Richmond, Ind.; H.I. Miller, Superintendent Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad, Terre Haute, Ind., and Mr. Luther G. Harpel, Lebanon, Pa., in making the unexcelled photographs generously contributed by them. The author is most thankful to them and to Mr. C.G. Lloyd, Cincinnati, Ohio—a scientific gentleman devoting lavishly of his time and money to the spread of mycological knowledge—for the privilege of selecting from his extensive collection of realistic photographs those adaptable to the species described herein.

The author’s thanks are gratefully given to the many who have by help and encouragement furthered his efforts in producing this, the first American text-book upon fungi. Space precludes the naming of the many, but the few named do not outrank them in their interest, help and the author’s appreciation:

Miss Lydia M. Patchen, President of the Westfield, N.Y., Toadstool Club (the first in America); Mrs. E.C. Anthony, Thomas J. Collins, E.B. Sterling, Berry Benson, Melvil Dewey, New York State Librarian; Dr. J.E. Schadle, Prof. J.P. Arnold, University of Pennsylvania; Prof. W.S. Carter, University of Texas; Boston School of Natural History; Massachusetts Horticultural Society; Prof. Wm. G. Farlow, University of Harvard.

Thus aided the author believes that his own conscientious, patient, loved labor in the study of edible and non-edible fungi and the production of this volume will be far-reaching in its one object—encouraging the study of toadstools.

The time for writing a complete flora of the United States has not yet come; a large part of the country remains as yet unexplored by mycologists; new species are being constantly discovered in the districts best known. Every book on the subject must be necessarily incomplete.

On the other hand, so far as concerns the known fungus-flora, there is imperative need of some guide to the student, which shall at least save him some part of the weary toil of hunting through the scattered xxviiliterature in which alone, as things are at present, can be found the information he seeks. In this book I have tried to meet this need. It is not complete, but I have tried to so arrange the matter that the student can always decide whether the particular specimen in hand is or is not included, and, at least for all of our more conspicuous fungi, determine the family and genus. If the student can do so much, the task of finding the specific name, even when not included in this book, becomes very much simpler.

So much for the more scientific aspect of my book. But I have also kept in constant view the needs of the large and constantly growing number of persons who have no aim further than to learn to know the principal toadstools seen in their walks, just as they wish to know the principal trees and the more conspicuous birds. For such as these, the difficulty of deciding whether or no a particular individual fungus is described in the brief (sketching) manuals hitherto accessible is even more formidable than with the special student of botany.

Finally, I have kept in view throughout the work the needs of the mycophagists. They are not pot-hunters; they care much less for the physical pleasure of the appetite than for the close study of Nature that their inclination leads them into. Some day the delights of a mushroom hunt along lush pastures and rich woodlands will take the rank of the gentlest craft among those of hunting, and may perchance find its own Izaak Walton.

Author’s and Publisher’s Note.

It is the intention of the author and the publisher to keep this book up to date. Recognizing that future testing will prove many more species of toadstools to be edible, and that scientists will have more exact knowledge of toadstool poisons and their antidotes, they announce that illustrated sheets publishing new edible species and current information upon fungi will be, from time to time, issued, conforming in shape and style to this volume and at an acceptable price.

That the author and publishers may keep in touch with the owner of each volume, and be informed of new discoveries in species and of new experience, owners are requested to communicate their book numbers to Captain Charles McIlvaine, or the Bowen-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, Ind.



To catch fish one must know more than the fish; to find toadstools one must know their season and habitats. They are propagated by their spores and from their mycelium—that web-like growth which is the result of spore germination.

The spores of ground-growing kinds, when shed upon the ground, are washed by rains along the natural drainage; therefore, when a specimen of one of these kinds is found, it is well to look up and down the natural water-shed, and follow it. Good reward will usually come of it. Few fungi are strictly solitary.

Careful observation of the habitats of the various genera and species will enable the student to know what may and may not be expected in a particular locality, and will save many a hunt.

When an unknown species is found, collect it carefully, examine it closely, note all its features. Determine to which division of fungi it belongs. If to the gilled family (Agaricaceæ) obtain the color of the spores (see directions). Look at the chart “Tabular View of Genera of Agaricaceæ,” Plate I, p. 2 (after W.G. Smith, but enlarged, redrawn and emended). If the spores are white, it belongs to one of the genera in the first column—Leucosporæ; if pink, to one in the second column, and so on. It is often difficult to determine the spore color, because spores vary through many shades of the typical color. What are called white spores may be creamy, dirty, yellowish or brownish-white; pink spores will vary from almost white to reddish and salmon-color; brown spores from light-ochraceous through cinnamon to rusty; purple spores from dark-violet to purplish-black. Experience alone will enable the student to decide which color series is present. The Genera Charts, preceding the five different color series, show typical spore colors only. Again, authors describing the species frequently fail to see colors alike; if they do, their names for them frequently vary. For instance, few persons will agree upon a color expressed as “livid.”

xxxThe color system principally used by botanists is Saccardo’s “Chromotaxia,” costing fifty cents. It is decidedly inadequate. Ridgway’s “Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists” is far better, but it is out of print and obtainable only at the principal libraries. “The Prang Standard of Color” is the most complete ever issued, but it is inapplicable to existing descriptions of fungi.

Make and Preserve Spore Prints.

Take, to print upon, sheets of Bristol-board or any stiff, hard-surfaced white paper 6×9 inches or larger. Cut a round hole, four inches in diameter, in one of the sheets. Use this as a stencil. Lay it upon a print-sheet and where the opening occurs, paint with a weak solution of gum arabic—⅛ oz. (one teaspoonful) to one pint of water. Dry the print-sheets.

When a spore-print is to be taken, select a fully-grown specimen, remove the stem, place the spore-bearing surface upon the gummed paper, cover tightly with an inverted bowl or saucer, and allow to stand undisturbed for eight or ten hours. The moisture in the plant will soften the gummed surface; the spores will be shed and will adhere to it, making a perfect, permanent print. When the print is plain, remove the specimen carefully and dry the print. Number the print-cards to correspond with the number of the specimen in the “Record of Fungi,” and place them in a box or cover. Some genera shed their spores sooner and more freely than others. A surplus of spores is objectionable. In order to know when a print is plainly made, without disturbing the process, have either a specimen of the same age, or a piece of the one under the bowl, on another piece of gummed paper, covered in like manner. This can be examined and will give the desired information. A little experience will enable the student to obtain good and lasting prints.

The large black figures on some calendars, if cut with the white about them, are convenient as trial sheets for spore-printing. Lay the specimen partly on the white, partly on the black. If the spores are light, they show best on black ground, and if colored, they show best on the light.

Spore measurements, as given by different observers, vary to such a degree that they are of little value, excepting as determining a few species, but spore shapes and characteristics are of use as a last resort, in accurate determinations. A microscope of considerable power is needed.

xxxiA metrical scale and table of measures is here given, that the student may have a present guide to such measurements as are given in mycological publications.



1 Metre 39.371 Inches
1 Decimetre 3.9371
1 Centimetre (C M.) .39371
1 Millimetre (M.M.) .039371
1 Micron (µ) 1 Millionth of a Metre 125400 of an Inch.
1 Line (″) 112 of an Inch
1 Gramme 15.433 Troy Grains
1 Decigramme 1.543 ”     ”
1 Centigramme .1543 ”     ”
1 Milligramme .01543 ”     ”
Use of Charts of Genera.

The spore color being determined, turn to the Genera Chart, showing spores of like color. Ascertain from the specimen whether or not its cap or hymenophore is distinct or easily separable from the stem and the gills free from the stem; if they are, it may belong to one of the genera in the upper row of figures; if the cap is not easily separable nor the gills free, look at the shape of the gills, and find on the chart a corresponding gill-shape. It is probable that the genus can thus be determined. Then turn to this genus in the text, read the heading, look over the “Analysis of Tribes,” go to the tribe nearest in designating the properties of the specimen; comparing the specimen with the descriptions of species given thereunder, will probably enable the seeker to decide upon its name.

It should be remembered that the descriptions in the text are of the xxxiispecimen or specimens which the author of the species saw. What the author says fixes the type of the species. Specimens of the species may, and very frequently do, vary greatly from the type. If the first attempt to fix the genus is not satisfactory, try again, and keep on trying until reasonably sure. The amateur will find, however good an opinion may exist in his mind of the stock of patience on hand, that the territory of patience has just been reached.

Making and Preserving Notes.

An excellent blank form for “Collectors’ Notes” is published by the Boston Mycological Club, at one cent. It is desirable that there should be uniformity in collectors’ notes, and that they should be as full as possible. A form of this, or a similar kind, should be filled in and kept, and should also be used when specimens are sent to an expert for identification. Such specimens should be fresh, wrapped separately in tissue paper, numbered, and a few should be packed in a box that will not crush in the mail. The address of the sender should be upon the outside. The collector’s notes should be sent in a letter, with a postage stamp for reply enclosed. If the specimens have to go a great distance, they should be partially dried in a slow, open oven, or they will be a rotten mass when they reach their destination.

To Test Edibility of Species.

There is but one way by which to determine the edibility of a species. If it looks and smells inviting, and its species can not be determined, taste a very small piece. Do not swallow it. Note the effect on the tongue and mouth. But many species, delicious when cooked, are not inviting raw. Cook a small piece; do not season it. Taste again; if agreeable eat it (unless it is an Amanita). After several hours, no unpleasant effect arising, cook a larger piece, and increase the quantity until fully satisfied as to its qualities. Never vary from this system, no matter how much tempted. No possible danger can arise from adhering firmly to it. Recipes for preparing, cooking and serving are given in chapter on cooking.

It is better for the student to first become familiar with the common species, one at a time, than to attempt tracing the rare or many. Worry, fatigue and uncertainty are plentiful in an indiscriminate gathering of fungi. One species a day, properly traced and named, means learning three hundred and sixty-five species a year.

The Glossary.

xxxiiiUnfamiliar terms will be encountered in the descriptive text. The Glossary defines them; and not only those in this book, but, it is believed, all those found in other books upon fungi. Where possible throughout the text, botanical terms have been anglicized. The meanings of those remaining unchanged should be memorized. It is quite as easy, and far better, to learn the botanical names of species and their characteristics, as to learn their common names; easier in fact, for the common names often vary with locality. The writer received a letter from an Alsatian living in St. Louis, telling him of favorite fungi he used to eat when in his own country. To all he gave local names, not one of which could be referred to the particular species meant.

Success and pleasure in the study of fungi will attend the student who observes carefully and who systematically records that which is observed.



A. and S., Albertini and Schweinitz
Arrh., Arrhenius
B. or Bull., Bulliard
Bad., Badham
Bagl., Baglietto
Bat. or Batsch, Batsch
Batt., Battara
Berk. or M.J.B., Berkeley
Berk. and Br., Berkeley and Broome
Bolt., Bolton
Bon., Bonorden
Boud., Boudier
Boud. and Pat., Boudier and Patonillard
Bref., Brefeld
Bres., Bresadola
Brig., Briganti
Brond., Brondeau
Brot., Brotero
Cav. and Sech., Cavalier and Séchier
C.B.P., Plowright
Chev., Chevalier
Cke., Cooke
Cord., Corda
Crn., Crouan
Cum., Cumino
Curt., Curtis
D. and L., Durieu and Léveillé
D.C., De Candolle
De Guern., De Guernisac
Desm., Desmazieres
Dill., Dillenius
Dittm., Dittmar
Dun., Dunal
Ehrb., Ehrenberg
Ellis or J.B.E., J.B. Ellis
Eng., English Botany
Fayod, Fayod
Fl. d., Flora danica
Forq., Forquignon
Fr., Elias Fries
Fckl. or Fuck., Fuckel
G. or Gill., Gillet
G. and R., Gillet and Rounreguére
God., Goddard
Grév., Gréville
H. and M., Harkness and Moore
Hazs., Hazslinsky
Hedw., Hedwig
Hoffm., Hoffmann
Holmsk., Holmskiold
Huds., Hudson
Huss., Mrs. T.J. Hussey
Jacq., Jacquin
Jungh., Junghuhn
Kalchb., Kalchbrenner
Karst., Karsten
Klotzsch, Klotzsch
K., Krombholz
Lam., Lamark
Lang., Langlois
Lasch, Lasch
Lenz, Lenz
Let., Letell., Letellier
Lév., Léveillé
Leys., Leysser
Lib., Libert
Linn. or L., Linnæus
Mart., Martius
Mich., Micheli
M.J.B., Berkeley
Mont., Montagne
Morg., Morgan
Moug., Mougeot
Müll., Müller
xxxvNees, Nees
Osb., Osbeck
Pat., Patouillard
Paul., Paulet
Pers., Persoon
Pk., Peck
Pol. or Poll., Pollini
Q. or Quel., Quelet
Rab., Rabenhorst
Rav., Ravenel
Relh., Relhan
Retz., Retzius
Riess, Riess
Rost., Rostkovius
Roz., Roze
Roz. and Rich., Roze and Richon
Sacc., Saccardo
Saund. and Sm., Saunders and Smith
Sch., Schaeff., Schaeffer
Schr. or Schrad., Schrader
Schroet., Schröter
Schulz, Schulz
Schum., Schumacher
Schw., Schweinitz
Scop., Scopoli
Sec., Secretan
Somm., Sommerfelt
Sow., Sowerby
Sw., Swartz
T. or Tul., Tulasne
Tod., Tode
Tour., Tournefort
Trat., Trattinik
U. and E., Underwood and Earle
Vent., Venturi
Vill., Villars
Vitt., Vittadini
Wahl., Wahlenberg
Wall., Wallroth
Weinm., Weinmann
Willd., Willdenow
With., Withering
W.P., Phillips
W.G.S., Sm. or Worth. Sm, Worthington Smith
Wulf., Wulfen


Alabama Lucien M. Underwood, F.S. Earle (U. and E.).
California H.W. Harkness, Justin P. Moore (H. and M.), Wm. Phillips.
Canada John Dearness.
Connecticut —- Wright.
Florida —- Calkins.
Georgia Berry Benson, H.N. Starnes, Val W. Starnes.
Illinois Frederick J. Brændle.
Indiana H.I. Miller, Dr. J.R. Weist.
Iowa Charles E. Bessey, T.H. Macbride.
Kansas F.W. Cragin, Elam Bartholomew,
W.A. Kellerman.
Kentucky C.G. Lloyd, A.P. Morgan.
Louisiana Rev. A.B. Langlois.
Maryland Miss Mary E. Banning.
Massachusetts Charles C. Frost, W.G. Farlow, James L. Bennett, Charles J. Sprague, Robert K. Macadam, Julius A. Palmer, Hollis Webster.
Minnesota Asa Emory Johnson.
Mississippi U.S. Geological Survey.
Missouri William Trelease.
Nebraska Charles E. Bessey, F.E. Clements, —-- Webber.
New Brunswick A.C. Waghorne, James Fowler.
New England Boston Mycological Club.
New Jersey J.B. Ellis, Benjamin Everhart, E.B. Sterling, Charles McIlvaine.
New York Charles H. Peck, George F. Atkinson, John Torrey.
North Carolina Rev. M.A. Curtis,
Rev. Lewis de Schweinitz,
Charles McIlvaine.
Nova Scotia Dr. John Somers.
Ohio Charles G. Lloyd, A.P. Morgan, W.S. Sullivant.
xxxviiOregon Dr. Harry Lane.
Pennsylvania Dr. William Herbst, Rev. Lewis de Schweinitz, Charles McIlvaine, Philadelphia Mycological Center.
Rhode Island James L. Bennett.
South Carolina Dr. H.W. Ravenel.
West Virginia Charles McIlvaine, L.W. Nuttall.
Wisconsin W.F. Bundy, William Trelease.


Plate III.


A. B. C. D. E. Stages of development of an agaric.
F. Gills shedding spores.


A. Spore-print.
G. Section of gill magnified.


Plate IV.
Fig. 1. Gills as veins; infundibuliform.
2. Gills rounded in front (anteriorly.)
3. Gills rounded behind (posteriorly.)
4. Gills lanceolate.
5. Gills ventricose.
6. Gills unequal; cap convex.
7. Gills adnexed.
8. Gills emarginate, also adnate and having decurrent tooth.
Fig. 9. Gills serrate.
10. Gills flexuose; waved.
11. Gills dichotomous.
12. Gills free; cap broadly umbonate.
13. Gills narrow; cap margin reflexed.
14. Gills slightly adnexed; cap umbonate; margin involute.
15. Gills decurrent; cap umbilicate.


Plate V.
Fig. 1. Ring superior, broad.
2. Ring medial, pendulous.
3. Ring inferior (low down).
4. Ring narrow, fragments appendiculate.
5. Ring fibrillose.
Fig. 6. Ring persistent, sometimes movable.
7. Volva free.
8. Volva separating, circumscissile.
9. Volva irregularly, circumscissile.
10. Volva friable, disappearing.



Cohort HYMENOMYCETES. Gr.—a membrane, a fruit-bearing surface; Gr.—a mushroom. (So called from the hymenium or fruit-bearing surface.)

Fungi composed of membranes, fleshy, woody or gelatinous, growing on wood or on the ground. The hymenium or spore-bearing surface exposed at an early stage. The spores are borne on basidia, spread over the surface. The common mushroom is typical of the family. All the members resemble it, more or less, in organization and reproductive organs. These latter, in the mushroom, are spread over lamellæ or gills. The spores, after ripening and dissemination, germinate and produce a mycelium or thread-like vine, which in turn develops the spore-producing part of the plant. Hymenomycetes is divided into the following six Families:—

I. Spread over the surface of lamellæ or gills. Agaricaceæ.
II. Lining the interior of tubes or pores. Polyporaceæ.
III. Clothing the surface of spines or protuberances of various forms. Hydnaceæ.
IV. Horizontal and mostly on the under surface. Thelephoraceæ.
V. Vertical and produced all over the surface. Clavariaceæ.
VI. Superior, gelatinous fungi. Tremellaceæ.


In the Agaricaceæ the hymenium is spread over lamellæ or gills which radiate from a center or stem. The gills are composed of a double membrane, and are simple or branched.

The parts of an Agaric may all be present as in Amanitæ, or severally absent in other genera. When the young fungus is entirely enclosed in a wrapper or case, this case is called the universal veil. When this veil is ruptured by the growth of the stem, that part which remains 2attached to the base is called the volva. The membrane reaching from the stem to the margin of the cap is the partial veil; when it ruptures by the expansion of the cap and all or a portion adheres to and about the stem it forms the annulus or ring. In some species one or both veils may be present, or one or both may be absent.

The stem is central when supporting the cap at its center; excentric when at one side of the center; lateral when it supports the cap from the side. If the stem is absent, the cap is said to be sessile; if the cap is horizontal and supported by a broad base it is dimidiate; if attached to its place of growth by its back it is resupinate.

Genera are largely distinguished by the manner in which the gills are attached to the stem. These distinguishing attachments are shown in the plates illustrating genera and in Plate IV. Gill-shapes.

For convenience Agaricaceæ is divided by the color of the spores into five series: white, pink, brown, purple, black. The last two, owing to the similarity of hue, are by some writers (preferably) included in the black-spored series. Spore color is a valuable assistant in determining species.

Series I. LEUCOSPORÆ. Gr.—white; Gr.—seed.

Spores white, rarely dingy or inclining to reddish. In the genus Russula the spores of some species are white, in some cream-color, and in several pale ochraceous. Variations from pure white are found in the spores of Tricholoma personatum and a few other species. Gill-color is not a guide to spore-color. Purple, yellow, brown, pinkish gills may produce white spores.

Plate I.
Plate II.
(A name given to some esculent fungi by Galen, perhaps from
Mount Amanus.)

Universal veil (volva), which is at first continuous (completely enveloping the young plant), distinct from the skin of the cap. Hymenophore or cap, the part which bears the spore-bearing surface, distinct and easily separable from the stem, which leaves a socket in the flesh when it is removed. All growing upon the ground. Fries.

(Plate VII.)

Section of Amanita Phalloides.

Pileus somewhat fleshy, convex then expanded. Gills free. Universal veil at first enclosing the entire plant, which as it grows bursts 3through, generally carrying the upper part on the pileus, where it appears as patches or scales, the remainder enclosing the stem at the base as a volva, either in a cup-like form, closely adherent or friable and evanescent. The partial veil in youth extends from the stem to the margin of the pileus, enclosing the gills; when ruptured it depends from the stem as a ring. Stem furnished with a ring, and different in substance from that of the pileus. Spores white.

On the ground.

The nearest allied genus, Amanitopsis, is separated by the absence of a ring, and Lepiota by its lack of a volva; Volvaria, Acetabularia and Chitonia, possessing volvas, are distinguished by the color of their spores.

Amanitæ are the most beautiful and conspicuous of fungi. While there are comparatively few species of them, the individual members are plentiful in appearing from spring until the coming of frost. They are solitary or gregarious in growth. Occasionally two or three are found together. They frequent woods, groves, copse, margins of woods and land recently cleared of trees. They are seldom found in open fields. A careful study of all their botanic points should be the first duty of the student of fungi. Familiarity with every characteristic of the Amanitæ will insure against fatal toadstool poisoning, for it is the well-grounded belief of those who have made thorough investigation that, with the exception of Helvella esculenta, now Gyromitra esculenta, the Amanitæ, alone, contain deadly poisons.

No Amanita, or piece of one, should be eaten before its identity is fully established and its qualities ascertained by referring to the descriptions herein given or to the opinion of an expert.

They are the aristocrats of fungi. Their noble bearing, their beauty, their power for good or evil, and above all their perfect structure, have placed them first in their realm; and they proudly bear the three badges 4of their clan and rank—the volva or sheath from which they spring, the kid-like apron encircling their waists, and patch-marks of their high birth upon their caps. In their youth, when in or just appearing above the ground, they are completely invested with a membrane or universal veil, which is distinct and free from the skin of the cap. As the plant grows the membrane stretches and finally bursts. It sometimes ruptures in one place only and remains about the base of the stem as the volva. When such a rupture occurs the caps are smooth. In most species portions of the volva remain upon the cap as scruff or warts—pointed or rough—or as feathery adornment; any or all of which may in part or whole vanish with age or be washed away by rain.

Extending from the stem to the margin of the cap, and covering the gills, is the partial veil—a membranaceous, white texture of varying thickness. As the cap expands this veil tears from it. Portions frequently remain pendant from the edges, the rest contracts to the stem as a ring, or droops from it as a surrounding ruffle, or, if of slight consistency, may be fugacious and disappear, but marks, remains, or the veil itself will always be traceable upon the stem.

The Amanitæ are of all colors, from the brilliant orange of the A. Cæsarea, the rich scarlet or crimson of the A. muscaria, to the pure white of the A. phalloides in its white form.

Their stems are usually long, and taper from the base toward the top. In some forms the base is distinctly bulbous. The volva at the base is attached to the stem at its lower extremity. It may be visible as a cup or ruptured pouch with spreading mouth, or it may be of such friable texture as to appear like mealy scales. Often, when the plant is pulled from the ground, the volva remains, but the marks of its attachment will appear and should be carefully looked for. Their gills are commonly white, are of equal length and radiate from near the stem, which they do not reach, to the circumference of the cap. They are white, unless tinged with age, excepting upon A. Cæsarea and A. Frostiana where they are yellow.[B] Their caps are umbrella-shaped, flat or convex. Their flesh is white, does not change color when bruised. They are scentless and almost tasteless when fresh, when old they have a slightly offensive odor and taste.

B.  A. Frostiana is not always yellow gilled.

The family is not a large one, not over thirty members complete its circle. Every feature, every part of its several members, should be thoroughly known before the intimacy of eating. While at least nine 5of the family are not only edible but delicate and sapid, far better will it be to leave all alone than to make a mistake. A piece of a poisonous variety the size of a dime will often cause serious disorders if eaten. Many persons have died from eating very small quantities.

Because of its ovate or button-like form when young, it is frequently mistaken for the common field mushroom; even experienced mycophagists have been deceived by it. No other poison has so puzzled scientists. Other varieties of fungi may interfere with digestion, but to the Amanitæ all deaths from toadstool-eating are traceable. Its subtle alkaloid is absorbed by the system, and in most cases lies unsuspected for from six to twelve hours, then its iron grip holds to the death. For centuries it has defied all remedies. The problem has been partially solved. At Shenandoah, Pa., August 31, 1885, a family of five were poisoned by toadstools; two died, three lived. Noting the sad account in the newspapers, I at once wrote to Shenandoah for specimens of the fungi eaten and a description of the treatment. I promptly received from Dr. J.E. Schadle (now Professor Schadle), the physician in charge of the cases, a box containing two harmless varieties and several fine specimens of the Amanita phalloides, all of which were gathered on the same spot and by the same person who gathered the toadstools doing the poisoning. They told the tale. A remarkably full and interesting account of the cases was sent to me by Dr. Schadle. After exhausting all other remedies, and after two of the five had died, he administered subcutaneously, by hypodermic injection, sulphate of atropine—a product of the deadly nightshade analagous to belladonna—1180 to 160 of a grain at a dose. It proved to be an antidote and saved the lives of the remaining three.

The action of atropine in arresting the deadly work of poisoning by amanitine had been foreshadowed by Schmidberg and Koppe, and dwelt upon in numerous published articles by Mr. Julius A. Palmer, to whom more than any other is due the branding of the murderous members of the Amanita family; but for the first time atropine was used upon the human system to ward their blows.

All of the species herein described are found in the United States. Of the twenty-seven, nine are edible, nine are either known to be deadly or are so closely allied to deadly species that it is unsafe to class them as other than poisonous until absolute proof is obtained of their harmlessness. 6The remaining nine I have not seen, neither is there any record of their qualities.


* Volva opening at the top or splitting all around, leaving a manifest, free border at the base of the stem. Pileus naked or with broad membranaceous patches.

** Volva splitting regularly all round the lower portion, persistent, more or less closely embracing the base of the bulbous stem. The upper portion being adnate to the pileus appears on it by expansion as scattered, thick warts.

*** Volva friable, entirely broken up into wart-like scales, therefore not persistent at the base of the stem, which is at first globose-bulbous, becoming less so as it lengthens. Pileus bearing mealy patches, soon disappearing or with small, hard, pointed warts.

**** Volva rudimentary, flocculose, wholly disappearing.

* Volva bursting at top, etc.

A. viro´sa Fr.—virus, poison.

Shining white. Pileus 3–4 in. broad, fleshy, at first conical and acute, afterwards bell-shaped, then expanded, naked, viscous in wet weather, shining when dry, margin always even, but most frequently unequal, turned backward and inflexed. Flesh white, unchangeable. Stem 4–6 in. long, wholly stuffed, almost solid, split up into longitudinal fibrils, cylindrical from the bulbous base, often compressed at the apex, torn into scales on the surface, springing from a lax, wide, thick volva, which bursts open at the apex. Ring close to the top, lax, silky, splitting up into floccose fragments. Gills free, thin, narrow, narrowing at both ends, but a little broader in front, not decurrent on the stem (although the apex of the stem is often striate), crowded, somewhat floccose at the edge. Fries.

The pilei are most frequently oblique, extended and lobed on one side as in Hygrophorous conicus, scarcely ever depressed. The pileus rarely becomes yellow. The fragments of the veil often adhere to the edge of the gills.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.             Plate VI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Amanita spreta, 11 4. Amanita muscaria, 14
2. Amanita phalloides (white var.), 7 5. Amanita frostiana, 16
3. Amanita phalloides (brown var.), 7 6. Gyromitra esculenta, 546

7In woods. Uncommon. August to October.

Fetid, poisonous. Stevenson.

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, 10–16µ, K.; 8µ W.P.; sub-globose, 8–10µ Massee.


I think it a variety of A. phalloides.

A. phalloi´des Fr. Gr.—phallus-like. (Plate VI, figs. 2, 3, p. 6.) Pileus 3–4 in. broad, commonly shining white or lemon-yellow, fleshy, oval bell-shaped, then expanded, obtuse, covered over with a pellicle which is viscid (not glutinous) in wet weather, naked, rarely sprinkled with one or two fragments of the volva, the regular margin even. Stem 3–5 in. long, ½ in. and more thick, solid downward, bulbous, hollow and attenuated upward, rather smooth, white. Ring superior, reflexed, slightly striate, swollen, commonly entire, white. Volva more or less buried in the soil, bulbous, semifree, bursting open in a torn manner at the apex, with a lax border. Gills free, ventricose, 4 lines broad, shining white. Fries.

Pileus very variable in color, commonly white or yellow (A. citrina Pers.), becoming green (A. viridis Pers.), olivaceous and occasionally variegated with tiger spots; in late autumn with the disk almost black but whitish round the margin. Odor somewhat fetid, but little remarkable as compared with that of A. virosa.

In woods. Frequent. August to November.

A very POISONOUS and dangerous species. Stevenson.

Spores 8–9µ W.G.S.; 8–10µ B.; 7–9µ diam. Massee; globose, 7.6×6µ Peck.

Pileus at first ovate or subcampanulate, then expanded, slightly viscid when young and moist, smooth or rarely adorned by a few fragments of the volva, even on the margin, white, yellowish-brown or blackish-brown. Lamellæ rather broad, rounded behind, free, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, smooth or slightly floccose, ringed, bulbous, the ruptured volva either appressed loose or merely forming a narrow margin to the bulb.

Plant 4–8 in. high. Pileus 2–5 in. broad. Stem 3–6 lines thick.

This species is common and variable. It occurs everywhere in woods and assumes such different colors that the inexperienced mycologist is apt to mistake its different forms for distinct species. With us the prevailing 8colors of the pileus are white, yellowish-white, grayish-brown and blackish-brown. It is remarkable that the form with a greenish pileus, which seems to be common enough in Europe, does not occur here. Fries also mentions a form having a white pileus with a black disk. A somewhat similar form occurs here, in which the pileus is grayish-brown with a black disk. Some of the variously colored forms were formerly taken to be distinct species, in consequence of which several synonyms have arisen, of which A. virescens Fl. Dan., Amanita viridis Pers., and Amanita citrina Pers., are examples. A. verna Bull. is a variety having a white pileus, a rather thick annulus and an appressed volva. It sometimes occurs early in the season; hence the specific name. It also occurs late in the season and runs into the typical form so that it is not easy to keep it distinct. The flesh and the lamellæ are white, the stem is white, pallid or brownish, and the annulus is either white or brownish. The bulb is generally very broad and abrupt or depressed, though it sometimes is small and approaches an ovate form. The large bulbs are sometimes split externally in two or three places and are, therefore, two- or three-lobed. In such cases the volva is less persistent than usual and its free portion then furnishes merely an acute edge or narrow margin to the bulb. Specimens sometimes occur in which the margin of the pileus is narrowly adorned with a slight woolly hairiness, but usually it is perfectly smooth and even. By this character, taken in connection with the membranous volva and bulbous base of the stem, the species is readily distinguished. Sometimes a strong odor is emitted by it, but usually the odor is slight. Authors generally pronounce this a poisonous and very dangerous species. Its appearance is attractive, but its use as food is to be avoided. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Common in woods and recently cleared woodlands. Frequent over the United States. June to frost.

An exceedingly poisonous, dangerous, seductive species, responsible for most of the deaths from toadstool eating; because in its white form it is mistaken for the common mushroom—Agaricus campester. The real fault is with the collector, who should never eat any fungus found in the woods, believing it to be the mushroom. The mushroom does not grow in the woods. Neither has it white gills, nor white spores, nor a volva at the base of the stem as have Amanitæ.

The caps of A. phalloides vary in color—white, oyster-color, smoky 9brown. The color of the commonest form is from white to a light hue of greenish yellow. The center of the cap, whatever may be the prevailing color, is usually several shades darker. In shape, the cap changes from a knob in youth, through the shapes of expansion, until it becomes fully spread, when it is umbrella-shaped, or almost flat. Some forms have a slightly raised portion or umbo in the center of the cap. The gills are white, of good width, rounded next to the stem and free from it.

The stem conforms in color to the cap, but in lighter shades. White-capped varieties have white stems. The stem has a sudden broad, distinct bulb at the base. On the upper side of the bulb there is usually a margin or rim. The stem tapers more or less toward the cap, from which it is easily separable. The cup, wrapper or volva is torn or split or irregular at the upper part, and is not pressed to the stem as in some forms.

Professor Peck, in his 48th Report, gives the following excellent synopsis of differences between the poisonous Amanita and edible fungi, for which it could only by great stupidity be mistaken:

Poison amanita. Gills persistently white. Stem equal to or longer than the diameter of the cap, with a broad, distinct bulb at the base.

Common mushroom. Gills pink, becoming blackish-brown. Stem shorter than the diameter of the cap, with no bulb at the base.

From all forms of the edible Sheathed amanitopsis the Poison amanita differs in its distinctly bulbous stem, in having a collar on the stem and in the absence of striations on the margin of the cap.

From the edible Reddish amanita, it is easily separated by the entire absence of any reddish hues or stains and of warts upon its cap.

From the Smooth lepiota its distinct, abrupt and marginal bulb at once distinguishes it.

A. ver´na Bull.—vernus, of spring. A variety of A. phalloides. POISONOUS. White. Pileus ovate then expanded, somewhat depressed, viscid, margin orbicular, even. Stem stuffed then hollow, equal, floccose, closely sheathed with the free border of the volva. Ring reflexed, swollen. Gills free. Pileus glabrous, even on the margin, white, viscid when moist. Gills white. Stem ringed, white, floccose, stuffed or hollow, closely sheathed at the base by the remains of the membranous volva, bulbous. Spores globose, 8µ broad.

10In woods. Spring and summer.

The Vernal Amanita scarcely differs from white forms of the A. phalloides except in the more persistent and more closely sheathing remains of the wrapper at the base of the stem. It is probably only a variety of that species, as most mycologists now regard it, and it should be considered quite as dangerous. I have not found it earlier than in July, although in Europe it is said to appear in spring, as its name implies. Peck, 48th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Common over the United States. West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, May to November. It appeared at Mt. Gretna, Pa., on May 28, 1899. McIlvaine.

The absence of a ring separates white forms of A. volvata and A. vaginata.

The virulence of its poison is the same as that of A. phalloides.

A. magnivela´ris Pk.—magnus, large; velum, veil. Pileus convex or nearly plane, glabrous, slightly viscid when moist, even on the margin, white or yellowish-white. Gills close, free, white. Stem long, nearly equal, glabrous, white, furnished with a large membranous white annulus, sheathed at the base by the appressed remains of the membranous volva, the bulbous base tapering downward and radicating. Spores broadly elliptical, 10×6–8µ.

Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 5–7 in. long, 4–6 lines thick.

Solitary in woods. Port Jefferson, Suffolk county. July.

The species resembles Amanita verna, from which it is separated by its large persistent annulus, the elongated downwardly tapering bulb of its stem, and especially by its elliptical spores. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I have not seen this species. Its resemblance to A. verna is enough to place the ban upon it until it has been tested.

A. map´pa Fr.—mappa, a napkin. From the volva. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, commonly white or becoming yellow, slightly fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse or depressed, orbicular, dry, margin for the most part even. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, almost equal above the bulb, rather smooth, white. Ring superior, soft, lax, here and there torn. Volva regularly circularly split, somewhat obliterated; the globoso-bulbous base united with the stem, with an acute 11and distant margin; the portion covering the pileus divided into broad, irregular, somewhat separating scales. Gills annexed, crowded, narrow, shining, white. Fries.

Odor stinking. The color is that of A. phalloides, with which A. virosa exactly agrees, more rarely straw color, lemon-yellow, becoming green.

In mixed woods. Frequent. Stevenson.

Spores spheroid, 7–10µ K.; 8–9×6–8µ B.; subglobose, 7–9µ diameter Massee.

New York woods and fields, common, September to October, Peck, 22d Rep.; North Carolina, Curtis; New England, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; Ohio, Morgan; District Columbia, Miss Taylor.


Probably but a variety of A. phalloides.

A. spre´ta Pk.—spreta, hated. (Plate VI, fig. 1, p. 6.) Pileus subovate, then convex or expanded, smooth or adorned with a few fragments of the volva, substriate on the margin, whitish or pale-brown. Gills close, reaching the stem, white. Stem equal, smooth, annulate, stuffed or hollow, whitish, finely striate at the top from the decurrent lines of the lamellæ, not bulbous at the base, but the volva rather large, loose, subochreate. Spores elliptical, generally with a single large nucleus, 10–13×6–8µ.

Plant 4–6 in. high. Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 4–6 lines thick.

Ground in open places. Sandlake and Gansevoort. August. Peck, 32d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

This is a dangerous species, because containing a deadly poison and resembling the most common forms of Amanitopsis, therefore likely to be mistaken for them. Specimens sent by me to Professor Peck were identified as his species. I add my own description.

Pileus oval, broadly umbonate, date-brown toward and on umbo, soft, dry, smooth, more or less sulcate on edge. Flesh white, thin, except at center. Stem tapers rapidly above ring and at base, white-reddish-brown toward middle, narrows toward volva from which it is almost free at the base, hollow, furfuraceous above ring. Gills white, crowded, free. Ring white, thin, persistent, but at times hard to distinguish because clinging to stem. Volva free, fitting close, upper 12margin thin, lower part quite thick, making stem appear bulbous, which it is not. White forms occur.

Not as virulent as A. phalloides, but like it in its POISONOUS effects. It differs from Amanitopsis in having a ring.

Grows in woods and on wood-margins.

Angora woods, West Philadelphia. On ground in mixed woods, open and grassy places in wood and wood-margins. August to September. McIlvaine.

A. recuti´ta Fr.—having a fresh or new skin. Pileus convex then plane, dry, smooth, frequently bearing fragments of the volva, margin nearly even. Stem stuffed then hollow, attenuated, silky, volva circumscissile, becoming obliterated, margin closely pressed to stem; ring distant, white. Gills striate-decurrent.

In pine woods. Common.

No report upon quality.

A. Cæsa´rea Scop.—king-like. (Called by the Greeks Cibus Deorum, food of the gods.) CAUTION. Pileus 3–8 in. across, hemispherical, then expanded, free from warts, distinctly striate on the margin, red or orange becoming yellow. Gills free, yellow. Stem 4–6 in. long, up to ¾ in. thick at base, slightly tapering upward, yellowish, flocculose, stuffed with white fibrils or hollow, with a conspicuous yellowish ring or veil. Volva white, large, distinct and membranous. Spores elliptical, 8–10µ Peck.

Open woods, under pines on lawns. July to October.

Reported from North Carolina, South Carolina, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Jersey, Ohio, Alabama, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, New York. Peck, Rep. 23, 32, 33, 48.

This emperor of fungi is the most showy of its race. It grows to 10 in. in height. The cap reaches 8 in. in diameter and the stem over 1½ in. in thickness. In very much smaller specimens about the same proportions occur. The cap is at first ovate, then hemispherical, then expanded. It has no warts or scales upon it. The margin is distinctly striate. The flesh is white, yellow or reddish under the skin; next to the gills it is usually yellow.

The stem tapers upward from the socket at its base. It is yellowish and covered with loose fibrils of darker hue. The ring is white, but 13frequently tinged with yellow. In taste and smell it is mild. Open woods is its favorite habitat, yet it is found growing luxuriantly under pines, maples, elms, on lawns. It is not often found, but when it is, it is solitary, or in groups or rings. In the latitude of Philadelphia it is found from July until October 1st. Further south its stay conforms to temperature, and it is more frequent. There is no doubt of its rare edibility abroad, and of its being eaten in America.

A specimen believed to be it should never be eaten until carefully distinguished from A. muscaria and A. Frostiana, which have warts or scales on the cap (which sometimes are not discernible after rain), white gills, and a volva which soon breaks up into fragments or scabs.

Appearing like a small form of A. muscaria, to which it was formerly referred, is A. Frostiana Pk. (Frost’s Agaric). It closely resembles small A. Cæsarea, especially in the yellow tinge of stem, ring and gills. The volva and ring (persistent in A. Cæsarea) soon disappear, but are traceable by fluffy fragments, or yellow stains. It is extremely poisonous.

The differences, concisely, are these: A. Cæsarea (Orange Amanita). Cap smooth, though occasionally with a few fragments of the volva as patches upon it. Gills yellow. Stem yellow. Volva usually persistent, sometimes breaking up into soft, fluffy masses.

A. muscaria (Fly Amanita). Poisonous. Cap covered with remains of the volva as scales or wart-like patches. Gills white. Stem white or light-yellow. Volva not persistent, breaking up into fluffy fragments or scales.

A. Frostiana. Poisonous. Smaller and more delicate than the two preceding. Cap smooth or with yellow scales or wart-like patches. Gills yellow or tinged on edge with yellow. Stem white or yellow, the ring evanescent, but always leaving a yellow mark on stem. Volva yellow, breaking up into yellow fluffy fragments.

Far better for the amateur to let the A. Cæsarea, and anything resembling it, respectfully alone.

New York, Gansvoort. Circle forty feet in diameter. Peck, 32d Rep.; Maryland. There is not a doubt that this fungus can be eaten with impunity, Banning; Alabama, abundant. Edible. Alabama Bull. No. 80.

Rogues and Cordier, French writers, regard it as the finest and most delicate of fungi, the perfume and taste being exquisite.

14The writer has not had opportunity to eat A. Cæsarea. If such should occur he would go about it very cautiously. No suspicion attaches to it abroad, but evidence is accumulating in the hands of the writer (not yet convincing) that either locality may render it poisonous or that A. muscaria varies so much in appearance as to deceive even the expert into mistaking it for A. Cæsarea. It is possible that A. muscaria is, at times, in certain localities, harmless; but no such exception as this is noted in the entire fungoid realm. It is not so common that collectors should mourn its waste. It is better, far, to let it alone.

** Volva splitting regularly all around; pileus bearing thick warts, etc.

A. musca´ria Linn.—musca, a fly. (Plate VI, fig. 4, p. 6. Plate IX.) POISONOUS. Pileus 4 in. and more broad, normally at first blood-red, soon orange and becoming pale, whitening when old, globose, then convex and at length flattened, covered with a pellicle which is at first thick, and in wet weather glutinous, but which gradually disappears, and sprinkled with thick, angular, separating fragments of the volva; margin when full-grown slightly striate. Flesh not compact, white, yellow under the pellicle. Stem as much as a span long, shining white, firm, torn into scales, at first stuffed with lax, spider-web fibrils, soon hollow; the adnate base of the volva forms an ovate bulb, which is marginate with concentric scales. Ring very soft, torn, even, inserted at the apex of the stem, which is often dilated. Gills free, but reaching the stem, decurrent in the form of lines, crowded, broader in front, white, rarely becoming yellow.

Var. rega´lis, twice as large. Stem stuffed, solid when young, as much as 1–2 in. thick, becoming light-yellow within; the volva terminates in 8–10 concentric squamoso-reflexed rows of scales. Pileus very glutinous, bay-brown or the color of cooked liver. Gills yellowish.

Var. formo´sa, soft, fragile. Pileus at first lemon-yellow, with mealy, lax, yellowish, easily-separating warts, often naked. Gills often becoming yellow. A. formosa, with the warts rubbed off.

Var. umbri´na, thinner and more slender. Stem hollow, often twisted, bulb narrowed. Pileus at first umber, then livid, with the exception of the disk, which is dingy-brown. Gills at length remote. Stev.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.                  Plate IX.

Pileus at first ovate or hemispherical, then broadly convex or nearly plane, slightly viscid when young and moist, rough with numerous 15whitish or yellowish warts, rarely smooth, narrowly and slightly striate on the margin, white, yellow or orange-red. Gills white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed with webby fibrils or hollow, bearing a white ring above, ovate-bulbous at the base, white or yellowish; the volva usually breaking up into scales and adhering to the upper part of the bulb and the base of the stem. Spores elliptical, 8–10x6–8µ.

Plant 5–8 in. high. Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A white variety, with the pileus thickly studded with sharp warts, occurs in Albany Rural Cemetery. July. Peck, 24th Rep.

Var. al´ba Pk. It also occurs on Long Island in two forms, the normal one and a smaller one, in which the warts of the pileus are evanescent or wanting. Not unfrequently it makes a close approach to white forms of A. pantherina, in having the upper part of the bulb uniformly margined by the remains of the definitely circumscissile volva, but this margin is more acute than in that species. Peck, 46th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 10–12x8–9µ K.; 6x9µ, W.G.S.; elliptical, 8–10x6–8µ Peck.

“At Cincinnati, yellow A. muscaria are all we find.” Lloyd.

Reported from most of the states. At Mt. Gretna I found it in great quantity, and frequently three or four tightly crowded together. Many pounds of it were sent to Professor Chittenden, Sheffield Laboratory, Yale University. Near Haddonfield, N.J., large patches annually grow under pines, gorgeous in their rich orange-red caps, usually scaly, with at times lemon-yellow in the same clusters, smooth as A. Cæsarea. It grows from July until after hard frosts.

It is undoubtedly poisonous to a high degree. Its juices in minute quantity, carefully and scientifically injected into the circulation of etherized cats, kill in less than a minute. A raw piece of the cap, the size of a hazel nut, affects me sensibly if taken on an empty stomach. Dizziness, nausea, exaggeration of vision and pallor result from it. The pulse quickens and is full, and a dreaded pressure affects the breathing. I have not noticed change in the pupil of the eye. Nicotine from smoking a pipe with me abates the symptoms, which entirely disappear in two hours, leaving as reminiscence a torturing, dull, skull-pervading headache. If, as is asserted on good authority, the Siberians use it as an intoxicant, they certainly suffer the accustomed penalty. 16It is possible that persons may, in a degree, become immune to its poison, as they do to arsenic, strychnia, opium, nicotine, or it may be that a portion of the poison is extracted by boiling. It is, however, extremely dangerous to rely upon extracting by any means the poison of the Amanita, and to eat the residue. Acetic acid or vinegar does not destroy the poison; it dissolves it to an extent and extracts it, and becomes as poisonous as the plant itself. There is no means of telling how much of the poison remains in the plant after such treatment. The safe plan is to eat, only, of toadstools which do not contain any poison to extract.

One redeeming virtue, alone, rests with A. muscaria—it kills flies.

A. Frost´iana Pk.—in honor of Charles C. Frost. POISONOUS. (Plate VI, fig. 5, p. 6.) Pileus convex or expanded, bright-orange or yellow, warty, sometimes nearly or quite smooth, striate on the margin. Gills free, white or slightly tinged with yellow. Stem white or yellow, stuffed, bearing a slight, sometimes evanescent ring, bulbous at the base, the bulb slightly margined by the volva. Spores globose, 8–10µ in diameter.

Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem about 2 lines thick. June to October.

This appears like a very small form of the Fly Agaric, to which, as var. minor, it was formerly referred. The only decided characters for distinguishing it are its small size and globose spores. Our plant sometimes grows in company with A. muscaria, but it seems to prefer more dense woods, especially mixed or hemlock woods. It is generally very regular and beautiful and has the stem quite often of a yellow color, and the bulb margined above with a collar-like ring. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, McIlvaine.

A. Frostiana is found well over the land. It is frequent in shady woods and seems to favor ground under the prevailing tree—oak, chestnut, pine, hemlock, whichever it may be. From the many hundreds I have seen, I think it more likely to be mistaken by the novice for A. Cæsarea than A. muscaria, because of its often yellow gills and stem. It is much smaller and thinner than either. In the states I have found it, it is darker than described, being a rich reddish-orange or scarlet. The partial veil or ring is very evanescent but often found upon the 17stem as a yellow, floccose remnant. The stain of the ring is always noticeable. The volva is seldom found entire. It, too, is evanescent, but, like the veil, is found yellow and fluffy, adhering to the fingers when touched.

It is probable that its highly colored cap has caused it to be gathered by the careless collector of bright-capped Russulæ, and that thus R. emetica got its bad name. Examine carefully any toadstool resembling it. The Russulæ have neither ring nor volva.

A. excel´sa Fr.—excelsus, tall. POISONOUS. Pileus 4–5 in. broad, brownish-gray, darker in the center, fleshy, soft, globose, then plane, pellicle thin, but viscous, and in reality separable in wet weather, then the surface is often wrinkled-papillose, or in a peculiar manner hollowed and pitted, sprinkled with angular, unequal, whitish-gray, easily separating warts, the remains of the friable volva; margin at first even, but when properly developed manifestly striate, even furrowed. Flesh soft, white throughout, unchangeable. Stem 4–6 in. long, 1 in. thick, at first stuffed, almost solid, but at length hollow, globose-depressed at the base, attenuated upward from the bulb, covered, sometimes as far as the ring, sometimes only on the lower part with dense, squarrose, concentric scales (from the epidermis of the stem being torn), striate at the apex. Ring superior, large, separating-free or at length torn. Gills quite free, rounded (not decurrent on the stem in the form of lines), very ventricose, ½ in. and more broad, shining white.

The bulb when young is somewhat marginate, but by no means separable, the margin proper, like that of A. muscaria, is marked with scales, buried in the soil, somewhat rooting, beneath the margin marked here and there with a concentric furrow. The shorter gills intermixed are more numerous than is usual among Amanitæ. There is a smaller variety, with the margin more frequently striate and the stem stuffed, then hollow. Fries.

Solitary, in woods, chiefly under beech. Stevenson.

Spores 6x9µ W.G.S.; 8–9×5–6µ Massee.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; California, Harkness and Moore; Massachusetts, Frost, Andrews; Minnesota, Johnson; Rhode Island, Olney.

A. pantheri´na De C.—spotted like a panther. Doubtful. Pileus 18commonly olivaceous-umber when young, fleshy, convex then flattened or somewhat depressed, with a sticky pellicle, which is at first thick and olivaceous dingy-brown, then thinned out, almost disappearing and livid, the disk only becoming brownish; margin evidently striate; the fragments of the volva divided into small, equal, white, regularly arranged, moderately persistent warts. Flesh wholly white, never yellow beneath the pellicle. Stem 3–4 in. long, ½ in. thick, at first stuffed then hollow with spider-web fibrils within, equal or attenuated upward, slightly firm and sometimes scaly downward, greaved at the base by the separable volva which has an entire and obtuse margin. Ring more or less distant, adhering obliquely, white, rarely superior. Gills free, reaching the stem, broader in front, 3–4 lines broad, shining white.

It is readily distinguished from A. muscaria, var. umbrina, by the white flesh never becoming yellow beneath the pellicle. Variable in size and color, which, however, is never red or yellow, and in the position of the ring.

In woods and pastures. Stevenson.

Spores 7–8×4–5µ K.; 6–10µ B.; 8×4µ W.G.S.; 7.6×4.8µ Morgan.

Not poisonous, W.G.S.; not edible, Roze; poisonous, Leuba.

North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Ohio, California, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, New York. Peck.

A. Ravenel´ii B. and C.—in honor of Henry W. Ravenel. Pileus 4 in. across, convex, broken up into distinct areas, each of which is raised into an acute, rigid, pyramidal wart. Stem 3 in. high, bulbous. Volva thick, warty, somewhat lobed. Ring deflexed.

South Carolina, June, H.W. Ravenel; a very fine species allied to A. strobiliformis, Vitt. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1859; Alabama, Atkinson (Ll. Volvæ).

Properties not stated.

A. russuloi´des Pk.—resembling a Russula. Pileus at first ovate, then expanded or convex, rough with a few superficial warts, or entirely smooth, viscid when moist, widely striate-tuberculate on the margin, pale-yellow or straw color. Gills close, free, narrowed toward the stem, white. Stem firm, smooth, stuffed, annulate, equal or slightly tapering upward, bulbous; annulus thin, soon vanishing. Volva fragile, subappressed. Spores broadly elliptical, 10×8µ.

19Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 1.5–2 in. broad. Stem 3–5 lines thick. Grassy ground in open woods. Greenbush. June.

This species is remarkable for the thin striate-tuberculate margin of the pileus, which causes it to resemble some species of Russula. Peck, 25th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Qualities not stated.

Massachusetts, Francis.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.           Plate VIII.

Fig. Page.
1. Amanita chlorinosma, 25
2. Amanita rubescens and section, 21
3. Amanita strobiliformis, 19

A. strobilifor´mis Vitt.—strobilis, a pine-cone, from the shape of the warts. (Plate VIII, fig. 3, p. 18.) Cap 3–10 in. across, convex or nearly plane, white or cinereous, sometimes yellow on the disk, rough with angular, mostly persistent warts which sometimes fall away and leave the pileus nearly smooth; generally whitish, sometimes tinged with brown; the margin even and extending a little beyond the lamellæ. Gills free, rounded behind. Veil large and portions sometimes adhere to margin of cap. Stem 3–8 in. long, up to 1¼ in. thick, equal or slightly tapering upward, solid, floccose-scaly, white, bulbous, the bulb very large, sometimes weighing a pound, margined above and furnished with one or two concentric furrows, somewhat pointed below, firmly and deeply imbedded in the earth, floccose-mealy when young.

Spores elliptical, 13–15×8–10µ Peck.

Open woods and borders. June to October.

Edible. W.G. Smith, Curtis, Peck.

This is among the best of species. Its size, solidity, flavor are marked. I have found specimens weighing a pound and a half. It grows singly, but when one is found several are apt to be neighbors. When young, the cap is but a small knob upon a beet or top-shaped base, which is largely under ground. It cuts like a soft turnip, and has a strong, pungent, unmistakable odor, like chloride of lime, which entirely disappears in cooking. As the plant develops the bulb decreases in size. On all the many specimens the author has seen and eaten, the scabs are light brown and reddish-brown.

A. solita´ria Bull.—growing alone. Pileus convex or plane, warty, white or whitish, even on the margin. Gills reaching the stem, white or slightly tinged with cream color. Stem at first mealy or scaly, equal, solid, white, bulbous, the bulb scaly or mealy, narrowed below into a root-like prolongation. Ring lacerated, often adhering in fragments to the margin of the pileus and gills. Spores elliptical-oblong, 8–13×6.5µ.

20Plant 4–8 in. high. Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 4–6 lines thick. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Solitary in woods and open places. July to October.

Georgia, H.N. Starnes; Indiana, H.I. Miller; West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, McIlvaine.

Edible. Curtis, H.N. Starnes, Philadelphia Myc. Club.

In many localities I find it quite plentiful, and it is so reported from Georgia. Southern and middle New Jersey woods abound with it, and at Mt. Gretna, Pa., it is always present in its growing months.

The cap is sometimes tinged with brown as are the angular, erect warts which are generally numerous, but often falling off or few and scattered. The flesh is white and smells like chloride of lime, but not nearly so strong as A. strobiliformis. The volva is broken up into floccose scales which cling to bulb and lower part of stem. These scales may be white and mealy or brownish. The entire fungus has a fluffy exterior, which is easily removed by rubbing. The annulus is torn, a part often adhering to the margin of the pileus and the gills. This and the long, tapering, rooting bulb are marked characteristics. The bulb is brittle. It is difficult to get the fungus from the ground entire.

Stem and cap are juicy, tender, mild in flavor, wholesome. It is not equal in flavor to A. rubescens, but is more delicate.

By many its properties have been stated as poisonous, doubtful. Quantities of it have been eaten by myself and friends. Hypodermic injection of its juices into the blood circulation of live animals prove it perfectly harmless.

A. can´dida Pk.—shining white. Pileus thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, verrucose with numerous small, erect, angular or pyramidal, easily separable warts, often becoming smooth with age, white, even on the margin. Flesh white. Gills rather narrow, close, reaching to the stem, white. Stem solid, bulbous, floccose-squamose, white, the annulus attached to the top of the stem, becoming pendent and often disappearing with age, floccose-squamose on the lower surface, striate on the upper, the bulb rather large, ovate, squamose, not margined, tapering above into the stem and rounded or merely abruptly pointed below. Spores elliptical, 10–13×8µ.

Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 2.5–5 in. long, 5–8 lines thick, the bulb 1–1.5 in. thick in the dried specimens.

21This is a fine large species related to A. solitaria, but differing from it in the character of its bulb and of its annulus. The bulb is not marginate nor imbricately squamose. Its scales are small and numerous. Nor is it clearly radicating, though sometimes it has a slight abrupt point or myceloid-agglomerated mass of soil at its base. The veil or annulus is large and well developed, but it is apt to fall away and disappear with age. Its attachment at the very top of the stem brings it closely in contact with the lamellæ of the young plant and the striations of its upper surface appear to be due to the pressure of the edges of these upon it. It separates readily from the margin of the pileus and is not lacerated. In the mature plant the warts have generally disappeared from the pileus and sometimes its margin is curved upward Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3.

Woods. Auburn, N.Y., Alabama, U. and E.; Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New Jersey, August to October, McIlvaine.

A dozen or more specimens were found in oak woods near Philadelphia, and carefully tested. Their edible qualities were found to be precisely the same as A. solitaria.

*** Whole volva friable, etc.

A. rubes´cens Pers.—rubesco, to become red. (Plate VIII, fig. 2, p. 18. Plate XII, fig. 4, p. 32.) Pileus about 4 in. broad, dingy-reddish, becoming pale flesh-color, tan, scarcely pure, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, moist but not glutinous in rainy weather and opaque when dry, covered with unequal, soft, mealy, whitish, easily-separating warts, which are smaller, harder and more closely adherent in dry weather; margin even and, when old, slightly striate only in wet weather. Flesh commonly soft, white when fresh, reddening when broken. Stem 4–5 in. long, as much as 1 in. thick, stuffed, somewhat solid, though soft within, conico-attenuated from the thickened base, reddish-scaled, becoming red-white, and without a trace of a distinct volva at the base. Ring superior, large, membranaceous, soft, striate and white within. Gills reaching the stem in an attenuated manner, forming decurrent lines upon it, thin, crowded, soft, as much as ½ in. broad, shining white.

Very changeable, but readily distinguished from all others of the same group by the flesh being reddish when broken; the stem and pileus are commonly spotted-red when wounded. In dry weather it is firmer, flesh reddening more slowly, warts minute. Odor scarcely any. There 22is a remarkable variety circinata, pileus becoming plane, umber-brown, warts adnate, crowded, roundish. A. circinatus Schum. Stevenson.

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 7–8×6µ K.; 8×6µ W.G.S.; 7–9×6–8µ B.; elliptical, 8–9µ long. Peck.

Not reported west of the Mississippi river.

Oak woods, borders and open places. July to September. Indiana, H.I. Miller; West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, McIlvaine.

It is quite common, often growing in large patches. Recent authors agree upon the edibility and deliciousness of this species. The author knows it to be one of the most plentiful, useful and delicious, after several years of pleasant experience with it.

In July, 1899, at Mt. Gretna, I found, growing from the ground gregariously, a singular fungoid growth from 2–5 in. high; cap hemispherical, 1 in. in diameter, tightly fitting a solid stem of nearly the diameter of the cap. The whole was watery white, and evidently affected by a parasite. It was edible. September 1st Professor Peck wrote to me: “I think I have found the identity of the diseased Agaric, of which you sent me samples some time ago. I mean the one affected by Hypomyces inæqualis Pk. The host is Amanita rubescens, at least sometimes, and probably always.”

The plant is very heavy for its size. The lack of a volva, the dingy color and reddish stains distinctly separate this from any poisonous Amanita.

A. spis´sa Fr.—compact, dense;—of the warts. Pileus umber, sooty or gray, fleshy, somewhat compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth, even, but marked with small, ash-colored, angular, adnate warts; margin even, but often torn into fibers. Flesh firm, white, quite unchangeable. Stem 2–3 in. long, as much as 1 in. thick, solid, turnip-shaped at the base, somewhat rooting with a globoso-depressed not marginate bulb, curt, firm, shining white, at length squamulose with concentric cracks. Ring superior, large. Gills reaching the stem, slightly striato-decurrent, broad, crowded, shining white. Fries.

Spores 14µ W.G.S.; subglobose, 8–10µ C.B.P.; 6µ W.P.; rather pear-shaped, 9–10×6µ Massee.

Cap 2–3 in. across. Stem 2½-3 in. long, up to ¾ in. thick.

New Jersey, oak woods, August and September. McIlvaine.

23A. spissa has been reported from but few localities. It is rare in the latitude of Philadelphia. Half a dozen specimens have been found in neighboring New Jersey.

Taste and smell strong, but when cooked the dish is savory and not unlike one of A. rubescens.

A. as´pera Fr.—asper, rough. Pileus 2–3 in. across. Flesh rather thick at the disk, whitish, white or reddish with tints of livid or gray, reddish or brownish under the cuticle; convex then plane, margin thin and even, rough with firmly adnate, minute, closely crowded, angular warts, reddish-brown or livid-brownish, not pure white, unchangeable. Gills free and rounded behind, not striately decurrent, ventricose, white. Stem stuffed, striate above the ring, short at first, ovate, then elongating to 2–3 in., attenuated upward from a wrinkled bulb, squamulose, white without and within. Ring superior, entire.

Spores 8×6µ Massee; 8×6–7µ W.G.S.

The flesh of stem and bulb when eaten by insects is reddish, the bulb when old is a reddish-brown. The large ring and stem become red when touched. In these particulars it resembles A. rubescens. In smell it is somewhat strong, not unlike A. strobiliformis, but not nearly so pungent.

Cooked it is of excellent quality and flavor. I have eaten it since 1885.

A. abrup´ta Pk.—abrupt, of the bulb. Pileus thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, covered with small angular or pyramidal, erect, somewhat evanescent warts, white, slightly striate on the margin. Flesh white. Gills moderately close, reaching the stem and sometimes terminating in slightly decurrent lines upon it, white. Stem slender, glabrous, solid, bulbous, white, the bulb abrupt, subglobose, often coated below by the white persistent mycelium, the ring membranous, persistent. Spores broadly elliptical or subglobose, 8–10×6–8µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2.5–4 in. long, 3–4 lines thick.

The chief distinguishing mark of this species is the abrupt, nearly globose, bulbous base of the stem. This is somewhat flattened above and is sometimes longitudinally split on the sides. The small warts of the pileus are easily separable, and in mature specimens they have often wholly or partly disappeared. The remains of the volva are not present on the bulb in mature dried specimens, which indicates that the 24species should be placed in the same group with A. rubescens, A. spissa, etc. The latter species have the bulb of the stem similar to that of our plant, but the color of the pileus and other characters easily separate it. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3.

Alabama, Underwood; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, McIlvaine. July to September.

This species is edible and quite equal in quality to A. rubescens. Great care should be exercised in distinguishing it.

A. nit´ida Fr.—niteo, to shine. Pileus when flattened 4 in. broad, whitish, fleshy, somewhat compact, at first hemispherical, wrapped up, the thick volva forming a floccose crust, then broken up into thick, remarkably angular, adhering warts, which become brownish, dry, shining, without a glutinous pellicle, margin always even. Flesh white, quite unchangeable. Stem 3 in. long, 1 in. thick, solid, firm, conico-attenuated, with a bulb-shaped base, squamulose, white. Ring superior, thin, torn, slightly striate, white, villous beneath, at length disappearing. Gills free, crowded, very broad, as much as ½ in., ventricose, shining white. Fries.

Menands. Albany county. Our plant is more slender than the typical form, and has smaller but more numerous warts, but in other respects it exhibits the characters of this species. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

California, H. and M.; Maryland. Common in nearly every woods in Maryland. Banning.

From its likeness to poisonous species it should be suspected.

A. prairiic´ola Pk—prairie, colo, to inhabit. Pileus thin, convex, slightly verrucose, white, more or less tinged with yellow, even on the margin. Flesh white. Gills rather broad, subdistant, reaching the stem, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, somewhat squamose toward the base, white or whitish, the annulus persistent. Spores large, broadly elliptical, 12–14µ long, 7–9µ broad.

Pileus 1.5–3 in. broad. Stem 2–2.5 in. long, 2–4 lines thick.

Bare ground on open prairies. Kansas. September. E. Bartholomew.

This species belongs to the same tribe as A. abrupta. The only evidence of the presence of a volva shown by the dried specimens is found in a few inconspicuous, but separable warts on the pileus. There is no 25well marked bulb to the stem and no evidence remains of a volva at its base. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3.

Reported from Kansas only. Qualities unknown.

A. monticulo´sa Berk.—mountain, from the warts. Pileus 2.5–3 in. across, convex, areolate, with a wart in the center of each areola; those toward the margin consisting of soft threads meeting in a point, but sometimes simply flocculent, the central warts angular, pyramidal, truncate, discolored. Stem bulbous, scaly, flocculent, white. Veil thick, at length distant. Gills free, ventricose, remote, forming a well-defined area around the top of the stem. The warts are not hard and rigid as in A. nitida, and the free remote gills separate it from that and the neighboring species. Berk.

North Carolina, sandy woods, common. Curtis.

Properties not known.

A. dau´cipes B. and M.—daucum, a carrot; pes, a foot. Pileus 2–5 in. broad, hemispherical, globose. Flesh white, soft, warts regular, pyramidal, saffron color. Gills narrow, reaching the stem, broadest in the middle. Stem 5–6 in. high, solid, base bulbous, with a restricted cortina above, squamulose downward. Veil fibrillose, extending from the margin of the pileus to the apex of the stem, fugacious.

In cultivated fields. Ohio. Sullivant. Properties not given.

A. lenticular´is Lasch.—resembling (the stem) a lentil.

Fries places this species in Amanita, in which Stevenson follows him. Cooke and Massee place it in Lepiota, where it will be found.

**** Volva rudimentary, wholly disappearing.

A. chlorinos´ma Pk.—smelling like chlorine. (Plate VIII, fig. 1, p. 18.) Pileus convex or expanded, warty on the disk, covered on the even margin with a light powdery, at length evanescent substance, white. Gills white. Stem nearly cylindrical, stout, deeply penetrating the earth. Spores broadly elliptical, 7–10µ long. Odor distinct, chlorine-like.

Plant 6–7 in. high. Pileus 4–6 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. thick. Peck, Bot. Gaz., Vol. 4.

26Burnt ground in woods. August. Closter, N.J., C.F. Austin; Alabama, U. and E.; West Virginia, Nuttall; New Jersey, Ellis; Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, in a cluster of a dozen individuals, and afterward until frost, strong smelling, warts brownish-white. McIlvaine.

It is edible and equal to A. strobiliformis.

A. calyptra´ta Pk. Pileus fleshy, thick, convex or nearly plane, centrally covered by a large irregular persistent grayish-white fragment of the volva, glabrous elsewhere, striate on the margin, greenish-yellow or yellowish-brown tinged with green, the margin often a little paler or more yellow than the rest. Lamellæ close, nearly free, but reaching the stem and forming slight decurrent lines or striations on it, yellowish-white tinged with green. Stem stout, rather long, equal or slightly tapering upward, surrounded at the base by the remains of the ruptured volva, white or yellowish white with a faint greenish tint. Spores broadly elliptic, 10µ long, 6µ broad, usually containing a single large nucleus.

Pileus 10–20 cm. broad. Stem 10–15 cm. long, 12–20 mm. thick.

Rich ground in fir woods or their borders. Autumn. Oregon. Dr. H. Lane.

This is a large and interesting species, well marked and easily recognized by its large size, by the greenish tint that pervades the pileus, lamellæ, annulus and stem, and especially by the large persistent patch of grayish-white felty material that covers the center of the pileus and sometimes extends nearly to the margin. This is in fact the upper part of the ruptured volva that is carried up by the growing plant, and is very suggestive of the specific name. In the young state the plant is entirely enveloped in the volva, which then is similar to a goose egg in size and shape, and its walls are one-fourth to one-half inch thick. So thick and firm are they that the young plant appears sometimes to be unable to break through and it decays in its infancy.

Dr. Lane says that, having found that the Italians made use of this mushroom for food, he began eating it and introducing it to his friends, and he learned by personal trial that it is a thoroughly good and wholesome mushroom, which, when broiled with bacon, fried, baked or stewed, may be eaten with perfect safety and that it is a nutritious food. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900.

27A. crenula´ta Pk. Pileus thin, broadly ovate, becoming convex or nearly plane and somewhat striate on the margin, adorned with a few thin whitish floccose warts or with whitish flocculent patches, whitish or grayish, sometimes tinged with yellow. Lamellæ close, reaching the stem, and sometimes forming decurrent lines upon it, floccose crenulate on the edge, the short ones truncate at the inner extremity, white. Stem equal, bulbous, floccose mealy above, stuffed or hollow, white, the annulus slight, evanescent. Spores broadly elliptic or subglobose, 7.5–10µ long, nearly as broad, usually containing a single large nucleus.

Pileus 2.5–5 cm. broad. Stem 2.5–5 cm. long, 6–8 mm. thick.

Low ground, under trees. Eastern Massachusetts. September. Mrs. E. Blackford and George E. Morris.

The volva in this species must be very slight, as its remains quickly disappear from the bulb of the stem. The remains carried up by the pileus form slight warts or thin whitish areolate patches. The annulus is present in very young plants, but is often wanting in mature ones, in which state the plant might be mistaken for a species of Amanitopsis. Its true affinity is with the tribe to which A. rubescens belongs. As in that species, the bulb soon becomes naked and exhibits no remains of the volva. It is similar to A. farinosa also in this respect, but quite unlike it in color, in the adornments of the pileus and in the character of its margin, which is even in the young plant and but slightly striate in the mature state. Its dimensions are said sometimes to exceed those here given, and it is reported to have been eaten without harm and to be of an excellent flavor. I have had no opportunity to try. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900.

Amanita; opsis, resembling.

Having a universal veil at first completely enveloping the young plant, which soon bursts through, carrying particles of it on the pileus, where they appear as scattered warts readily brushed off; the remainder or volva closely enwraps the base of the stem. Ring absent. Spores white. This genus was formerly included in Amanita. It differs from Amanita in the absence of a ring or collar upon the stem and in the more sheathing volva. It differs from Lepiota in having a volva.

Close observation is necessary in collecting Amanitopsis for the table. It has no trace of ring or veil upon the stem. So far as the species are known no poisonous one exists. But Amanita spreta Pk., which is deadly, so closely resembles forms of Amanitopsis that those confident of their knowledge will be deceived. The veil or traces of veil, which Amanita spreta always has, sometimes so adheres to and wraps the stem that it is not noticeable without close examination, thus giving to it every appearance of an Amanitopsis.

The volva of A. spreta is attached for a considerable distance to the base of the tapering stem, and is not readily removed. This is a guide to detect it. It is a wolf in sheep’s clothing.

Amanitopsis corresponds to Volvaria in the pink-spored series, in which, as far as known, there is no poisonous species.

All American species of Amanitopsis are given. Several have not been tested by the writer because of lack of opportunity.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.          Plate X.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Amanitopsis vaginata, 28 5. Mycena galericulata, 127
2. Amanitopsis vaginata, var. livida, 29 6. Mycena prolifera, 126
3. Amanitopsis nivalis, 29 7. Mycena prolifera (section), 126
4. Amanitopsis strangulata, 30

A. vagina´ta Roze—vagina, a sheath. (Plate X, figs. 1, 2, p: 28.) Pileus thin, fragile, glossy, smooth except in rare instances where a few fragments of the volva adhere to it for a time, deeply and distinctly striate on the margin, sometimes umbonate. Flesh white, in the dark forms grayish under the skin. Stem ringless, sometimes smooth, but generally mealy or floccose, hollow or stuffed with a cottony pith, not bulbous. Volva long, thin, fragile, closely sheathing yet free from the stem, except in the lower part, easily detachable and frequently remaining in the ground when the plant is pulled. Color variable, generally mouse-gray, sometimes livid, tawny-yellow or white, in one variety a 29rich date-brown. Spores globose, 8–10µ broad Peck; elliptical 10×7–8µ Massee.

Var. liv´ida Pers.—livid. Leaden brown, gills dingy. (Plate X, fig. 2, p. 28.)

Var. ful´va Schæff.—yellowish. Tawny-yellow or pale ochraceous.

This plant is widely dispersed, having been reported from many localities in the United States, also from Nova Scotia and Greenland.

On ground in woods and on margins of woods, under trees, in shaded grassy places. Sometimes in open stubble and pastures. June to frost. Mt. Gretna, September, 1899, found a cluster on decayed chestnut stump. Various colors abound—hazel, brown, gray, yellow, whitish. The caps and stems are tender as asparagus tips, but without much distinct flavor when cooked.

Great care must be taken to distinguish these forms from Amanita spreta Pk. which is poisonous. See heading of genus—Amanitopsis.

A. niva´lis Grev.—snowy. (Plate X, fig. 3, p. 28.) Pileus at first ovate, then convex or plane, smooth, striate on the thin margin, white, sometimes tinged with yellow or ochraceous on the disk. Flesh white. Gills subdistant, white, free. Stem equal, rather tall, nearly smooth, bulbous, stuffed, white; the volva very fragile, soon breaking up into fragments or sometimes persisting in the form of a collar-like ring at the upper part of the bulb. Spores globose, 7.5–10µ in diameter.

Plant 4–6 in. high. Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 2–4 lines thick. July to October.

It approaches in some respects A. Frostiana, but its larger size, smooth pileus, lighter color and the absence of an annulus will easily distinguish it from that species. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Specimens have been repeatedly found by the writer in open oak woods near Philadelphia.

A strong, unpleasant bitter, which appears to develop while cooking, renders it unpalatable. It is harmless, but its use is not advised.

A. velo´sa Pk.—velosus, fleecy. Pileus at first subglobose, then bell-shaped or nearly plane, generally bearing patches of the remains of the whitish felty or tomentose volva, elsewhere glabrous, becoming sulcate-striate on the margin, buff or orange-buff. Flesh compact, white. Gills close, reaching the stem, subventricose, pale cream color. Stem 30firm, at first attenuated and tomentose at the top, then nearly equal, stuffed, white or whitish, closely sheathed at the base by the thick volva. Spores globose, 10–13µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 3–4 in. long, 3–4 lines thick.

Under oak trees. Pasadena, California. April. A.J. McClatchie.

This fungus is closely related to A. vaginata, from which it may be separated by the more adherent remains of the thicker volva which sometimes cover the whole surface of the pileus, and by the thicker gills which are somewhat adnate to the stem and terminate with a decurrent tooth. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 22, No. 12.

As it is probable this species will be found elsewhere than California, and from its close relation to A. vaginata likely to be edible, its description is here given.

A. strangula´ta (Fr.) Roze—choked, from the stuffed stem. (Plate X, fig. 4, p. 28.) Pileus at first ovate or subelliptical, then bell-shaped, convex or plane, warty, slightly viscid when moist, deeply and distinctly striate on the margin, grayish-brown. Gills free, close, white. Stem equal or tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, nearly smooth, white or whitish, the volva soon breaking up into scales or subannular fragments. Spores globose, 10–13µ.

Plant 4–6 in. high. Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 3–6 lines thick. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A. Ceciliæ B. and Br. is a synonym.

Not distinct in color and general appearance from A. vaginata, but distinctly separated by its warty pileus and evanescent mouse-colored volva which does not sheath the stem. Pileus striate when young, then sulcate. Stem mealy, especially on the upper part.

Woods, open grassy places, wheat stubble, etc. June to September. Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia, McIlvaine.

In the latitude of Philadelphia the plant is found in great abundance. Its rather early appearance, staying quality, delicate consistency and flavor make it valuable as a food supply.

Pearl color, bluish-gray and gray are the prevailing cap-coloring.

A. adna´ta (W.G.S.) Roze—adnatus, adnate, of the gills. Pileus about 3 in. across. Flesh thick, whitish, firm, convex, then expanded, rather moist, pale yellowish-buff, often furnished with irregular, woolly 31patches of volva; margin even, extending beyond the gills. Stem 2–4 in. long, ½ in. thick, cylindrical, rough, fibrillose, pale buff, flesh distinct from that of the pileus, stuffed, then hollow; base slightly swollen. Volva adnate, white, downy, margin free and lax, sometimes almost obsolete. Gills truly adnate, crowded, with many intermediate shorter ones, white. Spores subglobose, with an oblique point, 7–8µ Massee.

Tender, good flavor, yielding more substance when cooked than any other Amanitopsis.

A. volva´ta Pk.—possessing a volva. Pileus convex, then nearly plane, slightly striate on the margin, hairy or floccose-scaly, white or whitish, the disk sometimes brownish. Gills close, free, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed, minutely floccose-scaly, whitish, inserted at the base in a large, firm, cup-shaped, persistent volva. Spores elliptical, 10×8µ.

Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 2–3 broad. Stem 3–4 lines thick. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

The plant is easily recognized by its large, cup-shaped volva and cap, which is not smooth, as is usual in a species with a persistent membranous volva, more or less scaly with minute tufts of fibrils or tomentose hairs. The gills are white in the fresh plant.

Professor Peck notes the species as quite rare. Numerous specimens occur in the sandy oak woods of New Jersey, and in oak woods near Angora, Philadelphia. July to October.

Care must be taken to determine the absence of an annulus or any trace of one. Tender, delicate, without pronounced flavor. Equal to Amanitopsis vaginata.

A. farino´sa Schw.—covered with farina, meal. Pileus nearly plane, thin, flocculent-pulverulent, widely and deeply striate on the margin, grayish-brown or livid-brown. Gills free, whitish. Stem whitish or pallid, equal, stuffed or hollow, mealy, sub-bulbous, the volva flocculent-pulverulent, evanescent. Spores variable, elliptical ovate or subglobose, 6–8µ long.

Plant about 2 in. high. Pileus 1 in. to 15 lines broad. Stem 1–3 lines thick. July to September.

This is our smallest Amanita (now Amanitopsis). It is neither very common nor very abundant when it does occur. It is described by 32Schweinitz as “solid,” but I have always found it stuffed or hollow. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A. pusil´la Pk.—small. Pileus thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, subglabrous, slightly umbonate, even on the margin, pale brown. Gills narrow, thin, close, free, becoming brownish. Stem short, hollow, bulbous, the bulb margined by the remains of the membranous volva. Spores broadly elliptical, 5–6×4µ.

Pileus about 1 in. broad. Stem 8–12 lines long, 1–2 lines thick.

Grassy ground. Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county. September. Mrs. Anthony. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Edibility not tested.

A. pubes´cens Schw.—downy. Pileus yellow, covered with a thin pubescence, margin involute. Stem short, about 1 in. in length, at first white becoming yellowish, bulbous, bulb thick. Volva evanescent. Gills white.

In grassy grounds. Rare.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis.

A. agglutina´ta B. and C.—viscid. Pileus 1–2 in. broad, white, hemispheric then plane, viscid, areolate-scaly from the remains of the volva, margin thin, sulcate. Stem .5–1.5 in. long, 2 lines thick, short, solid, bulbous. Volva with a free margin. Gills broad, ventricose, rotundate-free. Spores elliptic.

In pine woods.

North Carolina, Curtis.

Resembling some of the dwarf forms of A. vaginata but at once distinguished by its solid stem and decidedly viscid, areolate-squamose pileus. Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, 1848.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.         PLATE XII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Lepiota americana, 48 3. Lepiota Cepaestipes, 46
2. Lepiota naucinoides, 45 4. Amanita rubescens, 21
Lepis, a scale.

(Plate XI.)

Section of Lepiota procera.

Pileus generally scaly from the breaking up of the cuticle and the adherence of the concrete veil. Gills free, often very distant from the stem and attached to a cartilaginous collar. Stem hollow or stuffed, its flesh distinct from that of the pileus. Ring at first attached to the cuticle of the pileus, often movable, sometimes evanescent.

On the ground. Several are found in hot-houses and hot-beds, and are probably introduced species.

The universal veil, covering the entire plant when very young, is closely applied to the pileus, which from the breaking up of the cuticle is generally scaly. The stem in most species differs in substance from the pileus. This is readily seen by splitting the plant in half from cap to base. It is easily separated from the cap, leaving a cup-like depression therein. Gills usually white. In some species they are yellow-tinted. In others they become a dingy red when wounded or ageing.

The veil in this genus, being concrete with the cuticle of the pileus, never appears as loose warts or patches, neither is there a volva as in Amanita and Amanitopsis. These three genera are the only ones in the white-spored series having gills free from the stem. In a few species the gills are slightly attached to the stem, but are never decurrent upon it as in Armillaria. When the plant is young it is egg-shaped. It then gradually spreads, becomes convex, and opens until it is nearly flat, with a knob in the center.

The only species in this genus known to be poisonous to some persons is L. Morgani Pk., which is distinguished by its green spores and white 34gills becoming green. L. Vittadini has also been regarded with suspicion.

A. Pileus Dry.
Proceri (L. procera). Page 35.

Ring movable. The plant is at first entirely enclosed in a universal veil, which splits around at the base, the lower part disappearing on the bulb, the upper part attached to the pileus breaking up into scales. Stem encircled at the top with a cartilaginous collar to which the free, remote gills are attached.

Clypeolarii (L. clypeolaria). Page 39.

Ring fixed, attached to the upper portion of the universal veil which sheaths the stem from the base upward, making it downy or scaly below the ring. The remainder of the veil united with the pileus breaking up and becoming downy or scaly. Collar at the apex of stem not so large as in Proceri, hence the gills are not usually so remote. Taste and smell unpleasant, resembling that of radishes.

Annulosi (annulus, a ring). Page 44.

Ring fixed, somewhat persistent, universal veil closely attached to the pileus. Collar absent or similar in texture to the stem. Stem, not sheathed.

Granulosi (L. granulosa). Page 49.

Pileus granular or warty. Universal veil sheathing the stem, at first continuous from the stem to the pileus, finally rupturing, forming a ring nearer the base. Stem not so distinctly different from the pileus as in other sections.

Mesomorphi (L. mesomorpha).

Small, slender, stem hollow. Pileus smooth, dry.

B. Pileus Viscid. Neither Scaly Nor Warty.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.             Plate XIII.

35A. Pileus Dry.
Proce´ri. Ring movable, etc.

L. proce´ra Scop.—procerus, tall. (Plate XIII, p. 34.) Tall Lepiota, Parasol Mushroom, in some localities Pasture Mushroom (a misleading title).

The Flesh not very thick, soft, permanently white. Pileus at first ovate, finally expanded, cuticle soon breaking up into brown scales, excepting upon the umbo, umbo smooth, dark-brown, distinct. The caps vary in shades of brown, sometimes they have a faint tinge of lavender. Gills whitish, crowded, narrowing toward the stem, and very remote from it. Stem variable in length, often very long, tubular, at first stuffed with light fibrils, quite bulbous at base, generally spotted or scaly with peculiar snake-like markings below the ring, which is thick, firm and readily movable. When the stem is removed from pileus it leaves a deep cavity extending nearly to the cuticle.

Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 5–12 in. high, about ½ in. thick.

White spores elliptical, 14–18×9–11µ Peck; 12–15×8–9µ Massee; 14×10µ Lloyd.

Readily known by its extremely tall stem, shaggy cap, distinct umbo and the channel between the gills and stem. Resembles no poisonous species.

Before cooking the scurf should be rubbed from the caps, which alone should be eaten, as the stem is tough. Though the flesh is thin, the gills are meaty and have a pleasant, nutty flavor. Fried in butter it has few equals. It makes a superior catsup.

L. racho´des Vitt. Gr.—a ragged, tattered garment. Pileus very fleshy, but very soft when full grown, globose then flattened or depressed, not umbonate, at first incrusted with a thick, rigid, even, very smooth, bay-brown, wholly continuous cuticle, which remains entire at the disk but otherwise soon becomes elegantly reticulated with cracks; these very readily separate into persistent, polygonal, concentric scales, which are revolute at the margin and attached to the surface with beautifully radiating fibers, the surface remaining coarsely fibrillose-downy. Flesh 36white, immediately becoming saffron-red when broken, easily separating from the apex of the distinct stem, which is encircled with a prominent collar. Stem stout, at the first bulbous with a distinct margin upon the bulb, conical when young, then elongated, attenuated upward, as much as a span long, very robust, 1 in. thick, and more at the base, always even, and without a trace of scales or even of fibrils although the appearance is obsoletely silky, wholly whitish, hollow within, stuffed with spider-web threads, the walls remarkably and coarsely fibrous. Ring movable, adhering longer to the margin of the pileus than to the apex of the stem, hence rayed with fibers at the circumference, clothed beneath with one or two zones of scales. Gills very remote, tapering toward each end or broadest at the middle, crowded, whitish, sometimes reddening. Stevenson.

Veil remarkable in its development and thick margin.

Spores 6×8µ W.G.S.

Fort Edward, Howe; Westfield, N.Y., Miss L.M. Patchen; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, McIlvaine.

A heavier species than L. procera, of which by some writers it has been considered a variety, but it differs in the absence of umbo and flesh becoming tinged with red.

Stem is decidedly swollen downward. Veil heavy, apparently double, thickest at margin of cap to which it remains attached in heavy fragments. It tears from the stem, leaving no mark of ring.

Var. puella´ris Fr.—puella, a girl. Smaller than typical form, shining white, pileus with downy scales. Not yet reported in America.

Edible qualities similar to those of L. procera. It is sold indiscriminately with it in London markets.

L. excoria´ta Schaeff.—stripped of its skin. Flesh spongy, rather thick, white, unchangeable. Pileus at first globose, then flat, hardly umbonate, pale-fawn or whitish, disk dark; cuticle thin, silky or scaly, sometimes areolate, more or less peeled toward margin, hence its name. Gills ventricose, white, free, somewhat remote. Stem attenuated, hollow or stuffed, short, scarcely bulbous, smooth, white, not spotted, very distinct from flesh of pileus. Ring movable but not so freely as that of L. procera.

Stem 1½-2½ high, less than ½ in. thick. Pileus 2–3 in. broad.

Spores 14–15×8–9µ Massee.

37In pastures or grassy lawns. May to September.

North Carolina, edible, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; California, H. and M.; Ohio, Morgan; Minnesota, Johnson.

Distinguished from the preceding by its smaller size and short stem which is scarcely bulbous.

Esculent qualities good.

L. mastoi´dea Fr. Gr.—breast-shaped. Pileus rather thin, ovate, bell-shaped, then flattened, with a conspicuous acute umbo, cuticle thin, brownish, breaking up in minute scattered scales; the pileus appears whitish beneath. Stem hollow, smooth, tough, flexible, attenuated from the bulbous base to the apex. Ring entire, movable. Gills very remote, crowded, broad, tapering at both ends, white.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–4 lines thick at base, 1½-2 lines at apex.

North Carolina, edible, Curtis. It is generally eaten in Europe. In woods, especially about old stumps. October.

The entire plant is whitish and is well marked by the prominent umbo, which generally has a depression around it. It has the least substance of any in this section, and consequently not much value as food.

L. gracilen´ta Krombh.—gracilis, slender. Pileus rather fleshy, thickest at the disk, ovate then bell-shaped, finally flattened, obscurely umbonate; at first brownish from the adnate cuticle, which, breaking up into broad adpressed scales, allows the whitish pileus to be seen beneath them. Gills remote, very broad, crowded, pallid. Stem whitish, obscurely scaly, hollow or containing slight fibrils, slightly bulbous. Ring thin, floccose, vanishing.

Stem 5–6 in. long, 3–5 lines thick. In pastures, also in woods.

Spores 11×8µ W.G.S.

Almost as tall as L. procera, but slighter in stem and pileus; the ring, instead of being firm and persistent, is thin and fugacious, and the stem is hardly bulbous.

Edible, but not of the first quality.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.                 Plate XIV.

L. Mor´gani Pk.—in honor of Professor Morgan. (Plate XIV.) Pileus fleshy, soft, at first subglobose, then expanded or even depressed, white, the brownish or yellowish cuticle breaking up into scales except 38on the disk. Gills close, lanceolate, remote, white, then green. Stem firm, equal or tapering upward, subbulbous, smooth, webby-stuffed, whitish, tinged with brown. Ring rather large, movable. Flesh both of the pileus and stem white, changing to reddish and then to yellowish when cut or bruised. Spores ovate or subelliptical, mostly uninucleate, sordid green, 10–13×7–8µ.

Plant 6–8 in. high. Pileus 5–9 in. broad. Stem 6–12 lines thick. Peck in Bot. Gaz., March, 1879.

Open dry grassy places. Dayton, Ohio. A.P. Morgan.

This species is remarkable because of the peculiar color of the spores. No green-spored Agaric, so far as I am aware, has before been discovered, and no one of the five series, in which the very numerous species of the genus have been arranged, is characterized in such a way as to receive this species.

It seems a little hasty to found a series (Viridispori) on the strength of a single species. Until other species of such a supposed series shall be discovered it seems best to regard this as an aberrant member of the white-spored series. The same course has been taken with those Agarics which have sordid or yellowish or lilac-tinted spores.

It gives me great pleasure to dedicate this fine species to its discoverer Mr. Morgan. Peck.

Commonly 6–8 in. high, 5–9 in. diameter, though larger specimens are sometimes found. It is the most conspicuous Agaric in the meadows and pastures of the Miami valley; it appears to flourish from spring to autumn whenever there is abundance of rain.

It is heavier and stouter than L. procera and I am disposed to claim that it is the largest Agaric in the world. Spores 10–12×7–8µ. In immature specimens they are greenish-yellow. Morgan.

Kansas, Bartholomew (Peck, Rep. 50); Kansas, Cragin; Alabama, U. and E.; Georgia, Benson; Louisiana, Rev. A.B. Langlois; Michigan, C.F. Wheeler (Lloyd, Myc. Notes); Texas, Prof. W.S. Carter; Indiana, H.I. Miller.

L. Morgani is one of the largest, handsomest of the genus. It is very abundant in the western and southwestern states. Mr. H.I. Miller, Terre Haute, Ind., writes August 18, 1898: “I have recently measured several which were more than twelve inches across. At the present time this mushroom is growing in more abundance throughout Indiana than any other. It grows luxuriantly in the pastures, generally 39in grand fairy rings, five, ten, fifteen feet in diameter. We find it also in the woods. It is beautifully white and majestic, and these rings can be seen in meadows where the grass has been eaten close, for half a mile or more. The gills are white until the cap is almost opened, by which time the green spores begin to cause the gills to change to green. The meat is fine and is usually more free from worms than other mushrooms. Six families, here, have eaten heartily of them. The experience is that one or two members of each family are made sick, though in two families, who have several times eaten them, no one was made sick. I enjoy them immensely, and never feel any the worse for eating them. I doubt if we have a finer-flavored fungus. The meat is simply delicious. One fairy ring yields a bushel.”

Prof. W.S. Carter, University of Texas, Galveston, reported to me (and sent specimens of L. Morganii) the poisoning of three laboring men from eating this fungus. They were seriously sick, but recovered.

The conclusion is inevitable that this green-spored Lepiota contains a poison which violently attacks some persons, yet is harmless upon others.

I have not had opportunity to test it. It should be tested with great caution.

Clypeola´rii. Clypeus, a shield. Ring fixed; stem sheathed, etc.

L. Frie´sii Lasch.—in honor of Fries. Pileus fleshy, soft, lacerated into appressed tomentose scales. Stem hollow, with a webby pith, subbulbous, scaly. Ring superior, pendulous, equal. Gills subremote, linear, crowded, branched. Fries.

Pileus fleshy but rather thin, convex or nearly plane, clothed with a soft, tawny or brownish-tawny down, which breaks up into appressed, often subconfluent scales, the disk rough with small acute, erect scales. Flesh soft, white. Gills narrow, crowded, free, white, some of them forked. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, subbulbous, hollow, colored like the pileus below the ring, and there clothed with tomentose fibrils which sometimes form floccose or tomentose scales, white and powdered above. Ring well developed, flabby, white above, tawny and floccose-scaly below. Spores 7–8×3–4µ.

Plant 2–5 in. high. Pileus 1–4 in. broad. Stem 2–5 lines thick.

Catskill mountains and East Worcester. July to September.

I have quoted the description of this species as it is found in Epicrisis, 40because the American plant which I have referred to it does not in all respects agree with this description, but comes so near it that it can scarcely be specifically distinct. In the American plant, so far as I have seen it, erect, acute scales are always present, especially on the disk, and the down of the pileus does not always break up into distinct areas or scales. Neither is the stem usually scaly, but rather clothed with soft tomentose or almost silky fibrils. The gills are crowded and some of them are forked. At the furcations there are slight depressions which interrupt the general level of the edges, and give them the appearance of having been eaten by insects. The plant has a slight odor, especially when cut or bruised. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Remarks under L. acutesquamosa apply to L. Friesii, which Fries himself doubts being distinct from the first. The plants vary greatly in size, color and habitat. The name—acutesquamosa—carries a descriptive meaning with it that L. Friesii does not.

It does not appear to have been reported except by Professor Peck, but probably appears as L. acutesquamosa in other lists.

The edible qualities are excellent.

L. acutesquamo´sa Wein.—acutus, sharp; squama, a scale. Pileus fleshy, obtuse, at first hairy-floccose, then bristly with erect, acute, rough scales. Stem somewhat stuffed, stout, bulbous, powdered above the moderate-sized ring. Gills approximate, lanceolate, simple. Fries.

Pileus convex or nearly plane, obtuse or broadly subumbonate, clothed with a soft tawny or brownish-tawny tomentum, which usually breaks up into imperfect areas or squamæ, rough with erect, acute scales, which are generally larger and more numerous on the disk. Gills close, free, white or yellowish. Stem equal, hollow or stuffed with webby filaments, subbulbous. Spores about 7×3–4µ.

Woods and conservatories. Buffalo, G.W. Clinton; Albany, A.F. Chatfield; Adirondack mountains and Brewertown, Peck.

The form found in the hot-houses seems to have the tomentum of the pileus less dense and the erect scales more numerous than in the form growing in woods. The annulus is frequently lacerated. In the specimens of the woods the erect scales are sometimes blackish in color, and they then contrast quite conspicuously with the tawny or brownish-tawny tomentum beneath them. They vary in size and shape. Some resemble pointed papillæ, others, being more elongated, are almost 41spine-like. These are sometimes curved. They are generally larger and more numerous on the disk than elsewhere, and often they are wholly wanting on the margin. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Philadelphia, 1897, on lawn and growing from trunk of a maple tree; Mt. Gretna, Pa., mixed woods. McIlvaine.

I first saw specimens of L. acutesquamosa when sent to me by Miss Lydia M. Patchen, President Westfield Toadstool Club. It was later found by myself and tested. Specimens were sent to Professor Peck and identified as L. acutesquamosa.

Caps and stems brownish-purple. The pointed squamules or tufts have dark-brown points, shaded to a delicate purple at base. Gills light, faint flesh-color. Veil is silky, transparent, beautiful, quite tenacious—stretching until cap is well expanded, persistent, though at times fugacious. Smell like stewed mushrooms. The caps are of excellent substance and flavor.

L. his´pida Lasch.—rough. Pileus 2–3 in. across. Flesh thin, white, unchangeable; hemispherical then expanded, umbonate, tomentose or downy at first from the remains of the universal veil; during expansion the down becomes broken up into small, spreading, scaly points, which eventually disappear, umber-brown, sometimes with a tawny tinge. Gills free but near to the stem, the collar of the pileus prominent and sheathing the stem, crowded, ventricose, simple, white. Stem about 3–5 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, attenuated upward, densely squamosely-woolly up to the superior, membranaceous, reflexed ring, dingy-brown, stem tubular, but fibrillosely stuffed. Spores 6–7×4µ Massee.

In margins of and in open mixed woods, under pine trees, Haddonfield, N.J., July to September, 1892. Quite plentiful year after year in the same places. The American plant is taller than the English species, the stem reaching five inches, and the color of the cap a delicate tawny-brown. Smell slight, but pungent like radishes.

The whole fungus is tender and delicious. It is one of the few Lepiotæ that stews well.

L. feli´na Pers.—belonging to a cat. Pileus thin, bell-shaped or convex, subumbonate, adorned with numerous subtomentose or floccose blackish-brown scales. Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, rather 42long, equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, clothed with soft, loose, floccose filaments, brown. Ring slight, evanescent. Spores elliptical, 6–8×4–5µ.

Plant 2–3.5 in. high. Pileus .5–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Woods. Adirondack Mountains. August and September.

It is easily distinguished from A. rubrotincta by the darker color of the scales of the pileus, by the loose floccose filaments that clothe the brown stem, by the fugacious ring and the smaller spores. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

The caps compare favorably with other Lepiotæ in substance and flavor.

L. crista´ta A. and S.—crista, a tuft, crest. Pileus thin, bell-shaped or convex, then nearly plane, obtuse, at first with an even reddish or reddish-brown surface, then white adorned with reddish or reddish-brown scales formed by the breaking up of the cuticle, the central part or disk colored like the scales. Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, hollow, equal, smooth or silky-fibrillose below the ring, whitish. Ring small, white. Spores oblong or narrowly subelliptical, 5–7×3–4µ.

Plant 1–2 in. high. Pileus .5–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Grassy places and borders of woods. June to September.

This species is easily known by its small size and the crested appearance of the white pileus, an appearance produced by the orbicular unruptured portion of the cuticle that remains like a colored spot on the disk. The fragments or scales are more close near this central part and more distant from each other toward the margin, where they are often wholly wanting. The scales are sometimes very small and almost granular. In very wet weather the margin of the pileus in this and some other species becomes upturned or reflexed. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found in Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia. June to September, 1897. McIlvaine.

Scales were appressed and slightly tinged with brown, often very small. Caps of same, upturned and bare near margin. Taste sweet, slightly like new meal. Odor strong.

Cooked it is of good consistency and pleasing to taste.

43L. alluvi´na Pk.—alluvies, the over-flowing of a river. Pileus thin, convex or plane, reflexed on the margin, white, adorned with minute pale-yellow hairy or fibrillose scales. Gills thin, close, free, white or yellowish. Stem slender, fibrillose, whitish or pallid, slightly thickened at the base. Ring slight, subpersistent, often near the middle of the stem. Spores elliptical, 6–7×4–5µ.

Plant 1–2 in. high. Pileus .5–1 in. broad. Stem 1–1.5 lines thick. Alluvial soil, among weeds. Albany. July.

In the fresh plant the scales are of a pale yellow or lemon color, but in drying they and the whole pileus take a deeper rich yellow hue. The ring is generally remote from the pileus, sometimes even below the middle of the stem. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

In 1897, I found it growing among weeds on lot near University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Seemingly it is a city resident.

The taste and smell are pleasant. Cooked it is tender and savory. Both stems and caps are good.

L. metulæ´spora B. and Br.—metula, an obelisk. Pileus thin, bell-shaped or convex, subumbonate, at first with a uniform pallid or brownish surface, which soon breaks up into small brownish scales, the margin more or less striate, often appendiculate with fragments of the veil. Gills close, free, white. Stem slender, equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, adorned with soft floccose scales or filaments, pallid. Ring slight, evanescent. Spores long, subfusiform.

Plant 2–3.5 in. high. Pileus .5–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Woods. Adirondack mountains. August and September.

This species occurs with us in the same localities as L. felina, which it very much resembles in size, shape and general characters, differing only in color, the striate margin of the pileus and the character of the spores.

The species has a wide range, having been found in Ceylon, England, Alabama and Kentucky. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

This has not been elsewhere noted in the United States, probably from neglect of the spore characters, being reported as L. clypeolaria.

New Jersey and Pennsylvania. McIlvaine.

44Annulo´si. Ring large, fixed; stem not sheathed.

L. holoseri´cea Fr. Gr.—entire, silken. Pileus 3 in. and more broad, whitish or clay-white, fleshy, soft, convex then expanded, rather plane, obtuse, floccoso-silky, somewhat fibrillose, becoming even, fragile, disk by no means gibbous; and wholly of the same color; margin involute when young. Flesh soft, white. Stem 2½-4 in. long, ½ in. and more thick, solid, bulbous and not rooted at the base, soft, fragile, silky-fibrillose, whitish. Ring superior, membranaceous, large, soft, pendulous, the margin again ascending. Gills wholly free, broad, ventricose, crowded, becoming pale-white. Fries.

A species well marked from all others. Inodorous.

On soil in flower beds.

Spores elliptical, 7–8×5µ Massee; 6×9µ W.G.S.

Wisconsin, Bundy; Minnesota, Johnson.

Considered esculent in Europe.

L. Vittadi´ni Fr.—in honor of the Italian mycologist. Pileus 3–4 in. across. Flesh 4–6 lines thick at the disk, becoming very thin at the margin, white; convex then plane, obtuse or gibbous, densely covered with small, erect, wart-like scales, altogether whitish. Gills free but rather close to the stem, 3–4 lines broad, rounded in front, thickish, ventricose, with a greenish tinge. Stem 2½-3½ in. long, up to ⅔ in. thick, cylindrical, with numerous concentric rings of squarrose scales, up to the superior, large ring; whitish, or the edges of the scales often tipped with red, solid. Fries.

In pastures, etc.

Intermediate between Lepiota and Amanita.

Noted by Fries as poisonous. It may or may not be, but as a matter of precaution it is described. A large species, pure white, extremely beautiful.

Massachusetts, Farlow.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.            Plate XV.

L. nauci´na Fr. No translation applicable. Pileus 1–1½ in. broad, white, the disk of the same color, fleshy, soft, gibbous or obtusely umbonate when flattened, even, the thin cuticle splitting up into granules. Stem 1½-3 in. long, stuffed, at length somewhat hollow, but without a definite tube, attenuated upward from the thickened base, fibrillose, 45unspotted, white. Ring superior, tender, but persistent, adhering to the stem, at length reflexed. Gills free, approximate, crowded, ventricose, soft, white.

There is a prominent collar, as in the Clypeolarii, embracing the stem. Stature and appearance of L. excoriata, but commonly smaller, the superior ring adfixed, etc. Fries.

Spores subglobose, 6–7µ Massee.

L. naucina Fr. is the European species which has its American counterpart in L. naucinoides Pk. The variations in the American species are noted under L. naucinoides.

As Amanita phalloides—in its white form—the poisonous white Amanita, resembles L. naucina or L. naucinoides in some stages of its growth and may be confounded with it, careful note should be taken of their external differences. In L. naucinoides the bulb and stem are continuous, each passing into the other imperceptibly; in A. phalloides the junction of stem and bulb is abrupt and remains so, and the bulb is more or less enwrapped in the volva. The ring is also larger than in L. naucinoides and is pendulous, and the gills are permanently white. A certain means of distinguishing between them is by the application of heat as in cooking. On toasting both it will be found that the gills of the Amanita remain white, but those of the Lepiota turn quickly brown.

L. naucinoi´des Pk. No translation applicable. (Plates Plate XV, XII fig. 2, p. 32.) Pileus soft, smooth, white or snowy-white. Gills free, white, slowly changing with age to a dirty pinkish-brown or smoky-brown color. Stem ringed, slightly thickened at the base, colored like the pileus. Spores subelliptical, uninucleate, white, 8–10 long×5–8µ broad. Peck, 48th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Kansas, Cragin; Wisconsin, Bundy; New Jersey, Ellis; Iowa, Macbride; New York, Peck, 23d, 29th, 35th Rep.; Indiana, H.I. Miller, Dr. J.R. Weist.

L. naucinoides Pk. is the American counterpart of L. naucina Fr., a European species, excepting that the spores of the latter are described as globose. The caps are ovate when young and usually from 1½-3 in. across when expanded, but occasionally reach 4 in., smooth, but frequently rough or minutely cracked in the center, white or varying shades of white deepening in color at the summit. In a rare form var. squamo´sa, large, thick scales occur which are caused by the breaking 46up of the cap surface. When young the gills are white or faintly yellow, becoming pinkish or dull brown in age. The pinkish hue is not always apparent. The outer edge of the veil or ring is thickest; usually it is firmly attached to the stem, but movable rings are frequently noticed. When the plant ages the ring is often missing, but traces of it are always discernible. Stem rarely equal, often it is distinctly bulbous, generally tapering upward from a more or less enlarged base, hollow when fully grown, until then containing cottony fibers within the cavity or appearing solid, 2–3 in. long, ¼-½ in. thick.

Its habitat is similar to that of the common mushroom—lawns, pastures, grassy places—though unlike the latter it is found in woods. Until thoroughly acquainted with it, specimens found in woods and supposed to be L. naucinoides should not be eaten. An Amanita might be mistaken for it. It is readily distinguishable from the common mushroom and its allies by the color of the gills and spores which are white, and differences in stem and veil.

It is found from July until after hard frosts. It was first reported edible by Professor Peck in 1875, under the name of Agaricus naucinus.

The L. naucinoides is rewarding the favor with which it has been received as an esculent, it being equal to the common mushroom and quite free from insects. Large crops of it are reported from all over the country, and from many sections it is told of as a stranger. During 1897–98 the author has found it in plenty upon ground familiar to him for years, upon which it had not previously shown itself. The common mushroom must look to its laurels.

Its cultivation as a marketable crop is possible and probable.

L. cepæsti´pes Sow.—cepa, an onion; stipes, stem. (Plate XII, fig. 3, p. 32.) Pileus thin, at first ovate, then bell-shaped or expanded, umbonate, soon adorned with numerous minute brownish scales, which are often granular or mealy, folded into lines on the margin, white or yellow, the umbo darker. Gills thin, close, free, white, becoming dingy with age or in drying. Stem rather long, tapering toward the apex, generally enlarged in the middle or near the base, hollow. Ring thin, subpersistent. Spores subelliptical, with a single nucleus, 8–10×5–8µ.

Plant often cespitose, 2–4 in. high. Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–3 lines thick.

47Rich ground and decomposing vegetable matter. Also in graperies and conservatories. Buffalo, G.W. Clinton; Albany, A.F. Chatfield. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores elliptical, 7–8×4µ Massee; 8×4µ W.G.S.; 8–10×5–8µ Peck.

Haddonfield, N.J., Pennsylvania, McIlvaine; New York, Mrs. E. C. Anthony; Indiana, H.I. Miller. July to October.

Whoever has seen the seed-stalks of an onion knows the shape from which this fungus takes its name. The dense clusters are graceful, dainty, and contain many individuals of all ages—from the very young with egg-shaped heads, like pigmy C. comatus, to the fluff-capped eldest, willowy and fair to look upon. The out-door kind soon droops when matured; the young plants of a cluster will remain fresh for several days after taken from their habitat. Stems in these tufts are often quill-shaped, and the striations on the cap margins are shorter than those on their indoor cousins. These grow in hot-houses and stables. One of the two forms has a yellow cap, the other is white and fair.

These forms have often come to my table as a pleasant winter surprise. Children in the hot-houses of Haddonfield, N.J., watched for its appearance among the bedded plants, sure of a present when they brought me a meal of it. Both the white and yellow varieties were equally enjoyed.

The entire fungus is tender and delicious cooked in any way.

L. farino´sa Pk.—farina, meal. Pileus thin, rather tough, flexible, at first globose or ovate, then bell-shaped or convex, covered with a soft, dense, white veil of mealy down, which soon ruptures, forming irregular, easily-detersible scales, more persistent and sometimes brownish on the disk. Flesh white, unchangeable. Gills close, free, white, minutely downy on the edge. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, somewhat thickened at the base, slightly mealy, often becoming glabrous, hollow or with a cottony pith above, solid at the base, white, pallid or straw-colored, the ring lacerated, somewhat appendiculate on the margin of the pileus, evanescent. Spores subovate, 10–13×8µ.

Pileus 1.5–2.5 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2–4 lines thick.

Mushroom beds in a conservatory, Boston, Mass. March. Communicated by E.J. Forster.

This species is related to L. cepæstipes, from which it may be distinguished 48by its pileus, which is not folded on the margin, and by its larger spores. It is edible. It is very distinct from Amanita farinosa. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Ohio, Lloyd, Prof. William Miller (Lloyd Myc. Notes).

L. America´na Pk. (Plate XII, fig. 1, p. 32. Plate XVa.) Pileus at first ovate, then convex or expanded, umbonate, scaly, white, the umbo and scales reddish or reddish-brown. Gills close, free, white. Stem somewhat thickened at or a little above the base, hollow, bearing a ring, white. Spores subelliptical, uninucleate, 8–10×5–8µ.

The American lepiota belongs to the same genus as the parasol mushroom and the Smooth lepiota. It has one character in which it differs from all other species of Lepiota. The whole plant when fresh is white, except the umbo and the scales of the cap, but in drying it assumes a dull reddish or smoky-red color. By this character it is easily recognized.

In the very young plant the cap is somewhat egg-shaped and nearly covered by the thin reddish-brown cuticle, but as the plant enlarges the cuticle separates and forms the scales that adorn the cap. On the central prominence or umbo, however, it usually remains entire. The margin of the cap is thin and is generally marked with short radiating lines or striations. The gills do not quite reach the stem and are, therefore, free from it. Sometimes they are connected with each other at or near their inner extremity by transverse branches. They are a little broader near the margin of the cap than at their inner extremity. The stem affords a peculiar feature. It is often enlarged towards the base and then abruptly narrowed below the enlargement, as in the Onion-stemmed lepiota. In some instances, however, the enlargement is not contracted below and then the stem gradually tapers from the base upward. The stem is hollow and usually furnished with a collar, but sometimes this is thin and may disappear with advancing age. Wounds or bruises are apt to assume brownish-red hues.

The caps vary in width from 1–4 in.; the stems are from 3–5 in. long, and 2–5 lines thick. Sometimes plants attain even larger dimensions than these. The plants grow singly or in tufts in grassy ground or on old stumps. They may be found from July to October.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.              Plate XVa.

In flavor this species is not much inferior to the parasol mushroom, but when cooked in milk or cream it imparts its own reddish color to 49the material in which it is cooked. It is, however, a fine addition to our list of esculent species. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I found several on a decaying willow trunk, and on the ground beside it, in Philadelphia. In July, 1898, large quantities, often clustered, grew under the great, open auditorium of the Pennsylvania Chautauqua, at Mt. Gretna, Pa., from ground covered with crushed limestone.

The caps are meaty and excellent in flavor. They should be broiled or fried.

Granulosi. Pileus granular or warty. Stem sheathed, etc.

L. granulo´sa Batsch.—granosus, full of grains. Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, sometimes almost umbonate, rough, with numerous granular or branny scales, often radiately wrinkled, rusty-yellow or reddish-yellow, often growing paler with age. Flesh white or reddish-tinged. Gills close, rounded behind and usually slightly adnexed, white. Stem equal or slightly thickened at the base, stuffed or hollow, white above the ring, colored and adorned like the pileus below it. Ring slight, evanescent. Spores elliptical 4–5×3–4µ.

Plant 1–2.5 in. high. Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad. Stem 1–3 lines thick. Woods, copses and waste places. Common. August to October.

This is a small species with a short stem and granular reddish-yellow pileus, and gills slightly attached to the stem, a character by which it differs from all the preceding. The ring is very small and fugacious, being little more than the abrupt termination to the coating of the stem. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 5–6×3µ B.; 3×4µ W.G.S.; elliptical, 4–5×3–4µ Peck.

Var. rufes´cens B. and Br. Pure white at first, then partially turning red and in drying acquiring everywhere a reddish tint.

Var. al´bida Pk. Persistently white.

Though small many plants grow neighboring. Being fleshy for their size, and of pleasing quality, they well repay gathering. Remove stems.

Open woods, Angora, West Philadelphia; Haddonfield, New Jersey, McIlvaine.

A. Cuticle Viscid. Neither Scaly nor Warty.

L. delica´ta Fr.—delicatus, delicate. Up to 1½ in. across, reddish, becoming yellowish toward margin. Flesh well proportioned to cap, 50convex, obscurely umbonate, glabrous, slightly viscid. Stem 1½-2 in. long, very thin, but covered with dense downy scales, equal, lighter than cap. Ring usually entire, membranaceous, fluffy from scales. Gills free, crowded, ventricose, white.

Haddonfield, N.J., January, 1896–97, in hot-houses. McIlvaine.

A delicate, delicious Lepiota. Though small, it is meaty. Its appearance in hot-houses (it is found in woods) insures a crop at a time of year when other species are not plentiful, and when anything edible in the toadstool line is most welcome to their lovers.

L. lenticula´ris Lasch.—lenticula, a lentil. Pileus at first globose, then convex, even, naked, pinkish-tan color. Flesh thick, spongy, white. Gills close to stem, but free from it, ventricose, crowded, whitish. Stem 4–6 in. high, thick, equal or swollen at base, solid but spongy, more or less covered with scales; above the ring it is frequently covered with drops of water more or less green, which leave spots when they dry. Veil superior and very large.

Pileus 3–4 in. across. Stem 4–6 in. long, ½ in. and more thick. In damp woods.

Redman’s Woods, Haddonfield, N.J. September, 1894. McIlvaine.

This species is included in Amanita by Fries and Stevenson. Massee places it in Lepiota. In the dozen or more specimens I have found, there was no trace of a volva, even when very young. I tested it carefully and at one time ate three good-sized caps without experiencing any indications of poison. I have seen it during but one season and not then (at one time) in sufficient quantity to make a meal off it. Cooked it has a slight cheesy flavor which is pleasant.

L. illi´nita Fr.—illino, to smear over. Pileus rather thin, soft, at first ovate, then campanulate or expanded, subumbonate, smooth, white, very viscid or glutinous, even or striate on the margin. Gills close, free, white. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, stuffed or hollow, viscid, white. Spores broadly elliptical, 5×4µ broad.

Plant 2–4 in. high. Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad. Stem 2–3 lines thick.

Thin or open woods. Adirondack mountains. July to September.

This is a smooth white species with the stem and pileus clothed with a clear viscid or glutinous veil. The margin of the pileus is often even, but the typical form of the species has it striate. The flesh is soft and 51white. The species may be distinguished from the viscid white species of Hygrophorus by the free, not adnate nor decurrent lamellæ. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Springton and Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1887–1897. McIlvaine.

Not yet found by me in quantity. Several specimens eaten were of good flavor.

L. rugulo´sa Pk. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, broadly convex or nearly plane, umbonate, rugulose, widely striate on the margin, whitish. Lamellæ thin, narrow, close, free, whitish. Stem short, equal, slightly silky, whitish, the annulus thin, persistent, white. Spores elliptic, 7.5µ long, 4µ broad.

Pileus 12–20 mm. broad. Stem about 2.5 cm. long, 2 mm. thick.

Moist grassy places under trees. Washington, D.C. July. Mrs. E.M. Williams. Perhaps in the fresh state the pileus is not as distinctly rugulose as when dry. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 27, January, 1900.

Armilla, a ring.

(Plate XVII.)

Armillaria mellea.

Pileus and Stem continuous. Veil partial, sometimes only indicated by the scales which clothe the stem terminating in the form of a ring. Spores white. On the ground or on stumps.

In the young plant the veil extends from the stem to the pileus, sometimes forming scaly patches upon it; below the ring it is attached to the stem often in scales.

But for the presence of the ring the species of this genus could be distributed in Tricholoma, Clitocybe and Collybia, with which they agree in all other characters.

In Amanita and Lepiota, the other ringed genera of the white-spored series, the flesh of the stem and pileus is not continuous; and their stems are therefore easily separated. Amanita is also distinguished by its volva.

Tricholomata. Page 52.

Gills sinuately adnexed, stem fleshy, ring often evanescent. (Like Tricholoma.)

Clitocybæ. Page 55.

Gills not sinuate, more or less decurrent, narrowed behind; ring permanent. (Resembling Clitocybe.)

Collyblæ. Page 58.

Gills adnate, equal behind; stem somewhat cartilaginous outside; ring permanent. (Resembling Collybia.)

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine and Val Starnes.        Plate XVI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Armillaria mellea, 55 3–4. Lentinus lepideus, 230
2. Armillaria mellea var. exannulata, 56
I.—Tricholomata. Gills sinuately adnexed, etc.

A. robus´ta A. and S.—robustus, robust, sturdy. Substance of entire plant compact. Pileus 2–3 in. across, varying in shades of gray and 53brown, scaly, fibrillose on margin, decreasing toward center or smooth, convex or top-shaped and margin involute at first, expanding. Flesh firm, very thick. Gills broad, emarginate, nearly free, crowded, whitish, up to ½ in. broad. Veil large, membranaceous, sometimes floccose, remaining adherent to the stem. Stem 1–2 in. long, obese, solid, tapering at the base, brownish-white and fibrillose below veil, white and flocculose above, flesh of stem continuous with that of the cap.

Stevenson gives var. minor with even cap with both gills and ring very narrow.

Spores ovoid-spherical. 7µ. Q.

Edible, Curtis; District Columbia, Mrs. M. Fuller.

In mixed woods. Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New Jersey, McIlvaine.

The substance of A. robusta differs from all other Armillaria in being very compact. It is not acrid but has a marked flavor. Cut into small pieces and well cooked it makes an acceptable dish. It is best in croquettes and patties, or served with meats.

A. viscid´ipes Pk.—viscidus, sticky; pes, a foot. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex or nearly plane, glabrous, whitish with a slight yellowish or reddish-yellow tint. Flesh white, odor peculiar, penetrating, sub-alkaline. Gills narrow, crowded, sinuate or subdecurrent, whitish. Stem equal, solid, viscid and slightly tinged with yellow below the narrow membranous ring, whitish above. Spores elliptical, 8×5µ.

Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 3–4 in. long, 6–12 lines thick.

In mixed woods. Rock City, Dutchess county. October.

It is a large fine fungus, easily known by its white and yellowish hues, its crowded gills, viscid stem and peculiar penetrating almost alkaline odor. The cuticle of the pileus is thin and soft to the touch, but it sometimes cracks longitudinally and is sometimes slightly adorned with innate fibrils. A. dehiscens is said to have a viscid stem, but it is also squamose and the pileus is yellowish-ochraceous. Peck, 44th Rep N.Y. State Bot.

Quite common in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. McIlvaine.

It loses its strong odor when cooked and is equal to other Armillaria in edibility. Unless well cooked it has a slight saponaceous flavor. This is easily overcome by a few drops of lemon juice or sherry.

54A. appendicula´ta Pk.—bearing an appendicula or small appendage. Pileus broadly convex, glabrous, whitish, often tinged with rust color or brownish rust color on the disk. Flesh white or whitish. Gills close, rounded behind, whitish. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, solid, bulbous, whitish, the veil either membranous or webby, white, commonly adhering in fragments to the margin of the pileus. Spores subelliptical, 8×5µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3.5 in. long; 5–10 lines thick.

Auburn, Ala. October. C.F. Baker.

The general appearance of this species is suggestive of Tricholoma album, but the presence of a veil separates it from that fungus and places it in the genus Armillaria. The veil, however, is often slightly lacerated or webby and adherent to the margin of the pileus. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 24.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., Angora, Pa. On decaying roots in ground. August to November. Found plentifully in resorts of other Armillaria. Edibility the same. McIlvaine.

A. pondero´sa Pk.—ponderosus, weighty, ponderous. Pileus thick, compact, convex or subcampanulate, smooth, white or yellowish, the naked margin strongly involute beneath the slightly viscid, persistent veil. Gills crowded, narrow, slightly emarginate, white inclining to cream color. Stem stout, subequal, firm, solid, coated by the veil, colored like the pileus, white and furfuraceous above the ring. Flesh white. Spores nearly globose, 4µ in diameter.

Plant 4–6 in. high. Pileus 4–6 in. broad. Stem about 1 in. thick.

Ground in woods. Copake, Columbia county. October.

The veil for a long time conceals the gills, and finally becomes lacerated and adheres in shreds or fragments to the stem and margin of the pileus. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

New England, Frost; New York, Peck, Repts. 26, 29, 41. West Virginia and Pennsylvania. Ground in woods. September to November. McIlvaine.

Professor Peck says in 26th Report: “This species has not been found since its discovery in 1872.”

Where the Armillaria mellea frequents I have often found A. ponderosa. It was plentiful at Mt. Gretna, Pa., in September, 1898. 55Young specimens are quite as edible as A. mellea, and rather more juicy.

II.—Clitocybæ. Gills not sinuate, etc.

A. mel´lea Vahl.—melleus, of the color of honey. (Plate XVI, fig. 1, p. 52.) Pileus adorned with minute tufts of brown or blackish hairs, sometimes glabrous, even or when old slightly striate on the margin. Gills adnate or slightly decurrent, white or whitish, becoming sordid with age and sometimes variegated with reddish-brown spots. Stem ringed, at length brownish toward the base. Spores elliptical, white, 8–10µ long. Peck, 48th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 9×5–6µ W.G.S.; 10×8µ B.; 8–10µ Peck.

The A. mellea is unusually prolific and is common over the United States and Europe. Specimens may be found in the spring-time, but in middle latitudes it is common from August until after light frosts. It is usually in tufts, some of which contain scores of plants and are showy over ground filled with roots, or on stumps or boles of decaying trees. It frequents dense woods and open clearings. I have seen acres of dense woodland at Mt. Gretna, Pa., so covered with it and its varieties that but few square yards were unoccupied.

A description of the typical A. mellea will rarely apply to any one plant. A combination of its variable features in one description would include something of nearly every white-spored Agaric under the sun. Yet there is something indescribable about it which once learned will unerringly betray it.

Its Caps vary from perfectly smooth, through tufts of scales and hairs, more or less dense, to matted woolliness. It may show any one of these conditions in youth and be bald in age. Some shade of yellow is the prevailing color, but this will vary from whitish to dark-purplish or reddish-brown. When water-soaked it is one color, when dry, another. Commonly the margins of the Caps are striated, sometimes they are smooth as a cymbal, and not unlike one, have a raised place or umbo in the center. Flesh white or whitish. Gills when young are white or creamy, usually running down the stem, sometimes slightly notched at attachment. They freckle in age and lose their fair complexion. The Veil or collar about the stem is as variable as fashion—thick and closely woven or flimsy as gossamer, or vanishing as the plant grows old. The 56Stems may be even as a lead pencil, or swollen like a pen-holder, or bulbous toward the base, or distorted by pressure in the tufts. It is as variable in color as the cap, usually darkening downward in hues of brown. The outside is firm and fibrous, sometimes furrowed, inside soft or hollow.

Cap 1–6 in. across. Stem 1–6 in. long, ¼-¾ in. thick.

Var. obscu´ra has the cap covered with numerous small blackish scales.

Var. fla´va has the cap yellow or reddish-yellow, but in other respects it is like the type.

Var. gla´bra has the cap smooth, otherwise like the type.

Var. radica´ta has a tapering, root-like prolongation of the stem, which penetrates the earth deeply.

Var. bulbo´sa has a distinctly bulbous base to the stem, and in this respect is the reverse of var. radicata.

Professor Peck writes: “Var. exannulata (Plate XVI, fig. 2, p. 52) has the cap smooth and even on the margin, and the stem tapering at the base. The annulus is very slight and evanescent or wholly wanting. The cap is usually about an inch broad, or a little more, and the plants grow in clusters, which sometimes contain forty or fifty individuals. It is more common farther south than it is in our state (N.Y.), and is reported to be the most common form in Maryland. This I call var. exannulata.” From Dr. Taylor, Washington, D.C.; Indiana, H.I. Miller.

To these may be added also var. al´bida Pk. in which the pileus is white or whitish.

A variety, perhaps a variation of var. bulbosa was sent to me by E. B. Sterling, Trenton, N.J., and afterward found by myself at Mt. Gretna, Pa. The Cap purplish-brown, convex, striate and light on margin, edge irregular with parts of veil attached. Flesh white, very thin. Gills decurrent, arcuate, pinkish-gray. Stem stuffed, fibrous, white above, dense floccose veil, same color as cap below, swollen toward base which is pointed, sulcate, white inside, closely clustered and some of the stems distinctly bulbous. Taste decidedly unpleasant. An intense acridity develops and increases when the juices of raw pieces are swallowed, and the salivary glands are much excited. The acridity is not lost in cooking. It simply can not be eaten. Specimens were sent by me to Professor Peck who referred it to A. mellea.

I have never seen the abortive form of Clitopilus abortivus, though 57found in many places and in great quantity, showing any part or trace of the original plant. But that a similar monstrosity occurs upon A. mellea is shown by individuals and parts of individuals of a cluster being aborted. Without such positive proof, no one would suspect either of these odd formations to be abortive of either C. abortivus or A. mellea, or any other fungus. I consider the abortive form of A. mellea far superior in substance and flavor to it or any of its varieties.

The Armillaria can not be ranked among the tender or high-flavored toadstools, yet their abundance, meaty caps and nourishing qualities place them among our most valuable food species.

The caps when chopped into small pieces make good patties and croquettes. They have an impressive flavor of their own, and offer an esculent medium for seasoning and the gravies of various meats.

A. nardos´mia Ellis—nardosmius, of the odor of nardus. (A name applied by the ancients to several plants, especially spica nardi—spikenard.) Pileus fleshy, firm, thick and compact on the disk, thin toward the margin, whitish, variegated with brown spots, with a thick, tough and separable cuticle. Flesh white. Gills crowded, subventricose, slightly emarginate, whitish. Stem solid, fibrous, not bulbous, sheathed below by the brown velvety veil, the ring narrow, spreading, uneven on the edge. Spores subglobose, 6µ in diameter.

Pileus about 3 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 4–6 lines thick.

Ground in woods, Suffolk county. September. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Several specimens from sandy grounds in pine woods, Haddonfield, N.J., were sent by me to Professor Peck and were identified by him. Plentiful at Mt. Gretna, Pa., September to frost, 1898. In mixed woods, on gravelly ground. Eaten in quantity by several persons. McIlvaine.

Cuticle of caps when dry breaking up into brownish, squamulose scales, margin involute. Gills subdecurrent. Veil thick, persistent. Stem short, subbulbous, solid. Flesh white. Very much resembles a short-stemmed Lepiota. Smell and taste strong, like almonds. Disappears in cooking.

58III.—Collybiæ. Gills adnate, stem somewhat cartilaginous.

A. mu´cida Schrad.—mucidus, slimy. Pileus commonly shining white, thin, almost transparent, hemispherical then expanded, obtuse, more or less radiato-wrinkled, smeared over with a thick tenacious gluten; margin striate when thinner. Stem 1½-3 in. long, 1–2 lines thick at the apex, thickened at the base, stuffed, thin, rigid, curved ascending, smooth, white, but sooty scaly at the base when most perfectly developed. Ring inserted at the apex of the stem, bent downward and glued close to the stem, furrowed, the white border again erect, with a swollen and entire margin, which sometimes becomes dingy brown. Gills rounded behind, obtuse, adhering to the stem and striato-decurrent, distant, broad, lax, mucid, always shining white.

Very variable in stature, from 1 in. (when of this size the stem is almost equal) to as much as 6 in. broad. The color of the pileus varies gray, fuliginous, olivaceous. The gills sometimes become yellow, but only from disease. Sometimes solitary, sometimes a few are joined in a cespitose manner at the base. Stevenson.

Spores elliptical, 15–16×8–9µ Massee; 17×14µ W.G.S.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; Maryland, Miss Banning.

West Virginia mountains, 1882, Haddonfield, N.J., 1891–94, on beech trees and roots. McIlvaine.

Commonly considered esculent in Europe.

Dirt adheres so tenaciously to it that it is difficult to clean. This, however, occurs only when the fungus grows from roots and pushes its way up through covering earth. When growing from trees it is attractive and of good quality.

Should be chopped fine and well cooked.

Gr.—a hair, a fringe.
(Plate XIX.)

Section of tricholoma.

Pileus symmetrical, generally fleshy, never truly umbilicate, seldom umbonate. Veil absent or appearing only as fibrils or down on the margin of the pileus. Gills sinuate (the small sudden curve near the stem always apparent in the young plant), sometimes with a slightly decurrent tooth. Stem central, usually stout, fleshy-fibrous, without a bark-like skin. Flesh continuous with that of the pileus. Ring and Volva absent. Spores white or dingy.

But one is known to be poisonous. Some are acrid or unpleasant in flavor. With one exception all grow on the ground in pastures and woods, appearing from May to late in the autumn.

Gills generally white or dingy, frequently spotted or stained. The pileus may be smooth or adorned with fibrous or downy scales, dry, moist, viscid or water-soaked.

The distinguishing feature of Tricholoma is the sinuate gills. In Collybia the stem bears a distinct bark-like skin; in Clitocybe the gills are never sinuate; species of Pleurotus are distinguished by growing on wood only, and Paxillus by their strongly-incurved margin and anastomosing gills.

In cooking Tricholoma consistency must be the guide to plan and time. The tougher varieties require to be cut into small pieces and to be well cooked, while the brittle and delicate varieties will cook quickly. Many of them make excellent soups.

A. Pileus Viscid, Fibrillose, Scaly Or Downy, Not Water-Soaked.

Stem fibrillose from the remains of the adnate universal veil.

60Limacina (limas, a slug or snail, slimy). Page 61.

Cuticle of pileus viscid when moist, innately fibrillose or scaly, but not lacerated; flesh of pileus thick, firm; margin almost naked.

* Gills not discolored, nor becoming reddish.

** Gills discolored, usually spotted with reddish-brown.

Genuina. Page 67.

Cuticle of the pileus never moist or viscid; torn into downy or floccose scales. Flesh soft, not water-soaked; margin involute and slightly downy at first.

* Gills not changing color, nor spotted with red or black.

** Gills becoming reddish or gray, the edge at last generally with reddish or black spots.

Rigida (rigeo, to be stiff). Page 74.

Pileus rigid, hard, somewhat cartilaginous when fleshy, very fragile when thin, cuticle rigid, granulated or broken up when dry into smooth scales, not torn into fibrils. Young specimens occur which are fibrillose from the veil, not from laceration of the cuticle.

* Gills white or pallid, not becoming spotted with red or gray.

** Gills becoming reddish, grayish or spotted.

Sericella (sericeus, silky). Page 74.

Pileus first slightly silky, soon becoming smooth, very dry, neither moist, viscid, water-soaked, nor distinctly scaly; rather thin, opaque, absorbing moisture, but is the same color as the gills. Stem fibrous, by which the smaller species resembling Collybia may be distinguished.

* Gills broad, rather thick, somewhat distant.

**:sericella2 Gills narrow, thin, crowded.

B. Pileus Even, Smooth, Not Downy Nor Scaly, Not Viscid.

In rainy weather moist; when very young pruinose (but rarely conspicuously) from the universal veil. Flesh soft and spongy or very thin when it is water-soaked.

Guttata (gutta, a drop). Page 76.

Pileus fleshy, soft, fragile, marked with drop-like spots or rivulose. Appearing in spring, rarely in autumn.

61Cespitose, in troops or often in rings.

* Gills whitish.

** Gills becoming reddish or smoky-gray.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.            Plate XVIII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1–2. Tricholoma personatum, 79 5. Tricholoma columbetta, 68
3. Tricholoma russula, 65 6. Tricholoma humile, 81
4. Tricholoma terreum, 71
Spongiosa (spongia, a sponge). Page 78.

Pileus compact, then spongy, obtuse, even, smooth, moist but not hygrophanous; firm, growing in troops late in the autumn. Stem stout, base usually thickened, spongy fibrous. Gills at length decurrent but sinuate, by which character they are distinguished from Clitocybe.

* Gills not discolored.

** Gills discolored.

Hygrophana (Gr., wet; to appear). Page 80.

Pileus thin, somewhat umbonate; flesh at length soft, watery. Stem rootless, containing a pith, entirely fibrous.

Flesh not exceeding in depth the width of the not broad, thin gills; thinnest toward the margin, hence somewhat umbonate. Color of the pileus either moist or dry, very variable in the same species. Pileus sometimes pulverulent from the persistence of the veil in dry weather.

* Gills whitish, not spotted.

** Gills more or less violet, gray or smoky. Not represented.

Series A.
Pileus Viscid or Fibrillose, Downy Or Scaly.
I.—Lima´cina. Viscous when moist.
* Gills not becoming discolored, nor becoming reddish.

T. eques´tre Linn.—equestre, belonging to a horseman or knight, from distinguished appearance. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex becoming expanded, obtuse, pale-yellowish, more or less reddish tinged, the disk and central scales often darker, the margin naked, often wavy. Flesh white or tinged with yellow. Gills rounded behind, close, nearly free, sulphur-yellow. Stem stout, solid, pale-yellow or white, white within. Spores 6.5–8×4–5µ.

Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 6–10 lines thick.

62Pine woods, especially in sandy soil. Albany county. September to November.

This is a noble species but not plentiful in our state (N.Y.). The pileus is said to become greenish very late in the season. The stem, in the typical form, is described as sulphur-yellow in color, but with us it is more often white. The scales of the disk are sometimes wanting. In our plant the taste is slightly farinaceous at first, but it is soon unpleasant.

Var. pinastreti A. and S. is a slender form having a thin, even pileus, thinner and more narrow gills and a more slender stem. A. crassus Scop., A. aureus Schaeff., and A. flavovirens Pers. are recorded as synonyms of this species. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Professor Peck later says in “Mushrooms and Their Use,” p. 52: “I confidently add it to the list of edible species.”

New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. In pine forests and groves. September to frost. McIlvaine.

I have eaten it since 1883. All disagreeable odor about T. equestre (which I have seldom noticed) disappears upon cooking. The substance is rather tough, but good.

T. coryphæ´um Fr.—chief, leader. From its distinguished appearance. Pileus very fleshy but not compact, convex then plane, obtuse, viscid, yellowish, streaked with small brownish scales. Stem solid, attenuated upward. Gills emarginate, crowded, white, edge yellow.

Large and of striking appearance. In shady beech woods.

Pronounced a good edible by the Boston Myc. Club.

The color of the plants is given as greenish-yellow. Bull. Boston Myc. Club, 1896.

T. ustale Fr.—uro, to burn. Pileus fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, even, smooth, viscid, bay-brownish. Stem stuffed, equal, dry, rufo-fibrillose, apex naked, silky, nearly smooth. Gills emarginate, crowded, white, at length with reddish spots. Cooke.

Chiefly in pine woods.

Pileus 3 in. Stem 2–3 in. long, about ½ in. thick.

Spores 5×8µ W.G.S.; 7–8×5µ Massee.

North Carolina, Curtis, pine woods, Schweinitz; Kansas, Cragin. Massachusetts. Edible. Boston Myc. Club, Bull. No. 5.

63T. resplen´dens Fr.—shining brightly. Pileus fleshy, convex then nearly plane, even, bare, viscid, white, sometimes hyaline-spotted or yellowish on the disk, shining when dry, the margin straight. Flesh white, taste mild, odor pleasant. Gills nearly free when young, then emarginate, somewhat crowded, rather thick, entire, white. Stem solid, bare, subbulbous, even, dry, white. Spores 8×4µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 4–8 lines thick.

Thin woods. Catskill mountains. September. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., in mixed woods. October and November. McIlvaine.

It is of excellent flavor, consistency and food value.

T. transmu´tans Pk.—changing. Pileus convex, nearly bare, viscid when moist, brownish, reddish-brown or tawny-red, usually paler on the margin. Flesh white, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills narrow, close, sometimes branched, whitish or pale yellowish, becoming dingy or reddish-spotted when old. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, bare or slightly silky-fibrillose, stuffed or hollow, whitish, often marked with reddish stains or becoming reddish-brown toward the base, white within. Spores subglobose, 5µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 3–4 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Woods. The plants are often cespitose.

I suspect that Agaricus frumentaceus of Curtis’s catalogue belongs to this species. Both the pileus and stem, as well as the gills, are apt to assume darker hues with age or in drying, and this character suggested the specific name. The species is classed as edible. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Curtis catalogues T. frumentaceum as edible.

T. transmutans is reported from many states. It has a mealy taste and odor. Wherever it is found it is a valuable food species.

T. sejunc´tum Sow.—separated; from the peculiar manner in which the gills separate from the stem. Pileus fleshy, convex then expanded, umbonate, slightly viscid, streaked with innate brown or blackish fibrils, whitish or yellowish, sometimes greenish-yellow. Flesh white, fragile. Gills broad, subdistant, rounded behind or emarginate, white. Stem solid, stout, often irregular, white. Spores subglobose, 6.5µ.

Pileus 1–3 in. broad. Stem 1–3 in. long, 4–8 lines thick.

64Mixed woods. Suffolk county, N.Y. September.

The plants referred to this species are not uncommon on Long Island, growing on sandy soil in woods of oak and pine. They are usually more or less irregular and the pileus becomes fragile. It is quite variable in color, sometimes approaching a smoky-brown hue, again being nearly white. The taste of the typical form is said to be bitter, but the flavor of our plant is scarcely bitter. In other respects, however, it agrees well with the description of the species. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 6µ. W.G.S.

Flesh is tender. Cooked, of good body and peculiar but pleasant flavor. A valuable species, baked, scalloped, fried.

T. terri´ferum Pk.—terra, earth; fero, to bear. Pileus broadly convex or nearly plane, irregular, often wavy on the margin, glabrous, viscid, pale-yellow, generally soiled with adhering particles of earth carried up in its growth. Flesh white, with no decided odor. Gills thin, crowded, slightly adnexed, white, not spotted or changeable. Stem equal, short, solid, white, floccose-squamulose at the apex. Spores minute, subglobose, 3µ.

Pileus 3–4 in. broad. Stem 1–1.5 in. long, 6–8 lines thick.

Woods. Catskill mountains. September. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. August to frost. McIlvaine.

Not inviting, hard to clean, nevertheless edible and good.

T. portento´sum Fr.—portentosus, strange, monstrous. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, sooty, livid, sometimes violaceous, fleshy, but thin in comparison with the stoutness of the stem, convexo-plane, somewhat umbonate, unequal and turned up, viscid, streaked with black lines (innate fibrils), but otherwise even and smooth, the very thin margin naked. Flesh not compact, white, fragile. Stem commonly 3 in. often 4–6 in. long, 1 in. thick, stout, solid, the whole remarkably fibrous-fleshy, somewhat equal, naked, but fibrilloso-striate, white; the base, which is occasionally attenuato-rooted, villous. Gills rounded, almost free, 3–4 lines to as much as 1 in. broad, distant, white, but varying, becoming pale-gray or yellow. Fries.

65Spores 4–5×4µ K.; 5×4µ W.G.S

West Virginia, 1882; New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in woods and open places. May to November. McIlvaine.

It is one of the first toadstools I experimented upon. I have been constant to it. Its caps fried in butter are unsurpassed.

** Gills discolored, usually spotted with reddish-brown.

T. fla´vo-brun´neum Fr.—flavus, yellow; brunneus, brown. Pileus fleshy, conical, then convex, at length expanded, subumbonate, viscid, clothed with streak-like scales. Stem hollow, somewhat ventricose, fibrillose, at first viscid, yellowish within, tip naked. Gills emarginate, decurrent, crowded, yellowish, then reddish. Fries.

Odor that of new meal. Stem 3–5 in. long, ½ in. thick, dull-reddish or brownish. Pileus 3–6 in. broad, disk darker, dingy dull-red or reddish-brown.

North Carolina, Curtis; damp woods, A. fulvus, Schweinitz.

Edible, Cooke, 1891.

T. rus´sula Schaeff.—reddish. (Plate XVIII, fig. 3, p. 60.) Pileus fleshy, convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, obtuse, viscid, even or dotted with granular squamules on the disk, red or incarnate, the margin usually paler, involute and minutely downy in the young plant. Flesh white, sometimes tinged with red, taste mild. Gills sub-distant, rounded behind or subdecurrent, white, often becoming red-spotted with age. Stem solid, firm, whitish or rose-red, squamulose at the apex. Spores elliptical, 7×4µ.

Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 6–8 lines thick.

Mixed woods. Albany. Cattaraugus and Steuben counties. September and October.

According to the description the typical plant has the pileus incarnate and the stem rosy-red, but in the American plant the pileus is generally more clearly red and the stem white, though this is often varied by reddish stains. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mixed woods. August until after frost. At Mt. Gretna, Pa. 1897–1898 the patches were large, generous yielders.

Edible, Cooke; edible, Cordier, Roques.

T. russula is a dressy fungus and has a fashion of its own. The mottlings 66upon its cap, gill and stem, in shades of red, subdued though they be, give it a handsome personality distinct from any other.

The species is a variable one in its minor markings. When moisture is prevalent the caps of all are viscid. Both young and old are often cracked. Stems frequently not squamulose at apex, frequently rosy when young, often flattened. The fibrous interior of the stem and its fibrous connection with the flesh of the cap are very marked. Gills emarginate in youth as well as in age. It is solitary, gregarious, occasionally bunched.

An excellent fungus, a free late grower, meaty, easily cooked, and of fine flavor.

T. frumenta´ceum Bull.—frumentum, made of corn. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, whitish or clay-color and variegated dull red, truly fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, viscous, dry in fine weather, even, smooth. Flesh white. Stem 3 in. long, ½ in. thick, solid, equal, fibrillose when dry, whitish. Gills rounded, somewhat crowded, rather broad, white, at length spotted-red.

Wholly becoming pale white, but the stem and pileus are alike marked-red, and the gills are at length reddish, wherefore, as well as for the strong smell of new meal, it is undoubtedly nearest to A. pessundatus. When full grown it has all the appearance of Entoloma. On the ground. Stevenson.


North Carolina, Curtis. Edible. Porcher says Dr. Curtis was the first to declare it edible.

T. pessunda´tum Fr.—pessum dare, bent downward. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex, very obtuse, repand, viscid, granulose or spotted. Stem solid, firm, at first ovato-bulbous, everywhere villose with whitish scales. Gills emarginate, nearly free, crowded, white, at length spotted with red.

In pine woods. Odor and taste mealy.

Pileus bay, reddish, paler at the margin. Stature of Ag. equestris. Fries.

Spores 5×2.5µ Massee; very minute, globose, 2–3µ C.B.P.

Reckoned edible, but very rare. Stevenson.

California, H. and M.

67II.—Genui´na. Cuticle of pileus torn into downy or fibrillose scales.

* Gills not changing color nor becoming spotted.

(Plate XX.)

Tricholoma decorosum.
Two-thirds natural size.

T. decoro´sum Pk.—decorus, decorous. Pileus firm, at first hemispherical, then convex or nearly plane, adorned with numerous brownish sub-squarrose tomentose scales, dull ochraceous or tawny. Flesh white. Gills close, rounded and slightly emarginate behind, the edge slightly scalloped. Stem solid, equal or slightly tapering upward, white and smooth at the top, elsewhere tomentose-scaly and colored like the pileus. Spores broadly elliptical, 5×4µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 2–4 lines thick.

Decaying trunks of trees. Catskill mountains and Alleghany county. September and October.

A rare but beautiful species. It is often cespitose. It departs from the character of the genus in growing on decaying wood. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Tricholoma decorosum is not rare in Pennsylvania. I have found it at Angora, Philadelphia and in Chester county, Pa., growing in clusters and singly. At first sight one might take it for one of the many forms of Armillaria, but even cursory examination shows the difference.

It is of good consistency and flavor, having a decided mushroom taste.

T. flaves´cens Pk.—pale yellow. Pileus convex, firm, often irregular, dry, slightly silky becoming bare, sometimes cracking into minute scales on the disk, whitish or pale yellow. Flesh whitish or yellowish. Gills close, white or pale-yellow, emarginate, floccose on the edge. Stems firm, solid, often unequal, central or sometimes eccentric, single or cespitose, colored like the pileus. Spores subglobose, 5µ in diameter.

68Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 1–2.5 in. long, 4–6 lines thick.

Pine stumps. Albany and Rensselaer counties. October.

The species seems to be related to T. rutilans but has not the red or purplish tomentum of that fungus. It, like T. decorosum, is always lignicolous. T. rutilans is sometimes so. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Frequently found in New Jersey, Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Pine stumps. September to frost. McIlvaine.

The flesh compares with that of T. rutilans, and makes an equally good dish.

T. gran´de Pk. Pileus thick, firm, hemispherical, becoming convex, often irregular, dry, scaly, somewhat silky-fibrillose toward the margin, white, the margin at first involute. Flesh grayish-white, taste farinaceous. Gills close, rounded behind, adnexed, white. Stem stout, solid, fibrillose, at first tapering upward, then equal or but slightly thickened at the base, pure white. Spores elliptical, 9–11×6µ.

Pileus 4–5 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 1–1.5 in. thick.

Among fallen leaves in woods. Cattaraugus county. September.

The plants are often cespitose, and then the pileus is more or less irregular and the gills somewhat lacerated. The species is related to T. columbetta, from which its larger size, constantly scaly pileus, more cespitose mode of growth, larger spores and farinaceous taste separate it. The scales of the pileus are brownish, and the pileus itself is sometimes slightly dingy on the disk. The young margin is pure white like the stem, and both it and the upper part of the stem are sometimes studded with drops of moisture.

The plant was found on trial to be edible, but not of first quality. The flesh is not very tender, nor the flavor captivating even in young specimens. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mixed woods. August to frost. McIlvaine.

Gross when old. Young specimens of medium quality and flavor.

T. columbet´ta Fr.—columba, a pigeon. (Plate XVIII, fig. 5, p. 60.) Pileus convex, then nearly plane, fleshy, obtuse, rigid, somewhat flexuous, dry, at first bare, then silky-fibrillose, becoming even or scaly, white, the margin at first involute, more or less tomentose. Flesh white, 69taste mild. Gills close, emarginate, thin, white. Stem stout, solid, unequal, nearly bare, white. Spores 7–8×4.5µ.

The species is very variable and the following varieties have been described:

Var. A. Pileus nearly always repand or lobed, at first bare, even, at length cracked-scaly, often reddish spotted, the margin when young inflexed, tomentose. Stem obese, even, unequal, swollen, an inch thick. The typical form.

Birch wood among mosses.

Var. B. Pileus subflexuous, silky-fibrillose, at length scaly, sometimes dingy-brown spotted, the margin scarcely tomentose. Stem longer, equal or slightly narrowed at the base.

Bushy places. Intermediate between A and C.

Var. C. Pileus regular, flattened, evidently fibrillose, sometimes spotted with blue, four inches broad. Stem equal, cylindrical, fibrillose-striate, four inches long.

Beech woods. A showy variety so diverse from variety A that it might be regarded as a distinct species, did not variety B connect them, and so much resemble both that it might with equal propriety be referred to either.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 1–4 in. long, 3–12 lines thick.

Woods and pastures. Albany county, N.Y.

It may be distinguished from T. album by its mild taste. It is recorded as edible. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Edible, Curtis, Cooke, Stevenson.

This much varied Tricholoma is as varied in its habitat. I have found it on vacant lots in Philadelphia, in mixed woods at Devon, Pa., and in the forests of the West Virginia mountains, and eaten it since 1881.

It cooks readily and is of mild, agreeable flavor.

T. ru´tilans Schaeff.—rutilo, to be reddish. Pileus fleshy, campanulate becoming plane, dry, at first covered with a dark-red or purplish tomentum then somewhat scaly, the margin thin, at first involute. Flesh yellow. Gills crowded, rounded, yellow, thickened and downy on the edge. Stem somewhat hollow, nearly equal or slightly thickened or bulbous at the base, soft, pale-yellow variegated with red or purplish floccose scales. Spores 6.5–8×6.5µ.


(Plate XXI.)

Tricholoma rutilans.
About three-eights natural size.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 5–8 lines thick.

On or about pine stumps, rarely on hemlock trunks. July to November. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores subglobose, 5–6µ diameter Massee; 6–8×6µ B.; 6×9µ W.G.S.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. May to November. McIlvaine.

Quite common in West Virginia mountains and in pine woods of New Jersey. The Boston Mycological Club reports it found in quantity in Massachusetts. The flesh when cooked is gummy, like the marshmallow confection. It is excellent.

** Gills becoming reddish or gray, etc.

T. vacci´num Pers.—vacca, a cow. Pileus fleshy, convex or campanulate, becoming nearly plane, umbonate, dry, floccose-scaly, reddish-brown, the margin involute, tomentose. Flesh white. Gills adnexed, subdistant, whitish, then reddish or reddish-spotted. Stem equal, hollow, covered with a fibrillose bark, naked at the apex, pale reddish.

Spores subglobose, 6µ.

Pileus 1–3 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 4–6 lines thick.

Under or near coniferous trees. Greene and Essex counties. September and October. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Recorded as edible by Gillet.

Plentiful in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, West Virginia. Have eaten it since 1885. Fair.

T. fuligi´neum Pk.—fuligineus, resembling soot. Pileus convex or nearly plane, obtuse, often irregular, dry, minutely scaly, sooty-brown. Flesh grayish, odor and taste farinaceous. Gills subdistant, uneven on the edge, ash-colored becoming blackish in drying. Stem short, solid, equal, bare, ash-colored. Spores oblong-elliptical, 8×4µ.

71Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad. Stem 1–1.5 in. long, 3–5 lines thick.

Among mosses in open places. Greene county. September. Rare. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Quite common in Pennsylvania and New Jersey on mossy wood margins. It is of fair quality and flavor.

(Plate XXII.)

Tricholoma terreum.
One-half natural size.

T. ter´reum Schaeff.—the earth. (Plate XVIII, fig. 4, p. 60.) Pileus fleshy, thin, soft, convex, campanulate or nearly plane, obtuse or umbonate, innately fibrillose or floccose-scaly, ashy-brown, grayish-brown or mouse color. Flesh white or whitish. Gills adnexed, subdistant, more or less eroded on the edge, white becoming ash-colored. Stem equal, varying from solid to stuffed or hollow, fibrillose, white or whitish. Spores broadly elliptical, 6–7×4–5µ.

Pileus 1–3 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 2–4 lines thick.

Woods. Albany, Rensselaer and Cattaraugus counties. September to November. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 7×5.5µ Morgan; 5–6µ, Massee; 6–7×4µ K.; 6µ W.G.S.

Eaten by Professor Peck. Eaten by McIlvaine. Quality fair.

T. ter´reum Schaeff.—var. fra´grans Pk. Pileus convex or nearly plane, dry, innately-fibrillose or minutely floccose-scaly, grayish-brown or blackish-brown. Gills rather broad, adnexed, whitish or ash-colored. Stem equal, solid or stuffed, rarely hollow, whitish. Spores broadly elliptical, 6–7×4–5µ.

The Fragrant tricholoma has a distinct farinaceous odor and flavor. In other respects it closely resembles the Earth-colored tricholoma of which it is considered a mere variety. The typical European plant is said to be without odor or nearly so and has not been classed among the edible species by European writers. But our variety, though not high-flavored, is fairly good and entirely harmless. Its cap varies considerably in color but is some shade of gray or brown. Its center is without any prominence or very bluntly prominent, and its surface is 72commonly very obscurely marked with innate fibrils or in small plants may have very small flocculose tufts or scales. The flesh is whitish as also are the gills, though these sometimes assume a more decided grayish hue. They are rather broad and loose and sometimes uneven on the edge or even split transversely. They are usually deeply excavated next the stem and attached to it by a narrow part. The stem is whitish or slightly shaded with the color of the cap. It often has a few longitudinal fibrils, but never any collar. It may be either solid, stuffed or spongy within, or in large specimens, hollow.

The plants grow gregariously or sometimes in tufts on the ground under or near trees or in thin woods, especially of pine, or in mixed woods. The caps vary from 1–4 in. broad, and the stems from 1–3 in. long and from 2–6 lines thick. The plants occur in autumn. In Europe there is a variety of this species which also has a farinaceous odor, but it differs from our plant in having reddish edges to the gills. It is called variety orirubens. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. fragrans is plentiful and gregarious among New Jersey pines, October to frost. Other varieties are often found. Specimens found by me at Mt. Gretna, Pa., and sent to Professor Peck who identified them as var. fragrans Pk., were decidedly umbonate. Gills were easily separable from cap.

Var. fragrans is a favorite. It is pleasant to many, even raw. Plentiful salting while cooking develops a high and exquisite flavor.

T. fumes´cens Pk.—smoky. Pileus convex or expanded, dry, clothed with a very minute appressed tomentum, whitish. Gills narrow, crowded, rounded behind, whitish or pale cream color, changing to smoky-blue or blackish where bruised. Stem short, cylindrical, whitish. Spores oblong-elliptical, 5–6.5µ.

Pileus 1 in. broad. Stem 1–1.5 in. high, 2–3 lines thick.

Woods. Columbia county. October. Rare.

The species is remarkable for the smoky or blackish hue assumed by the gills when bruised and also in drying. It is apparently related to T. immundum Berk., but in that species the whole plant becomes blackish when bruised, and the gills are marked with transverse lines and tinged with pink. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November, 1898. McIlvaine.

The size of cap sometimes attains to 3 in and stem to ½ in. in thickness. 73Taste at first farinaceous then sweetish. The caps are of excellent quality and flavor.

(Plate XXIII.)

Tricholoma imbricatum.
One-half natural size.

T. imbrica´tum Fr.—covered with tiles. Pileus fleshy, compact, convex or nearly plane, obtuse, dry, innately scaly, fibrillose toward the margin, brown or reddish-brown, the margin thin, at first slightly inflexed and pubescent then naked. Flesh firm, thick, white. Gills slightly emarginate, almost adnate, rather close, white when young, becoming reddish or spotted. Stem solid, firm, nearly equal, fibrillose, white and mealy or pulverulent at the top, elsewhere colored like the pileus. Spores 6.5 × 4–5µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 4–10 lines thick. Under or near coniferous trees. Greene and Essex counties. September and October.

This is an edible species. It has a farinaceous odor and taste when fresh. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Closely resembles T. transmutans in size, color and taste. It is, however, easily separated by its dry cap and solid stem. Peck.

Plentiful in pine woods of New Jersey, and among hemlocks in West Virginia. Mt. Gretna, Pa., under pines. October and November, 1898. McIlvaine.

Specimens found at Mt. Gretna had caps dark umber when young, and margin incurved to stem. Gills yellowish. Stem up to 4 in. long, stout, solid, swollen at base, and having a short pointed ending, firm, fibrillose, white. Flavor farinaceous.

Flesh of good texture and taste.

74III.—Rig´ida. Pileus rigid, cuticle broken up into smooth scales, etc.
* Gills white or pallid, not becoming spotted with red or gray.
Not represented.
** Gills becoming reddish or grayish, spotted, etc.

T. sapona´ceum Fr.—sapo, soap. Strong, smelling of an undefinable soap. Cap 2–4 in. across, involute at first, convex then flattened, dry, glabrous, moist in wet weather, never viscid, brownish, more or less spotted or having the skin cracked into scales, occasionally covered with dark fibrils. Flesh firm, whitish becoming reddish when wounded. Gills emarginate, with a hooked tooth (uncinate) thin, distant, pale white. Stem 2–4 in. long, about ½ in. thick, often unequal, base sometimes long and rooting, usually smooth, at times reticulated with black fibrils, or is scaly. Distasteful.

The species is variable in size and color. Stevenson remarks: “Scarcely any species has been more confounded with others.” It may always be safely distinguished by its odor, by its distant gills, by the smooth cuticle of the cap cracking into scales, and by the change of color to reddish when bruised.

West Virginia mountains. August to frost. 1881–85. New Jersey, Pennsylvania. McIlvaine.

This fungus is not extremely unpleasant when eaten—like T. sulphureum, but no one will care to eat it. There is nothing in the flavor to recommend it or to inspire a cultivation of taste for it.

IV.—Sericel´la. Pileus slightly silky, soon smooth, etc.
* Gills broad, rather thick, somewhat distant.

T. sulphu´reum Bull.—sulphur, brimstone. Odor strong, fetid or like gas tar. Cap 1–4 in. across, subglobose, then convex and plane, slightly umbonate, sometimes depressed, fleshy, margin at first involute. Color dingy or reddish sulphur-yellow, at first silky, becoming smooth or minutely tomentose. Flesh thick, yellow. Gills rather thick, narrowed behind, emarginate or acutely adnate, sometimes appearing arcuate from shape of cap. Stem 2–4 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, equal or 75slightly bulbous, often curved, smooth striate, sulphur-yellow, stuffed, fibrous or hollow, yellow within, at times having yellow fibrous roots.

Spores 9–10×5µ Massee.

Very variable in size. Gregarious, common in mixed woods.

West Virginia, 1881. West Philadelphia, 1886. McIlvaine.

When quite young T. sulphureum is showy and inviting. Its smell is discouraging, its taste forbidding. No amount of cooking removes its unpleasant flavor. I have tried to eat enough of it to test its qualities, but was satisfied after strenuous efforts to mark it INEDIBLE.

T. chrysenteroi´des Pk.—like gold. Pileus fleshy, convex or plane, not at all umbonate, firm, dry, glabrous or slightly silky, pale-yellow or buff, becoming dingy with age, the margin sometimes reflexed, flesh pale-yellow, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills rather close, emarginate, yellowish, becoming dingy or pallid with age, marked with transverse veinlets along the upper edge, the interspaces veined. Stem equal, firm, solid, bare, fibrous-striate, yellowish without and within. Spores elliptical, 8–10×5–6µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–4 lines thick.

Woods. Lewis and Cattaraugus counties. September.

Nearly allied to T. chrysenterum, but separable by the gills, which are somewhat veiny and not free, by the entire absence of an umbo and by its farinaceous odor and taste. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Frequently found at Angora, and in Woodland Cemetery, West Philadelphia.

Edible. Fair flavor and good quality.

T. o´picum Fr.—uncouth. Pileus 1–1½ in. across. Flesh rather thin, becoming grayish; convex, then expanded, obtusely-umbonate, at length usually upturned and split, very dry, even at first, then minutely scaly, gray. Gills broadly emarginate, ventricose, rather thick, scarcely distant, hoary. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, equal, fibrillose, becoming almost glabrous, pallid then grayish, stuffed. Massee.

Among moss, in pine woods, etc.

Inodorous. Somewhat resembling T. saponaceum, but distinguished by the absence of smell.

Waretown, N.J. Under pines and open places in pine woods. August to September, 1889. McIlvaine.

76When wet the caps become darker and have a mottled appearance. They are tender, but rather tasteless. The species serves to make quantity when cooked with others of higher flavor.

T. pipera´tum Pk.—piper, pepper. Pileus rather thin, firm, dry, convex, obtuse or subumbonate, virgate with innate brownish fibrils, varying in color from grayish-brown to blackish-brown, sometimes with greenish or yellowish tints. Flesh white or whitish, taste acrid. Gills broad, close, rounded behind, adnexed, whitish or yellowish. Stem generally short, equal, solid, silky, slightly mealy or pruinose at the top, white or slightly tinged with yellow. Spores elliptic, 6–7µ long, 5µ broad. Pileus 4–7 cm. broad. Stem 5–7 cm. long, 6–12 mm. thick.

The central part of the pileus is sometimes a little darker than the rest. The peppery or acrid taste is very distinct and remains in the mouth many minutes. This and the innately fibrillose character of the pileus are distinguishing characters of the species. The plants appear from September to November. Peck, Torr. Bull., Vol. 26.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. October to November, 1898, on damp ground among moss. McIlvaine.

Cap up to 3 in. across, bell-shaped, then convex, depressed in center and undulate, light-brown, darker toward center, dry, minutely fibrillose. Flesh thick, white, thin toward margin. Gills emarginate, unequal, not forked. Stem 1½-2 in. long, hard, equal or enlarging toward base, white, silky, striate.

Though peppery raw, this Tricholoma is of good substance and flavor when cooked.

B. Pileus Even, Smooth, Not Downy, Scaly, Nor Viscid, Etc.
V.—Gutta´ta. Pileus marked with drop-like spots or rivulose.

* Gills whitish.

T. gambo´sum Fr.—gambosus, swelling near the hoof. Pileus 3–4 in. and more broad, becoming pale-tan, fleshy, hemispherico-convex, then flattened, obtuse, undulated and bent backward, even, smooth, but spotted as with drops, at length widely cracked (not, however, torn into squamules), the margin at the first involute and tomentose. Flesh thick, soft, fragile, white. Stem 2 in. and more long, ½-1 in. thick, solid, fleshy-firm, almost equal, often curved-ascending at the base, white, 77downy at the apex. Gills rounded or emarginato-adnexed, with a somewhat decurrent tooth and when old sinuato-decurrent, crowded, ventricose, 2–3 lines broad, whitish. Fries.

Odor pleasant, of new meal. Often forming large rings or clusters. A whitish form must not be confounded with T. albellus.

Spores 13×11µ W.G.S.; 13–14×8–9µ Massee; 13×10µ Cooke.

Angora, Philadelphia. Chester and Lebanon county, Pa. McIlvaine. Fair.

** Gills becoming reddish or smoky-gray.

T. tigri´num Schaeff.—spotted like a tiger. Pileus 2 in. broad, pallid-brown, variegated with crowded and darker dingy-brown spots, compactly fleshy, convex then expanded, obtuse, repand. Flesh thick, firm, white, unchangeable, but thin at the involute margin. Stem 1 in. long and thick, very compact, solid, pruinate, white. Gills rounded behind, at length decurrent with a tooth, crowded, narrow, white, at length darker.

Solitary or cespitose. Very distinguished, obese, and without any marked smell of new meal. In fir woods and open grassy ground. Rare. June to July. Stevenson.

Edible, Cooke, Fries.

T. albel´lum Fr.—albus, white. Pileus about 3 in. broad, becoming pale-white, passing into gray when dry, fleshy, thick at the disk, thinner at the sides, conical then convex, gibbous when expanded, when in vigor moist on the surface, spotted (mottled) as with scales, the thin margin naked. Flesh soft, floccose, white, unchangeable. Stem curt, 1½-2 in. long, 1 in. thick at the base, reaching ½ in. toward the apex, solid, fleshy-compact, ovato-bulbous (conical to the middle, cylindrical above the middle), fibrillose-striate, white. Gills very much attenuated behind, not emarginate, becoming broad in front, very crowded, quite entire, white. Fries.

Spores elliptical, 6–7×4µ Massee; ovoid, 3µ W.G.S.; ovoid, 3µ Cooke.

Pileus not becoming yellow. Odor weak when fresh, taste pleasant, almost that of cooked flesh. There are two forms: one larger, solitary, another smaller, connato-cespitose, quite as in A. albellus Sow. It is often confounded with smaller forms of A. gambosus. Stevenson.

North Carolina, Curtis. Damp woods. Edible.

78VI.—SPONGIO´SA. Pileus compact then spongy, smooth, moist.
* Gills not discolored.

T. vires´cens Pk.—viresco, to grow green. Pileus convex or nearly plane, sometimes centrally depressed, moist, bare, dingy-green, the margin sometimes wavy or lobed. Gills close, gradually narrowed toward the outer extremity, rounded or slightly emarginate at the inner, white. Stem subequal, stuffed or hollow, thick but brittle, whitish, sometimes tinged with green. Spores broadly elliptical, 5×4µ.

Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 3–4 in. long, 6–12 lines thick.

Thin woods. Essex county. July.

The dull smoky-green hue of the pileus is the distinguishing feature of this species. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Quite common in West Virginia, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. July to October. McIlvaine.

Edible. Tastes somewhat like many Russulæ, when cooked. Flavor good.

T. fumidel´lum Pk.—smoky. Pileus convex, then expanded, subumbonate, bare, moist, dingy-white or clay-color clouded with brown, the disk or umbo generally smoky-brown. Gills crowded, subventricose, whitish. Stem equal, bare, solid, whitish. Spores minute, subglobose, 4.5×4µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1.5–2.5 in. long, 2–3 lines thick.

Woods. Albany county and Catskill mountains. September and October.

The stem splits easily and the pileus becomes paler in drying. It sometimes becomes cracked in areas. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

On ground. Mt. Gretna. October and November. 1897. McIlvaine.

The species was plentiful among the leaf mold, growing from the ground in mixed woods.

The caps are delicate in substance and flavor.

T. leucoceph´alum Fr. Gr.—white; head. Pileus 1½-2 in. across, convex then plane, even, moist, smooth, but when young covered with a satiny down; water-soaked after rain. Flesh thin, tough, white. Gills rounded behind and almost free, white. Stem up to 2 in. long, ¼ in. 79thick, exterior hard, shining, fibrous; interior hollow but solid at base which is attenuated and rooting, twisted. Smell strong of new meal. Taste pleasant.

Spores 9–10×7–8µ.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Grassy woods and borders. October to November, 1898. McIlvaine.

Quite common. The caps are excellent.

T. al´bum Schaeff.—albus, white. Pileus fleshy, tough, convex, becoming plane or depressed, obtuse, very dry, even, glabrous, white, sometimes yellowish on the disk, rarely wholly yellowish, the margin at first involute. Flesh white, taste acrid or bitter. Gills emarginate, somewhat crowded, distinct, white. Stem solid, elastic, equal or tapering upward, externally fibrous, obsoletely frosted at the apex, white. Spores elliptical, 5–6µ, long.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 4–6 lines thick.

Woods. Common. August to October. This species is variable in color and in size, being sometimes robust, sometimes slender. It grows singly, in troops or in tufts. It has no decided odor, but a bitter unpleasant taste. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Cooked, tender and of fair flavor.

** Gills becoming discolored.

T. persona´tum Fr.—wearing a mask (from its many varieties of colors). (Plate XVIII, p. 60.) Pileus compact, becoming soft, thick, convex or plane, obtuse, regular, moist, bare, variable in color, generally pallid or ashy tinged with violet or lilac, the margin at first involute and frosted with fine hairs. Flesh whitish. Gills broad, crowded, rounded behind, free, violaceous becoming sordid-whitish or dingy-brown. Stem generally thick, subbulbous, solid, fibrillose or frosted with fine hairs, whitish or colored like the pileus. Spores dingy white, subelliptical, 8–9×4–5µ. On white paper the spores have a slight salmon tint, but they are regular in shape, not angular as in Entoloma.

Pileus 2–5 in. broad. Stem 1–3 in. long, 6–12 lines thick. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Woods and open places, and growing from old, matted stable straw. Common over the United States.

80When T. personatum becomes known to the collector, either in the field or on the table, it is sure to become a favorite. It is fleshy, rotund, stocky, moist and smooth, with a tendency in its cap to be wavy-rimmed and jauntily cocked in wet weather. It grows singly or in troops, occasionally in tufts of from five to six individuals. A patch of it is valuable and worth husbanding with covering of fine straw. Cortinarius violaceus resembles it somewhat in color and shape, but it shows a spidery veil, and has brown spores. It is edible.

The common name of T. personatum in England is Blewits, which translated into understandable English is believed to be “blue-hats.” It is everywhere eaten, being of substantial substance, good flavor and cookable in any way. It is especially fine in patties, stews and croquettes.

T. nu´dum Bull.—naked. Pileus about 3 in. broad, becoming purple-violaceous then changing color, reddish, fleshy, comparatively thin, convexo-plane then depressed, obtuse, even, smooth, with a pellicle which is moist and manifest in rainy weather; margin inflexed, thin, naked. Flesh thin, pliant, colored. Stem about 3 in. long, ½ in. thick, stuffed, elastic, equal, almost naked, mealy at the apex, violaceous then becoming pale. Gills rounded then decurrent (on account of the depressed pileus), crowded, narrow, of the same color as the pileus or deeper violaceous, but soon changing color, at length reddish without the least tinge of violet. Stevenson.

Spores 7×3.5µ Massee; 6–8×4µ B.; 6×3µ W.G.S. On ground among leaves. Esculent, very good and delicate. Cordier. Edible. Roze. Edible, all American authorities.

VII.—Hygroph´ana. Pileus thin, water-soaked, etc.
* Gills whitish, not spotted.

T. grammopo´dium Bull. Gr.—a line; Gr.—a foot. Pileus 3–6 in. broad, pallid-livid or brownish-red when moist, whitish when dry, fleshy, very thin toward the margin, campanulate then convex, and at length flattened, obtusely umbonate, even, smooth, pellicle moist in rainy weather, not viscous, separating, flesh-colored when moist, white when dry, soft, fragile. Stem tall, about 3–4 in. long, ½ in. and more 81thick, solid, elastic, equal with exception of the thickened base, cylindrical, firm, smooth, evidently longitudinally sulcate, whitish. Gills arcuato-adnate or broadly horizontally emarginate, acute at both ends, very crowded, quite entire, very many shorter, somewhat branched behind, white.

Odor moldy. Striking in appearance; the chief of this group. There is a variety wholly white. In pastures and grassy woods. Stevenson.

Spores 5–6µ Massee.

Distinguished by the grooved stem and crowded gills, which are adnate when the pileus is expanded. Often growing in rings.

North Carolina, Curtis. Not reported elsewhere. Esculent. Cooke. Much eaten in Europe.

T. bre´vipes Bull.—brevis, short; pes, a foot. Pileus about 2 in. broad, umber then becoming pale, fleshy, soft, convex then becoming plane, even, smooth, moist (opaque when dry); flesh of the pileus becoming brownish when moist, becoming white when dry. Stem solid, very rigid, at length fibrous, pruinate at the apex, externally and internally fuscous; otherwise very variable, sometimes very short, 2–3 lines only long and thick, attenuated downward; commonly 1 in., sometimes bulbous, sometimes equal, more slender. Gills emarginato-free, crowded, ventricose, disappearing short of the margin, quite entire, becoming fuscous then whitish. Solitary. Inodorous. The pileus is often stained with soil. Stevenson.

Spores elliptical, 7.5×5µ Peck; 7–4µ Massee.

Esculent and very delicate. Paulet. Esculent. Cooke.

T. hu´mile Pers.—low, small. (Plate XVIII, fig. 6, p. 60.) Very variable in form and color. Cap 2–3 in. across, convex then expanded, wavy, flattened, sometimes umbonate, sometimes depressed, glabrous, occasionally powdered with thin white dust, fragments of veil, sometimes viscid. Color changes with moisture, blackish, grayish, and having somewhat the appearance of an oyster. Gills rounded-adnexed, with a slight tooth, arcuately decurrent, crowded, 2–3 lines broad, whitish. Flesh soft, whitish or grayish. Stem 1–2 in. long, up to ½ in. thick, equal (misshapen by pressure when tufted), light gray, covered 82with fine down, stuffed, becoming hollow, soft, fragile. Gregarious, usually tufted.

Spores 7–8×5–6µ K.

Open woods, in gardens, among cinders, grass, etc., September to frost.

Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia, 1897. McIlvaine.

Its tufted habit and fair size, fleshy cap of good flavor, make it a desirable species. It cooks readily and the caps are of fine flavor.

T. pæ´didum Fr.—pædidus, nasty. Pileus about 1-½ in. across. Flesh very thin, tough, becoming whitish; bell-shaped then convex, at length expanded, umbonate, at length depressed round the conical, prominent umbo, moist, virgate or streaked with innate fibrils radiating from the center, otherwise almost even, smoky-mouse color, opaque, margin naked. Gills adnexed with a slight decurrent tooth, slightly sinuate, crowded, narrow, white then gray. Stem about 1 in. long and 2 lines thick, base slightly bulbous, tough, slightly striate, naked, dingy-gray. Spores elliptic-fusiform, 10–11×5–6µ.

In gardens, on dung-hills, etc. Small, tough, color dingy, without a trace of violet tinge. Massee.

Edible. Cooks tender, and is of good flavor, notwithstanding its name, which in no way applies.

T. subpulverulen´tum Pers.—slightly dusty. Pileus 1–2½ in. across, convex then plane or depressed in center, even, innately pruinose, hoary, white, whitish, grayish, margin extending as a slight rim incurved beyond gills. Flesh white, thick, firm, hygrophanous. Gills rounded without a tooth, close, narrow, white. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, equal, solid, somewhat striate, whitish.

Spores 5×3µ Massee; 4×3µ W.G.S.

Biological grounds, University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia. May to November, 1898. McIlvaine.

A species one is glad to find. It has a healthy substantial presence full of promise. It is a solitary grower among grass on lawns and pastures, but its individuals are neighborly. Caps and stems are excellent.


Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.            Plate XXIV.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1–2–3. Clitocybe ochropurpurea, 108 8. Clitocybe amethystina, 107
4. Clitocybe ochropurpurea (section), 108 9. Clitocybe odora, 90
5. Clitocybe maxima, 99 10. Clitocybe laccata, 107
6. Clitocybe maxima (section), 99 11. Clitocybe infundibuliformis, 100
7. Clitocybe nebularis, 85
Gr.—sloping. (From the depression of the pileus.)

Pileus generally fleshy, becoming thin toward the margin, flexible or tough, plane or depressed, margin involute. Gills adnate or decurrent, never sinuate. Stem confluent and homogeneous with flesh of pileus, somewhat elastic, with a spongy stuffing, frequently becoming hollow, externally fibrous. Universal veil when present conspicuous on the pileus like frost or silky dew, but commonly wanting.

Growing on the ground, frequently in groups. The thinner and hygrophanous species appear late in autumn. Some are quite fragrant. Collybia, Mycena and Omphalia are separated by their stems being cartilaginous, not externally fibrous as in Clitocybe. Tricholoma by its sinuate gills.

Variations in species of Clitocybe are great. A few are easily fixed in the genus, but many of them will puzzle the amateur and perplex the expert. The gills are always attached to the stem, and usually run down it. They are not notched next to the stem as in Tricholoma.

Like Tricholoma, Clitocybe has many species, most of which are common, and are probably edible. I therefore give Professor Peck’s description of all Clitocybes thus far submitted to him.

I know of but one species which is injurious to some persons—Clitocybe illudens. Many eat and enjoy it. It does not agree with others. A few untried species are suspicious to a like extent. Clitocybe illudens possesses the property of phosphorescence.

Several species of Clitocybe have not been seen or tested by me, nor have I information that these have been tested.

A. Pileus Fleshy, Often Pallid When Dry, not hygrophanous.

Flesh firm, not watery, nor splitting into plates. Those which turn pale in drying differ from Series B by their silky luster.

Disciformes (disk-shaped). Page 85.

Pileus somewhat equally fleshy; convex then plane or depressed, obtuse, regular; gills at first adnate or regularly adnato-decurrent. Normally solitary.

84* Pileus gray or brownish.

** Pileus violet or reddish.

*** Pileus becoming yellowish.

**** Pileus greenish, becoming pale.

***** Pileus white, becoming shining white.

Distinguished from white hygrophanous species and white species of Paxillus.

Difformes (irregularly shaped). Page 94.

Pileus fleshy in the center, thin at the margin, at first umbonate, then expanded and depressed, irregular. Gills unequally decurrent, longer in some places than in others, sometimes rounded on one side of the stem or only reaching it as in Tricholoma. Stem somewhat cartilaginous externally, but fibrous.

Cespitose, often grown together at base, variable in form, sometimes solitary.

Infundibuliformes (funnel-shaped). Page 98.

Pileus becoming thin from the fleshy center to the margin, at length funnel-shaped or deeply umbilicately depressed in the center. Stem spongy, externally fibrous. Gills deeply and equally decurrent from the first. Pileus often becoming discolored or pallid, not hygrophanous.

* Pileus colored or becoming pale, the surface (at least under a lens) innately flocculose or silky, bibulous, not moist.

** Pileus colored or pallid, smooth, moist in rainy weather.

*** Pileus shining whitish, with scattered superficial flocci or becoming smooth.

B. Pileus Fleshy-Membranaceous.

Flesh thin, soft, watery, hygrophanous.

Cyathiformes (cup-shaped). Page 104.

Flesh of pileus thin, consisting of two separable plates, disk not compact, hygrophanous, depressed then cup-shaped; gills at first adnate then decurrent, descending, straight. Color dingy when moist.

Orbiformes (round-shaped). Page 109.

Pileus somewhat fleshy, hygrophanous, convex then flattened or depressed, 85polished, not squamulose nor mealy; gills plane, horizontal, thin, crowded, adnate or decurrent with a small tooth. Color dingy or becoming watery pale.

* Gills becoming ash-colored. Pileus at first dark.

** Gills whitish. Pileus becoming pale.

Versiformes (variable in shape). Page 106.

Pileus thin, convex then deformed, tough, more or less squamulose or furfuraceous; gills adnate, broad, rather thick, generally distant. Color hygrophanous.

* Pileus squalid or brownish with dark squamules. None known to be edible.

** Pileus bright, of one color.

Series A.
* Pileus gray or brownish.

C. nebula´ris Batsch.—nebula, a cloud. (Plate XXIV, fig. 7, p. 82.) The Clouded clitocybe, Clitocybe nebularis, takes its name from the clouded-gray appearance of its thick cap, which is at first convex, but when mature, either flat or a little depressed. Its flesh is white, thickest in the middle, and in a vertical section is seen to taper rapidly downward into the stem. The gills are close together and rather narrow for the size of the plant. They are white or yellowish-white. The stout solid stem usually tapers upward from the base and is whitish.

The cap is two to four inches or more broad, the stem one to two inches long and about half an inch thick. The Clouded mushroom grows in woods, and sometimes forms large tufts or clusters among fallen leaves. It is found in autumn, but is not very common in this country. Authors differ in their estimate of the edible qualities of this mushroom, but the more recent ones generally agree in classing it as edible. “Mushrooms and Their Use,” C.H. Peck.

Spores 4.5×3µ Cooke; elliptical 6×3.5µ Massee; 3×4µ W.G.S.

There has been great diversity of opinion as to the edibility of this species on the continent. Cordier and a friend suffered from it. Paulet counseled mistrust.

86This fungus is quite common in the West Virginia mountains and in some parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, where I have found it. It is, however, limited to localities. It is one of my favorites, being of marked flavor and agreeable consistency. I have not known it to harm anyone.

(Plate XXV.)

Clitocybe clavipes.
About two-thirds natural size.

C. cla´vipes Pers.—clava, a club; pes, a foot. Pileus 1½-2½ in. across, rather convex at first, soon plane, at length almost obconical, very obtuse, even, glabrous, dry, sometimes all one color, brown, sooty, livid-gray, etc., sometimes whitish towards the margin, very rarely entirely white. Flesh loose in texture, white, thin at the margin. Gills deeply decurrent, continued down the stem as straight lines, rather distant, flaccid, quite entire, broad, entirely and persistently white. Stem 2 in. long, base ½ in. and more thick, conically attenuated upward, rather fibrillose, livid, sooty, solid, spongy within. Spores elliptical, 6–7×4µ.

In woods, especially pine. Resembling C. nebularis in color, but quite distinct. Smell pleasant, entire substance soft and elastic. Fries.

Spores elliptical, 6–7×4µ Massee; sub-ellipsoid, 5–7×3–4µ K.; 6×8µ W.G.S.

Found in pine woods of New Jersey, and under spruce in West Virginia. Its substance is spongy, therefore does not stew well. Cooked in any other way it is delicate and of excellent flavor.

C. gangræno´sa Fr.—gangræna, gangrene. Pileus fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, whitish, at first sprinkled with white powder, then naked, variegated, streaked. Gills slightly decurrent, arcuate, crowded, dingy-white. Stem somewhat bulbous, soft, striate, spongy, solid.

Stinking; large, flesh becoming blackish and variegated with black. Stem curved, sometimes excentric. Pileus whitish, here and there greenish, livid, etc. Fries.

87Var. nigres´cens Lasch. Whitish; pileus thin, soft, at first convex, obtuse then plane, somewhat umbonate, and somewhat depressed; gills decurrent, very much crowded, narrow, stem solid, downy.

Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 1¼-1½ in. long, 2–3 lines thick.

Odor rather sweet, taste unpleasant. Cooke.

New Jersey, Haddonfield, pine woods. July to August. McIlvaine.

This Clitocybe is in every way unattractive. It is not poisonous, but no one would care to eat it.

(Plate XXVI.)

Clitocybe media.
One-half natural size.

C. me´dia Pk.—medius, middle. Because intermediate between C. nebularis and C. clavipes. Pileus fleshy, convex, becoming plane or slightly depressed, dry, dark grayish-brown, the margin often wavy or irregular, flesh white, taste mild. Gills broad, subdistant, adnate or decurrent, whitish, the interspaces somewhat venose. Stem equal or but slightly thickened at the base, solid, elastic, not polished, colored like or a little paler than the pileus. Spores elliptical, 8×5µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 4–8 lines thick. Mossy ground in deep woods. North Elba. September.

This species is intermediate between C. nebularis and C. clavipes. In its general appearance, and in the character of the pileus and stem, it resembles C. nebularis, but in the character of the more distant gills and in the size of the spores it is nearer C. clavipes, of which it might perhaps be regarded as a variety. Two forms are distinguishable. In one the gills are more distant, slightly rounded behind, and adnate or abruptly terminated; in the other they are closer and more distinctly decurrent. The plant is edible. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I have known this fungus very favorably since 1883, and regard it as one of the best. I have seen it in the West Virginia mountains only, but it will probably be found in cool, shaded, high localities all over the country. Both it and the C. nebularis are well worthy of search.

88C. viles´cens Pk.—vilesco, of little value. Pileus convex, then plane or depressed, often irregular, glabrous, slightly pruinose on the involute margin, brown or grayish-brown, becoming paler with age, often concentrically rivulose. Gills close, adnate or decurrent, cinereous, sometimes tinged with dingy-yellow. Stem short, solid, sometimes compressed, grayish-brown, with a whitish tomentum at the base. Spores subglobose or broadly elliptical, 5–6.5µ; flesh whitish-gray, odor slight.

Plant gregarious, 1–2 in. high. Pileus 1–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick. Grassy pastures. Jamesville, August. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A pale form of this species grows on sandy soil, in which the pileus is smoky white, but it becomes grayish-brown in drying. The mycelium binds together a mass of sand, so that when the plant is taken up carefully a little ball of sandy soil adheres to the base of the stem. The stem is sometimes pruinose. The flavor is mild and agreeable. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Sometimes plentiful about Philadelphia. Edible. Caps tender, slight flavor.

C. comitia´lis Fr.—belonging to an assembly. Pileus about 1½ in. across, fleshy, convex, then plane, obtuse, even, glabrous, rather moist but not hygrophanous, every part colored alike, sooty-umber, almost black. Flesh firm, white. Gills very slightly decurrent, horizontal, plane, thin, crowded, white. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, equally attenuated upward from the base, glabrous, sooty, elastic, stuffed. Spores elliptical, 7–8×4µ.

Damp places among mosses in pine woods, etc. Distinguished by the blackish color of the almost flat pileus, and the very slightly decurrent gills. Somewhat allied to C. clavipes, but firmer, smaller and inodorous. Massee.

Rather rare. Found in New Jersey among pines; in Pennsylvania in mixed woods.

Edible. Good texture and flavor.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.                Plate XXVII.

** Violet or reddish.

C. cyanophæ´a Fr. Gr.—blue. Pileus 3–4 in. broad, becoming bluish-dusky-brown, compact, convex then plane, obtuse, smooth. 89Stem 3 in. long, 1 in. thick at the base, attenuated upward, robust, solid, smooth, becoming azure-blue when young, abruptly white at the apex. Gills deeply decurrent, crowded, violaceous, then becoming pale.

New York, Albion. In woods. October. Edible. Dr. E.L. Cushing.

Specimens sent to me by Dr. Cushing are the first and only ones of the species I have seen. The description is accurate. The spores were cream color.

C. monadel´pha Morg.—monas, single; adelphos, a brother. From its cespitose habit. (Plate XXVII.) Densely cespitose. Pileus fleshy, convex then depressed, at first glabrous, then scaly, honey color, varying to pallid-brownish or reddish. Stem elongated, solid, crooked, twisted, fibrous, tapering at the base, pallid-brownish or flesh color. Gills short, decurrent, not crowded, pallid flesh color. Spores white, a little irregular, 7.5×5.5µ.

On the ground in wet woods, spring to late autumn. Pileus 1–3 in. Stem 3–7 in. Morgan.

Grassy places. Menands. Albany county. September. Edible. Resembling Armillaria mellea, but distinguished from it by the absence of a collar from the stem, by the more decidedly decurrent lamellæ and by the solid stem. It is also more agreeable in flavor. It is related to C. illudens in habit and manner of growth. Peck, 51st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 8×5µ Peck.

October 15, 1898. Identified by Professor Peck. September until frost.

Grows in great clusters about roots, etc., at Mt. Gretna. Frequently much water-soaked and uninviting. Taste variable, sometimes strong, woody.

It is edible, but care should be exercised in collecting to get young, fresh groups.

C. socia´lis Fr.—socius, a companion. Pileus about 1 in. broad, pale-yellowish with a reddish tinge, fleshy, convex then expanded, acutely umbonate especially when young, even, smooth, dry. Flesh moderately thin, white. Stem 1 in. long, 2 lines or a little more thick, 90solid, fibrous, commonly ascending, smooth, reddish, the rooting base hairy. Gills plano-decurrent, scarcely crowded, becoming yellow. Fries.

A very pretty species, densely gregarious, inodorous. The stem is sheathed-hairy at the base like Marasmius peronatus. Its greatest affinity is with A. vernicosus, of which it is perhaps a variety. Stevenson.

Quite common in pine woods of New Jersey. Though small, goodly messes of it may be gathered from its patches. The caps make a pleasing dish.

*** Pileus becoming yellow.

None reported as tested for edibility.

**** Pileus greenish or becoming pallid.

C. odo´ra Bull.—odorus, fragrant. (Plate XXIV, fig. 9, p. 82.) Fragrant. Pileus about 2 in. across, flesh rather thick, tough; soon plane and wavy, even, smooth, pale dingy green, silky when dry. Gills adnate, rather close, broad, greenish or pallid. Stem about 1–1½ in. long, 2 lines thick, base incrassated, elastic, stuffed. Spores elliptical, 6–8×4–5µ. In woods. Massee.

Readily distinguished by the strong, aniseed smell, dingy bluish-green pileus, and the pallid or greenish gills.

Sometimes somewhat cespitose. Tough; size variable, color varies between pale green and greenish-gray, usually all colored alike, but the gills are sometimes white; smell pleasant, spicy, especially when dry. Fries.

Spores 6×5µ K.; 8×4µ B.

A rather delicate, even exquisite dish. Cooke.

Edible. Exceedingly spicy. The flavor is pleasant, but rather strong. A few specimens mixed with others of like texture but less flavor make a tasty dish.

C. rivulo´sa Pers.—rivus, a stream. (Named from rivulet-like streaks on pileus.) Pileus 1–3 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane and depressed, obtuse, often undulately lobed, dingy flesh-color or reddish, becoming pale, glabrous, then covered with a whitish down. Gills slightly decurrent, broad, rather crowded, pinkish-white. Stem about 2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, rather fibrillose, tough, elastic, whitish, stuffed. Spores elliptical, 6×3.5µ. Massee.

91Among grass by road-sides, etc.

Not common, but when found it is basket-filling. I have found it in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and West Virginia.

Edible. The caps are rather tough but become glutinous and tender when well cooked. Flavor fine.

***** Pileus white, shining when dry.

C. cerussa´ta Fr.—cerussa, white lead. Pileus 1½-3 in. across, flesh thick at the disk, becoming thin toward the margin; convex then almost plane, obtuse, even, minutely floccose then almost glabrous, white. Gills adnate, then decurrent, very much crowded, thin, permanently white. Stem about 2 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, smooth, tough, elastic, naked, spongy and solid, white. Among dead leaves, etc.

Taste mild, smell almost obsolete. Stem rather thickened at the base and often tomentose. Pileus said to be gibbous, but not umbonate nor becoming rufescent. Gills not changing to yellowish. Fries.


Edible. Good.

C. phylloph´ila Fr. Gr.—leaf-loving. Whitish-tan. Pileus 1–3 in. across, rather fleshy, convex then plane, becoming umbilicate and depressed, sometimes wavy, smooth and even. Gills thin, subdistant, white then tinged with ocher, rather broad, very slightly decurrent. Stem 2–3 in. long, equal, stuffed then hollow, whitish, tough, silky-fibrillose. Spores 6×4µ.

Among leaves in woods, etc.

Spores 6×4µ Massee; 6×3µ W.G.S.; 5.5×2.8µ Morgan.

Found at Devon, Pa., 1888; Angora, West Philadelphia, 1897. It is equal to the Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) in texture, but not so high in flavor. Well cooked it is an agreeable and valuable food.

C. pithyoph´ila Secr. Gr.—pine-loving. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, dead-white when moist, shining whitish when dry, fleshy but thin, rather plane, umbilicate, at length irregularly shaped, repand and undulato-lobed, even, smooth, flaccid, the margin slightly striate when old. Stem somewhat hollow, rounded then compressed, equal, even, smooth, obsoletely or scarcely pruinose at the apex, white tomentose at the (not 92bulbous) base. Gills adnate, somewhat decurrent, very crowded, plane, 2–3 lines broad, distinct, quite entire, white.

Odor not remarkable, but pleasant. Gregarious, somewhat cespitose; white indeed, but when moist watery and somewhat hygrophanous, in which it evidently differs from A. phyllophila. A. tuba, which appears in the same places, is very like it. Stevenson.

Spores 6–7×4µ B.

Massachusetts, Sprague; New York, Peck, Bull. 1887.

Albion, Orleans county, N.Y., October, 1898, Dr. Cushing.

Several specimens received were clearly referable to C. pithyophila, though varying in having caps deeply depressed but not umbilicate. The white tomentosity at base was present but indistinct.

Four specimens were eaten and found good. Eaten enjoyably by Dr. Cushing.

C. fus´cipes Pk.—fuscus, dirty; pes, a foot. Pileus thin, broadly convex or plane, umbilicate, glabrous, whitish and striatulate when moist, pure white when dry, odor and taste farinaceous. Gills nearly plane, subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, white. Stem equal, glabrous or slightly mealy at the top, hollow, dingy brown when moist, paler when dry. Spores globose, 5–6µ.

Pileus 4–8 lines broad. Stem about 1 in. long. Under pine trees. Carrollton. September. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Edible. Its small size gives it minor importance, but a quantity of it makes an excellent meal.

C. can´dicans Pers.—candico, to be shining white. Entirely white. Pileus about 1 in. across, flesh thin, convex then plane or slightly depressed, umbilicate, regular or slightly excentric, even, with an adpressed silkiness, shining, shining white when dry. Gills adnate then slightly decurrent, crowded, very thin, narrow, straight. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, even, glabrous, cartilaginous, polished, equal, hollow, base incurved, rooting, downy. Spores broadly elliptical or subglobose, 5–6×4µ. Massee.

Among damp fallen leaves, etc.

Entirely white, small, rather tough; approaching Omphalia in the structure of the stem. The following form is described by Fries as occurring in pine woods: Stem thin, flexuous, base glabrous; pileus 93plane, not umbilicate, naked (without silky down). Gills scarcely decurrent.

A remarkable form but scarcely to be separated as a species. Fries.

Quite common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. The caps are excellent when well cooked.

C. dealba´ta Sow.—dealbo, to whitewash. Pileus about 1 in. or a little more broad, white, slightly fleshy, tough, convex then plane and at length revolute and undulated, always dry (not watery in rainy weather), even, smooth, somewhat shining, but as if innately pruinose under a lens. Flesh thin, arid, white. Stem 1 in. long, 2 lines thick, stuffed, wholly fibrous, at length also tubed, equal, but often ascending, whitish, mealy at the apex. Gills adnate, scarcely decurrent, thin, crowded, white.

Pileus sometimes orbicular, sometimes upturned and wavy. Odor weak, pleasant, but not very remarkable. Most distinct from A. candicans in the nature of the stem.

Edible. Its top is exceedingly like ivory. Its charming flavor is exceeded by very few other fungi. Stevenson.

Among leaves and grass. Woodland Cemetery, Philadelphia.

This charming fungus is common over the land. I have known it since 1881, and found it from North Carolina to West Virginia.

C. robus´ta Pk.—robustus, stout. Pileus thick, firm, at first convex, soon plane or slightly depressed in the center, glabrous, white, the margin at first involute or decurved, naked. Flesh white. Gills narrow, close, decurrent, whitish. Stem stout, rather short, solid, glabrous, equal or slightly tapering upward, often with a bulbous base, white. Spores elliptical, 8×4–5µ.

Pileus 3–4 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 8–12 lines thick.

Woods among fallen leaves. Catskill mountains. September to November.

This large and robust fungus is closely allied to C. candida Bres., from which it differs in the naked margin of the pileus, the absence of any marked odor and especially in the more elliptical shape of its spores. The same plant has been collected in Maryland by Mr. L.J. Atwater, who considers it edible, having eaten it with satisfaction and safety. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

94This fungus is quite plentiful in Pennsylvania and in open oak woods in New Jersey. Its size and sometimes gregarious growth give it a permanent food value. Its texture is coarse, but when cooked it is highly satisfactory.

C. gallina´cea Scop.—gallina, a hen. Application not apparent. White; acrid. Pileus 1–1½ in. across, rather fleshy at the disk, margin thin; convex then depressed, but not funnel-shaped, even, dry, opaque. Gills slightly decurrent, narrow, crowded, thin. Stem about 1½ in. long, 2 lines thick, equal, even, solid. Among grass, moss, etc.

Resembling C. dealbata in form, but smaller, opaque, dingy-white, taste somewhat acrid. Stem solid, but not cartilaginous, about 2 in. long, equal, ascending or flexuous, excentric, at first floccosely mealy, always opaque, white. Pileus slightly fleshy, convex then plane, not depressed, obtuse, ½-1 in. broad, unequal, dry, pruinosely hoary; flesh white, compact, but thin. Gills adnato-decurrent, thin, crowded, plane. Fries.

It loses its acridity in cooking and is quite equal to C. dealbata.

C. trunci´cola Pk.—truncus, trunk of a tree. Pileus thin, firm, expanded or slightly depressed in the center, smooth, dry, white. Gills narrow, thin, crowded, adnate-decurrent. Stem equal, stuffed, smooth, often excentric and curved, whitish.

Plant 1 in. high. Pileus 1 in. broad. Stem 1 line thick.

Trunks of frondose trees, especially maples. Croghan. September. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 5×3.5µ Morgan.

Found on maple trees in West Philadelphia, Pa. Edible. Good quality.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.                Plate XXVIIa.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Clitocybe multiceps, 95 2. Clitocybe multiceps, var. 95

C. decas´tes Fr. Gr.—a decade; a number of ten. From the stems being often joined in bundles of about ten. Densely cespitose. Pileus 5–12 in. across, soon almost plane, disk gibbous or obtuse; margin at first shortly incurved, then expanded, very much waved and often lobed, even, glabrous, dingy-brown or livid when moist, pale clay-color when dry. Flesh exceedingly thin except at the disk, whitish. Stem 4–7 in. long, ½-1½ in. thick, usually slightly thinner upward, rather soft, 95entirely fibrous, solid, white, usually curved and ascending, coalescent into a solid mass at the base. Gills adnato-decurrent, or often more or less adnexed, up to ½ in. broad, rather narrowed towards the margin, often wavy. Spores globose, smooth, 4µ diameter.

On the ground and on sawdust.

Albion, Orleans county, N.Y., Dr. Cushing. October, 1898.

On ground in grassy places (Woodland Cemetery, May 22, 1897). McIlvaine.

Particularly welcome to toadstool lovers are the early comers. The present species is among the first. It is rich in quantity, substance and flavor.

C. mul´ticeps Pk.—multus, many; caput, a head. (Plate XXVIIa, p. 94.) Pileus fleshy, thin except on the disk, firm, convex, slightly moist in wet weather, whitish, grayish or yellowish-gray. Flesh white, taste mild. Gills close, adnate and slightly decurrent, whitish. Stems densely cespitose, equal or slightly thickened at the base, solid or stuffed, firm, elastic, slightly pruinose at the apex, whitish. Spores globose, 5–8µ.

Pileus 1–3 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Open places, grassy ground, etc. Albany and Sandlake. June and October. This species forms dense tufts, often composed of many individuals. In this respect it is related to such species as C. tumulosa, C. aggregata and C. illudens. From the crowding together of many individuals the pileus is often irregular. Sometimes the disk is brownish and occasionally slightly silky. The gills are sometimes slightly sinuate, thus indicating a relationship to the species of Tricholoma. The taste, though mild, is somewhat oily and unpleasant. The plants appear in wet, rainy weather, either early in the season or in autumn. Specimens have been sent to me from Massachusetts by R.K. Macadam and Professor Farlow, and from Pennsylvania by Dr. W. Herbst. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Mt. Gretna, Pa. In May, and in autumn months. Very variable in size, color, shape of gills, texture and taste. McIlvaine.

The early spring clusters are remarkable for their tenderness and excellence. Clusters of hundreds of individuals grew abundantly at Mt. Gretna in May, 1899. When the fungus was young the gills were 96sometimes adnate, almost free, often decurrent. The varying color of oysters is well seen in C. multiceps.

Edible. They should be well cooked. The addition of a little lemon juice or sherry conceals a slight raw taste sometimes present.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist—Painted by C. McIlvaine.              Plate XXIXa.

Clitocybe illudens 96

C. illu´dens Schw.—mocking, deceiving. (Plate XXIXa, p. 96.) Pileus fleshy, convex or expanded, smooth, generally with a small umbo. Gills not crowded, unequally decurrent, some of them branched, narrowed toward each end, the edge, in dry specimens, discolored. Stem firm, solid, long, smooth, tapering at the base.

Height 5–8 in., breadth of pileus 4–6 in. Stem 6–8 lines thick.

Spores 4–5µ Peck.

Grows in clumps or large masses about stumps or decaying trees from August to October. Its bright, deep yellow is attractive from a distance. As many as fifty plants may form a cluster. Cap from 2–6 in., fleshy, convex or expanded, often with a raised center directly over the stem; flesh juicy and yellow; gills yellow, widely separated, running down stem unequally; stem long, firm, solid, smooth, tapering toward base. When cooked the taste is rather saponaceous. Strong stomachs can retain a meal of them, but the fungus generally sickens the eater. Many testings show it to contain a minor poison. It is not deadly, but should not be eaten. Bull. No. 2, Phila. Myc. Center.

New York, Peck, Rep. 23–49. Well known in southern states. Indiana, H.I. Miller.

The mysterious property of phosphorescence is possessed by this fungus. As heat is known to develop in masses of the fungus it is of interest to know whether it is from the phosphorescence or a ferment. Its radiance by night surpasses its splendor by day. Mr. H.I. Miller, of Terre Haute, Ind., first drew the writer’s attention to this quality. A large box of specimens sent by him retained their luminous quality after three days of travel to such an extent that the print of a newspaper could be read when held close to the mass.

Mr. Miller writes: “There is something about this fungus which generates heat. When I bring in a basketful of it, for the pleasure its phosphorescence affords my friends, I find that after having been in the basket for two or three hours, and while piled one bunch upon top of another, that to insert one’s hand among the different clusters is like putting it close to a hot stove.”

97This fungus is so inviting in quantity and beauty that one turns from it with a regret that lingers. Eaten in quantity it acts upon some persons as an emetic. I have several times eaten of it without other than pleasurable sensations, but persons partaking of the same cooking have been sickened.

C. fumo´sa Pers.—fumus, smoke. Pileus 1–3 in. across, fleshy, margin thin; convex, often gibbous when young, regular or wavy, even, pellicle not separable, glabrous, sooty-brown, soon livid or gray when dry. Gills adnate in regular forms, but often decurrent when the pileus is irregular, crowded, distinct, grayish-white from the first. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–6 lines thick, almost equal, often twisted or curved, glabrous, dingy-white, apex mealy, solid, fibrous. Spores subglobose, 5–6µ diam.

In woods. Autumn.

Gregarious, somewhat cespitose, tough, rather cartilaginous. Pileus truly obtuse, never streaked, often regular. Smell none. Fries.

Var. po´lius. Densely and connately cespitose. Pileus convex, then plane, obtuse, smooth, gray. Stem flexuous, smooth. Gills crowded, whitish. Edible. Cooke, 1891.

Var. polius found growing in large quantities in Boston navy yard in stone barn. Determined by Professor Peck. A fair edible. R.K. Macadam.

This woods-growing Clitocybe has been many times found by me in a hot-house in Haddonfield, N.J. Professor Peck confirmed my identification. Either its spores or mycelium had evidently been carried thither in the wood-earth used by florists. The hot-house crops appeared in March, and continued until June.

Several of the plants showed an effort to comply with some condition unusual to them, by producing gills upon the upper side of the pileus. Those below were venose and crisped.

This wild species had thus been brought into cultivation. The cultivated plants were much more tender than the wild. Both are excellent.

C. connex´a Pk.—connexus, joined. From its relation to Tricholoma. Pileus thin, convex or expanded, subumbonate, clothed with a minute appressed silkiness, white, the margin sometimes faintly tinged with 98blue. Gills crowded, narrow, white inclining to yellowish. Stem equal or tapering downward, solid, whitish.

Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 2 lines thick.

Ground in woods. Croghan. September.

The gills sometimes terminate rather abruptly and are not strongly decurrent, hence it might easily be mistaken for a Tricholoma. The margin of the pileus is sometimes marked with slight ridges as in Ag. laterarius. The odor is weak but aromatic and agreeable. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found in plenty in oak woods near Philadelphia, and in West Virginia; a few specimens in southern New Jersey. Autumn.

Edible, and quite equal to most of the Clitocybes.

C. tumulo´sa Kalchbr.—tumulus, a mound. Cespitose. Pileus 1–2 in. across, disk fleshy, margin thin; conico-convex then expanded, obtusely umbonate or obtuse, even, glabrous, brownish-umber, becoming pale, margin drooping. Gills more or less decurrent or slightly emarginate, crowded narrow, white, then grayish. Stem 3–5 in. long, unequal, usually thicker below, minutely downy, pallid, solid.

On the ground in woods. Spring and autumnal months. Readily distinguished by the densely clustered habit, and the umber pileus. The gills are very variable, sometimes distinctly decurrent, at others rounded behind, and almost resembling a Tricholoma. Spores subglobose, 5–6µ. Massee.

California, H. and M.; New York, Peck, Rep. 42.

Sent to me by Mrs. Mary Fuller, Washington, D.C. The specimens eaten were of good consistency and flavor.

* Pileus colored or becoming pale, etc., surface innately flocculose or
silky; not moist.

C. gigante´a Sow.—giganteus, of gigantic size. Pileus 6–10 in. across. Flesh rather thin in proportion to the size of the fungus, white, or tinged with tan, glabrous when moist, slightly flocculose when dry; margin involute then spreading, glabrous, rather coarsely grooved. Gills slightly decurrent, broad, very much crowded, branched and connected 99by veins, whitish then pale tan-color, not separating spontaneously from the hymenophore. Stem 1–2 in. long and nearly the same in thickness, equal, pallid, solid. Spores white, 5×3µ.

In woods, etc.

A very distinct species, very showy, large, subcespitose, entirely whitish tan-color; without close affinities. Stem solid, compact, and firm inside and outside, 2½ in. long, ½ in. thick, equal, even, glabrous. Pileus depressed from the first, then broadly, i. e., plano-infundibuliform, thin but equally fleshy, soft, not flaccid, but easily splitting from the margin toward the center (almost papery and involute when old), upward of a foot broad, often excentric and generally sinuately lobed, moist and adpressedly downy when growing, slightly flocculose and cracked into scales when dry; margin at first very thin, involute, pubescent, soon spreading, glabrous, at length revolute, coarsely furrowed or radiately wrinkled. Gills slightly decurrent, closely crowded, almost 3 lines broad (2–3 times as broad as thickness of flesh of pileus), connected by veins, thin, fragile, straight, but sometimes varying to crisped and anastomosing, whitish then yellowish or tinged with rufous, smell weak. Fries.

This species was placed in Clitocybe in Syst. Myc. and Epicrisis, but in Hym. Europ. Fries removed it to Paxillus in which he is followed by Stevenson. Cooke and Massee continue it in Clitocybe. Dr. Somers found one measuring over 15 inches in diameter. R.K.M.

North Carolina, Schweinitz. Edible, Curtis; Wisconsin, Bundy; California, H. and M.; Nova Scotia, Dr. Somers.

Large quantities of Clitocybe gigantea grow in the West Virginia mountains, and in woods around Philadelphia. July to November.

Its substance is coarse, but of good flavor. It should be chopped fine.

C. max´ima Gärtn and Meyer. (Fl. Wett.)—greatest. (Plate XXIV, fig. 5, page 82.) Pileus as much as 1 foot broad, becoming pale-tan or whitish, fleshy, compact at the disk, otherwise thin, somewhat flaccid (not capable of being split), broadly funnel-shaped, gibbous with a central umbo, always very dry, the surface becoming silky-even or squamulose; margin involute, pubescent, always even. Flesh white, at length soft. Stem as much as 4 in. long, 1 in. thick, solid, compact, but internally spongy, elastic, attenuated upward, fibrillosestriate, 100whitish. Gills deeply decurrent, pointed at both ends, somewhat crowded, soft, simple, whitish, not changeable.

The pileus is always very dry because the surface absorbs moisture. Odor weak, pleasant, almost that of A. infundibuliformis. On account of its gigantic stature and color, it has often been interchanged with A. gigantea Sow.; it is in no wise, however, allied to that species, but is so closely allied to A. infundibuliformis that it might be taken for a very luxuriant form of it. Stevenson.

Spores 6×4µ Massee; 5×3µ, W.G.S.

New England, Frost; California, H. and M.

Common in the West Virginia mountains, mixed woods in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. June to November. McIlvaine.

It is coarse, dry, hard, but chopped fine and cooked in various ways, either by itself or with meats, it is a good food.

C. infundibulifor´mis Schaeff.—infundibulum, a funnel; forma, form. (Plate XXIV, fig. 11, p. 82.) The Funnel-form clitocybe, Clitocybe infundibuliformis, is a neat and pretty species easily recognized by the funnel shape of its mature cap and by its pale red color. When very young the cap is slightly convex and often adorned with a slight umbo in its center. As it matures the margin becomes elevated so that the cap assumes a shape somewhat resembling that of a wine glass. The margin is sometimes wavy. The flesh is thin and white. The gills are close, thin, white or whitish and decurrent. The stem is smooth, colored like or a little paler than the cap and mostly tapering from the base upward.

The cap is 2–3 in. broad, the stem 1½-3 in. long and ¼-½ in. thick.

The funnel-shaped mushroom grows in woods or copses in summer and autumn, especially in wet seasons. It is somewhat variable in color, but is usually a pale-red, tinged with buff, and sometimes becoming more pale with age. It delights to grow among fallen leaves, and often there is an abundant white cottony mycelium at the base of the stem. When it grows in clusters the caps are apt to be irregular because of mutual pressure. “Mushrooms and Their Use.” Peck.

Spores 5–6×3–4µ B.

Very common and in plenty after rains, when large patches of it may be found. I have usually found the light pinkish-buff color to abound, 101and the stem thinner than described by Prof. Peck. Size of cap from 1–3 in.

It is a good, reliable food species. The stem should be removed, and the caps well cooked.

** Pileus colored or pallid, smooth, moist in wet weather.

C. subzonal´is Pk.—sub, under; zonalis, pertaining to a zone. Pileus thin, centrally depressed or subinfundibuliform, marked with two or three obscure zones, with a slight appressed silkiness, pale yellow. Gills close, narrow, equally decurrent, some of them forked, pallid or yellowish. Stem equal, slightly fibrillose, stuffed, pale yellow.

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 2–3 lines thick.

Ground in woods. Croghan. September. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found in oak woods, Angora, West Philadelphia, growing singly. Specimens few. Edible; pleasant.

C. gil´va Pers.—gilvus, pale brownish-yellow. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, pale yellowish, fleshy, compact, convex then depressed, very obtuse, even, smooth, dampish when fresh, polished and shining when dry, here and there spotted as with drops, the margin remaining long involute. Flesh compact, not laxly floccose, but at length fragile, somewhat of the same color as the pileus. Stem 1–2 in. and more long, ½ in. and more thick, solid, fleshy, stout, not elastic, somewhat equal, smooth, paler than the pileus, villous at the base. Gills decurrent, thin, very much crowded, often branched, arcuate, narrow, pallid then ochraceous.

Odor not remarkable. The stem has been noticed at length also hollow, perhaps eroded by larvæ. It corresponds with the Paxilli. The primary form, which is very different from all the rest, is curt, obese, robust, scarcely ever infundibuliform. Stevenson.

Spores 4–5×5µ K.; 4–5µ Massee.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; New York, Peck, R. 51, under pines. July to September.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. July, 1898, ground, mixed woods. McIlvaine.

Pileus 1–2½ in. across, depressed, almost infundibuliform, smooth. Color varied lemon to bright orange. Flesh lemon color throughout. Gills varying in color, usually same color as pileus. Stem all of one 102color, same as pileus, stuffed, sometimes short, and pointed, sometimes thickened at base. Taste and smell pleasant. Edible; good.

C. subinvolu´ta Batsch.—turned under at the margin. Pileus brick color, convex, depressed, smooth, margin closely involute. Flesh pallid. Stem paler, stout, straight, somewhat equal, veined on the lower part with oblique coalescing slightly elevated wrinkles, tomentose and inclining to flesh color above toward the gills, base obtuse. Gills decurrent, rather broad, of the same color as the pileus.

The stem is rough on the surface and destitute of luster. It resembles Paxillus involutus in size and habit, in the crenate and involute margin of the pileus, and in the stem being obsoletely veined at the base and tomentose toward the gills. Stevenson.

New England, Frost; New York, Peck, Rep. 22.

Edible, Cooke.

C. geo´tropa Bull. Gr.—the earth; Gr.—to turn. From the turned down margin. Pileus 2–5 in. across. Flesh thick, white convex, then plane and finally more or less depressed, obtusely umbonate, the prominence remaining after the pileus becomes depressed, very smooth, even, margin thin, incurved, downy, pale pinkish-tan or buff. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, simple, white, then colored like the pileus. Stem 3–5 in. long, 1 in. or more thick at the base, slightly attenuated upward, compact, fibrillose, colored like the pileus or paler, solid. Spores elliptical, 6–7×4–5µ. Massee.

In woods and on their borders. Often in rings or troops.

Differs from C. maxima in being firmer, glabrous, and color much more variable; from C. gilva in the thinner pileus, less crowded gills, and white flesh.

Spores 5–7µ W.G.S.

In England and on the continent it is considered excellent and superior to most edible fungi.

Found in West Virginia, 1881; Haddonfield, N J., 1891. Spring and autumn. McIlvaine.

Edible, coarse, dry. In stews and mixed to form croquettes or patties, it is a desirable species, owing to its plentifulness.

C. splen´dens Pers.—splendens, shining. Solitary. Pileus 2–3 in. across, flesh rather thick, white, plane then depressed or funnel-shaped, 103glabrous, shining, yellowish. Gills deeply decurrent, narrow, crowded, simple, white. Stem about 1 in. long, 3 lines thick, glabrous, colored like the pileus, solid, slightly thickened at the base or equal. Massee.

In woods, among pine leaves, etc.

Intermediate between C. gilva and C. flaccida. The typical form of C. gilva differs in the compact pileus, often with drop-like markings, the very much crowded, somewhat branched, pale ochraceous gills and flesh. Fries.

Sent to me from Trenton, N.J., by E.B. Sterling.

Edible; quality good, deficient in flavor.

C. inver´sus Scop.—inverto, inverted. Pileus 2–3 in. across. Flesh thin, fragile; convex, soon funnel-shaped, margin involute, glabrous, even, reddish or dull brownish-orange. Gills decurrent, simple, pallid then reddish. Stem about 1½ in. long, 2 lines thick, glabrous, rather rigid, paler than the pileus, stuffed, soon hollow. Spores subglobose, 4µ diameter. Massee.

Among leaves, etc.

Gregarious, subcespitose, forming very large tufts, especially late in the autumn, deformed. Smell peculiar, slightly acid. Stem sometimes stuffed, usually hollow, hence compressed, rather rigid and corticated outside, not elastic, without a bulb, glabrous, whitish; the somewhat rooting base with white down, and often growing together in tufts, variously deformed, curved, ascending, etc. Fries.

Spores subglobose, 4µ Massee; 3µ W.G.S.

Closely resembles C. infundibuliformis, but differs from it in the color of gills and flesh. The entire plant is dark in color. Solitary; in troops; cespitose.

Found in mixed woods. Haddonfield, N.J. Summer and autumn.

That part of the plant which readily breaks away from the stem is tender and of good flavor. The remainder is tough.

C. flac´cida Sow.—flaccidus, limp. Pileus 2–3 in. across, flaccid, orbicular, umbilicate, umbo persistently absent, margin spreading, arched, glabrous, even, rarely cracking into minute squamules, tawny-rust colored, shining, not becoming pale. Flesh thin, pallid, rather fragile when fresh, but quite flaccid when dry. Gills deeply decurrent, 104arcuate, crowded, narrow, about 1 line broad, white, then tinged yellowish. Stem imperfectly hollow, elastic, tough, 1–2 in. long, 2–3 lines thick somewhat equal, polished, naked, reddish-rust color, base thickened, downy. Spores subglobose, 4–5×3–4µ.

Among leaves, etc. Gregarious, stems often grown together at the base. Sometimes solitary and regular. Summer and autumn. Massee.

Spores subglobose, 4–5×3–4µ.

Found in 1886 in West Philadelphia—oak woods. Since in New Jersey, North Carolina, and interior of Pennsylvania.

Edible. Well cooked it compares favorably with C. infundibuliformis and others of like texture.

*** Pileus shining white.

C. cati´na Fr.—catinus, a bowl. Pileus 2 in. broad, at first white, in no wise hygrophanous, then passing into pale flesh-color during rain, and into tan-color in dry weather, fleshy, moderately thin, plane then funnel-shaped, always obtuse, even, smooth. Flesh thin, flaccid, white. Stem 3 in. long, 1½ in. thick, stuffed, internally spongy, elastic, tough, thickened and tomentose at the base. Gills decurrent, straight, descending, not horizontal, broad, not much crowded, persistently white. Fries.

Ray Brook, Adirondack mountains. August. The pileus is at first white, but in wet weather it becomes pallid or discolored with age. The plants were found growing among pieces of bark of arbor vitæ lying on the ground. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Quite common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods among dead leaves. August until frost.

Edible. Excellent in flavor and quality.

Series B.

C. cyathifor´mis Bull.—cyathus, a cup; formis, form. Pileus 1½-3 in. across, flesh thin, plano-depressed when young, then infundibuliform, even, glabrous, hygrophanous, rather slimy and usually dark brown when moist, becoming pale and opaque when dry, undulate in 105large specimens, the margin remains involute for a long time. Flesh watery, similar in color to the pileus, splitting. Gills adnate, becoming decurrent with the depression of the pileus, joined behind, distant, grayish-brown, sometimes branched. Stem spongy and stuffed inside, elastic, at length often hollow, 2–4 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, attenuated upward, brownish-fibrillose, fibrils forming an imperfect reticulation, colored like the pileus or a little paler, apex naked (not mealy), base villous. Massee.

On the ground in pastures and woods, rarely on rotten wood.

Usually blackish-umber, but varies to paler grayish-brown, pinky-tan, pale cinnamon or brownish; then dingy-ochraceous or tan-color. Margin expanded when old, and also indistinctly striate. Fries.

Var. cineras´cens Fr. Pileus up to 1 in. across, thin, infundibuliform, pale smoky-brown. Gills decurrent, yellowish-white. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1½ line thick, grayish, reticulately fibrillose, hollow.

Spores 8×5µ W.G.S.; 10–12×5–6µ, B.; 9×6µ Morgan.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Among leaves in woods. September to October. Gregarious. McIlvaine.

Fair in quality.

C. bruma´lis Fr.—bruma, winter. From its late appearance. Pileus about 1 in. across. Flesh thin, expanded, umbilicate then infundibuliform and usually variously waved and lobed, glabrous, flaccid, hygrophanous, livid, whitish or yellowish when dry, disk often darker. Gills decurrent, about 1 line broad, crowded, pallid. Stem up to 2 in. long and about 2 lines thick, nearly equal, slightly curved, glabrous, whitish, often compressed, imperfectly hollow. Spores 4–5×3–4µ.

In woods, etc.

Truly autumnal, being most abundant in November. There are two forms: (a) on pine leaves in pine woods; (b) among heather. (a) Stem rather firm, hollow, about 2 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal or slightly thickened at the apex, at length compressed, somewhat incurved, glabrous, naked, becoming livid, white when dry, base white and downy. Flesh of pileus membranaceous, at first convex, umbilicate, margin reflexed, about 1 in. across, then funnel-shaped, often irregular and undulate, up to 2 in. broad, glabrous, even, livid when moist, whitish then becoming yellowish when dry, disk at first usually darker. Gills decurrent, at first arcuate, then descending, 1 line broad, crowded, 106distinct, livid then yellowish-white, smell weak, not unpleasant. (b) Entirely watery white; stem hollow, somewhat striate, base glabrous; pileus infundibuliform, margin deflexed, milky-white when dry. Gills less crowded, but rather broader, whitish. Fries.

SporesW.G.S.; 4–5×3–4µ Massee.

Edible. Cooke.

C. morbi´fera Pk.—morbus, disease; fero, to bear. Pileus thin, fragile, glabrous, convex, becoming plane or centrally depressed, slightly hygrophanous, grayish-brown when moist, whitish or cinereous when dry, sometimes slightly umbonate. Gills narrow, close, adnate or slightly decurrent, whitish or pallid. Stem short, equal, hollow, colored like the pileus or a little paler. Spores minute, broadly elliptical, 4µ long, almost as broad.

Pileus .5–1.5 in. broad. Stem about 1 in. long, ⅙–¼ in. thick. Grassy ground and lawns. November. Washington, D.C. F.J. Braendle.

The species seems related to C. expallens, but the margin of the pileus is not striate as in that fungus. The taste is very disagreeable and remains in the mouth a long time. Two persons were made ill by eating it, but their sickness lasted only about three hours. Peck.

I have not seen this species. Its reputation is bad. Caution should be observed.

Pileus bright, of one color.

C. trullisa´ta Ellis. Pileus fleshy, plano-convex, at length depressed in the center, innate fibrous-scaly, becoming smoother on the disk, margin thin. Gills unequal, not crowded, coarse and thick, adnate with a decurrent tooth, at length white pulverulent, purple-violet at first, becoming dark brick-red. Stem stuffed, fibrillose, with a long club-shaped base penetrating deeply into the sand. Spores large, cylindric-oblong, 15–20µ.

In old sandy fields. September to October.

The interior of the stem in the young plant is like the gills, violet-purple, and the club-shaped base is covered with a tomentose coat, to which the sand adheres tenaciously.

107Related to A. laccatus and A. ochropurpureus B.

Resembles the larger forms of A. laccatus, but it has a stouter habit, the pileus is more squamulose, the stem is bulbous or thickened at the base, the mycelium is violet-colored and the spores are oblong. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, November, 1874.

New Jersey, Ellis; New York, Peck, Rep. 33.

Haddonfield, Watertown, N.J. Sandy soil in pine woods. McIlvaine.

Densely cespitose. Caps and stems brown, glutinous and so incrusted with sand that it is almost impossible to clean them. Edible, but not desirable.

C. lacca´ta Scop.—made of lac. (Plate XXIV, fig. 10, p. 82.) Pileus thin, fleshy, convex, sometimes expanded, even or slightly umbilicate, smooth or minutely tomentose-scaly, hygrophanous when moist, dull reddish-yellow or reddish flesh-colored, sometimes striatulate when dry, pallid or pale dull ochraceous. Gills broad, rather thick and distant, attached, not decurrent, flesh-colored. Stem slender, firm, fibrous, stuffed, equal, concolorous.

Height 1–6 in., breadth of pileus 6 lines to 2 in. Common. June to October.

An extremely variable and abundant species occurring almost everywhere throughout the season. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 8–9µ Massee; 8–10µ B.

Var. pallidifo´lia Pk.—pallidus, pale; foliumaf. Gills whitish or pallid, decurrent.

Var. stria´tula Pk.—stria, a furrow. Pileus moist, smooth, thin, showing shading radiating lines, extending from near the center to the margin. In wet or damp places.

A form occurs with a decidedly bulbous base. Gills appearing emarginate with a decurrent tooth.

Clitocybe laccata is made the type of a new genus by Berkeley and Broome. Massee accepts the genus but it is not generally accepted by the standard authors. It is a well defined genus, and a fitting place for C. laccata, C. amethystina, C. ochropurpurea, C. tortilis, which it puzzles anyone to identify as Clitocybe.

C. amethys´tina Bolt.—amethystinus, color of an amethyst. (Plate 108XXIV, fig. 8, p. 82.) Pileus 1–2½ in. across, dark-purple, umbilicate, smooth, minutely tomentose, involute. Gills dark-purple, decurrent, broad. Stem 2–3 in. high, fibrillose, purple, streaked with white fibrils, equal, densely covered with white tomentum at base.

Also written Clitocybe laccata amethystina Sacc.

“In my opinion it is a good species and should be kept distinct as Bolton gave it, and not be tacked on to C. laccata as a variety. I should write it Clitocybe amethystina Bolt.” Peck, letter September 17, 1897.

New York, Peck, Rep. 41; New Jersey, Sterling; Mt. Gretna, Pa., on wood soil, June to frost, 1897–1898, McIlvaine.

Generally included in C. laccata as a variety, and has therefore been reported under that name.

Great quantities of C. amethystina grew in troops on beds made up of wood earth about the cottages at Mt. Gretna, Pa. The woods over them is dense.

The caps are tough, but they cook readily and make a pleasing dish.

C. tor´tilis Bolt.—tortilis, twisted. Pileus membranaceous, convexo-plane then depressed, obscurely marked with radiating striæ. Stem hollow, twisted, fragile. Gills adnate, thick, distant, fleshy-rose, cespitose, small, irregular, pileus and stem rusty in color.

Hard ground in an old road. Sandlake. August. A species closely allied to C. laccata and appearing like an irregular dwarf form of that species. Sometimes cespitose. Peck, 41st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Excepting that this fungus is frequently found with C. laccata, and might be taken for a new species if not here described, it would not be separated from C. laccata.

Its edible qualities are similar.

C. ochropurpu´rea Berk.—ochra, ocher; purpureus, purple. (Plate XXIV, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, p. 82.) Pileus subhemispherical, at length depressed, fleshy, compact, tough, pale yellow, slightly changing to purplish, cuticle easily separable; margin inflexed, at first tomentose. Stem paler, here and there becoming purplish, solid, swollen in the middle, occasionally equal. Gills thick, purple, broader behind, decurrent. Spores white or pale yellow.

Pileus 2 in. broad. Stem 2½ in. high, ¾ in. thick in the center.

August. On clayey soil in woodlands.

109Its spores darken when shed in quantity, have a granulated and light-lilac appearance. It is a solitary grower, sometimes reaching the height of six inches. The upturned, wavy pileus, showing the purple gills in contrast with the pale Naples-yellow of the cap is markedly attractive. The stem is often rough with fibers, hard and tough. The caps are tough. It grows in grassy woods and open places. The novice, even the expert, will be puzzled to place it in its genus.

Specimens were sent to me by Miss Lydia M. Patchen, Westfield, N.Y., and E.B. Sterling, Trenton, N.J. I afterward found many at Mt. Gretna, Pa. I reported their edible qualities to Prof. Peck who wrote, September 3, 1897: “I have often wished it was edible, but it has such a disagreeable flavor when fresh that I have never ventured to eat it. I have known it to be mistaken for the common mushroom, but not eaten.”

Though tough it cooks tender and is excellent. Stew and put in patties or croquettes.

* Gills becoming ash-colored.

C. di´topa Fr. Gr.—twofold; Gr.—a foot. Probably from stems growing two together. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, convex, rarely with a small umbo, smooth, hygrophanous, brown when young and moist, grayish-white when dry. Gills grayish, close, thin, attached, not decurrent. Stem slender, equal, smooth, hollow.

Height 1–2 in., breadth of pileus 6–18 lines. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Pine woods. West Albany. October.

The plant has the odor and taste of new meal. I have seen no specimens with the pileus depressed. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

C. meta´chroa Fr. Gr.—changing color. Separated from C. ditopa by its thicker, depressed pileus, its thicker, less close gills, and the absence of odor.

Pine woods. West Albany. October. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Moderately plentiful in New Jersey pines. September to October.

Edible, tough; when well stewed of good flavor.

110** Gills whitish.

C. compres´sipes Pk.—compressus, pressed together; pes, a foot. Pileus thin, convex or expanded, umbilicate, glabrous, hygrophanous, brownish when moist, whitish or pale yellow when dry, margin thin. Gills close, subarcuate or horizontal, adnate or subdecurrent, whitish. Stem firm, hollow, generally compressed, slightly pruinose. Spores elliptical, 5–6.5×4–4.5µ. Flesh white when dry, odor slight, farinaceous.

Plant gregarious, 1–1.5 in. high. Pileus 6–16 lines broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Grassy places. Albany. July.

The moist pileus is sometimes obscurely zonate. The odor is not always perceptible unless the pileus is moist or broken. The stem is sometimes compressed at the top only, sometimes at the base only, and rarely it is wholly top-shaped. Peck, 33d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found on open lots in West Philadelphia. Though small it usually grows in troops which yield fair quantity. The caps are tender and of good flavor.

C. fra´grans Sow.—fragrans, fragrant. Smell strong, spicy. Pileus about 1 in. across. Flesh rather thick; convex, soon expanded and slightly depressed or umbilicate, even, glabrous, hygrophanous, uniform watery-white, disk not darker, whitish when dry. Gills slightly decurrent, rather crowded, 1 line broad, distinct, whitish. Stem about 2 in. long, equal, slightly curved, elastic, glabrous, whitish, stuffed then hollow.

In woods among moss, etc.

Distinguished from other species resembling it in color and size, by the fragrant smell resembling aniseed. Massee.

Spores 6×4µ. W.G.S.

Found in West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. July to severe frosts. McIlvaine.

Edible. The strong taste of anise is not lost in cooking.

C. pino´phila—pine loving. Pileus thin, convex, umbilicate or centrally depressed, glabrous, moist, pale tan-color, paler or alutaceous when dry. Gills moderately close, subarcuate, adnate or slightly decurrent, whitish. Stem equal, stuffed or hollow, glabrous or subpruinose, 111colored like the pileus. Spores nearly elliptical, 4–6µ long; odor and taste resembling that of fresh meal.

Plant 1–2 in. high. Pileus about 1 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Ground under pine trees. Albany and Ticonderoga. July and August. Peck, 31st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Quite plentiful in pine woods of New Jersey. Edible; pleasant.

Gr.—a small coin.

Pileus fleshy, usually thin, margin incurved at first, not corrugated. Stem different in substance from the pileus, but confluent with it; hollow, with a cartilaginous bark, internally cartilaginous or soft, often rooting. Gills free or obtusely adnexed, membranaceous, soft.

Growing on the ground, wood, leaves and decaying fungi.

In Clitocybe and Tricholoma the substance of the stem and pileus is alike; they differ in the character of the stem. Tricholoma has no distinct bark-like coat, and in Clitocybe the stem is covered with minute fibers. In Mycena as in Collybia the stem is different in substance from the pileus, but is distinguished by the margin of the pileus being straight. It is most closely allied to Marasmius, which is characterized by its tough coriaceous substance, which when dried fully revives and expands on being moistened. The line between them can not always be closely drawn, and there are numerous species which it is difficult to place with certainty in either genus. This does not apply to the fleshy edible species of this genus as they are quite distinct from Marasmius.

Peck’s 49th Report contains a monograph of the New York species of Collybia, supplemented by one of those found in other states.

Several common, prolific, long-season, delicious fungi occur in this genus. They vary in size from “a small coin” to five inches across. They grow in woods, on wood, on ground, on leaves, on lawns and among moss and grass in shaded places. The writer has tested many species raw, and eaten small quantities cooked, which are not herein described for the reason that not enough of a species was found to test to full extent. So far as is reported and as his experience goes, there is not a poisonous species in Collybia. Many of them are strong in odor.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.                 Plate XXIX.

Series A. Gills White or Brightly Colored, Not Gray. Flesh White.
Striæpedes (striate-stemmed). Page 113.

Stem stout, hollow or imperfectly filled with a spongy pith; grooved or striate with fibers.

113* Gills broad, rather distant.

** Gills narrow, crowded.

Vestipedes (clothed-stemmed). Page 118.

Stem thin, equal, hollow or with a pith, even, velvety, downy or covered with a bloom.

* Gills broad, rather distant.

** Gills very narrow, closely crowded.

Lævipedes (even-stemmed). Page 120.

Stem thin, equal, hollow, naked, smooth—except the base—apparently not striate, but some species are minutely striate under a lens.

* Gills broad, lax, usually more or less distant.

** Gills narrow, crowded.

Series B. Gills Becoming Gray. Hygrophanous.
Tephrophanæ. Page —-.

Color brownish becoming gray. Allied to the last section of Tricholoma and Clitocybe, but distinguished from them by the cartilaginous stem.

Some are strong scented. None known to be edible.

* Gills broad, rather distant.

C. radica´ta Relh.—radix, a root. (Plate XXIX, p. 112.) Pileus 1½-4 in. across, from convex to nearly plane, broadly umbonate, frequently wrinkled toward and at the umbo, glutinous when moist. Color variable, usually brown in grayish shades, from dark to almost white. Flesh thin, white, elastic. Gills white, thick, tough, distant, ventricose, adnexed, rounded or notched behind like Tricholoma, sometimes with a decurrent tooth. Stem 4–8 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, smooth, firm, same color as pileus, tapering upward, becoming vertically striate or grooved, often twisted, ending in a long, tapering, pointed root deeply planted in the earth.

Spores elliptical, 14–15×8–9µ Massee; 11×17µ W.G.S.; 11×9µ W.P.; 16–17×10–11µ B.

114Often sombre, but erect, neat and handsome. Growing solitary and in troops in woods, usually near stumps, if much decayed, sometimes on them, or on shaded lawns and grassy places. June to October.

Var. furfu´racea Pk. Stem furfuraceous, less distinctly striate.

Var. pusil´la Pk. Plant small. Pileus about 1 in. broad, passing gradually into the typical form. Stem slender.

Professor Peck says: “The variety furfuracea is common and connects this species with C. longipes, which has a villose stem and dry velvety pileus.” 49th Rep.

Common to the United States. Edible. Curtis, according to Dr. F. Peyre Porcher of Charleston, S.C., was the first to declare this edible.

A very attractive species. The purity of its gills is especially noticeable. I began eating it in 1881, and it has continued to be a favorite. The caps should be broiled or fried. They are sweet, pleasing in texture, and delicately flavored.

C. platyphyl´la Fr. Gr.—broad; a leaf. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 1, p. 114.) Pileus 3–4 in. broad, dusky and gray then whitish, fleshy-membranaceous, thin, fragile, soon flattened, obtuse, watery when moist, streaked with fibrils. Stem 3–4 in. long, ½ in. thick, stuffed, soft, equal, fibrilloso-striate, otherwise smooth, naked or obsoletely powdered at the apex, whitish, shortly and bluntly rooted at the base. Gills obliquely cut off behind, slightly adnexed, ½ in. and more broad, distant, soft, white.

Odor not remarkable. It inclines toward the Tricholomata in the somewhat membranaceous cuticle of the soft stem. Fries. Spores 13×19µ W.G.S.

Solitary, gregarious, rarely clustered. On rotten wood, roots, ground near stumps, among leaves, etc. June to October.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.       Plate XXVIII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Collybia platyphylla, 114 3. Collybia dryophila, 120
2. Collybia platyphylla (after rain), 114 4. Collybia fusipes, 116

Distinguished by the very broad and deeply emarginate gills, which frequently slope up behind to near the cap then with a short turn downward connect with the stem which is either stuffed or hollow, and by the abundant, cord-like rooting mycelium. The gills are very broad. Professor Peck says: “The species is quite variable. The pileus is sometimes irregular and even eccentric, the thin margin may be slightly striate, is often split and in wet weather may be upturned or revolute. The lamellæ are sometimes ½ in. broad or more and transversely split. They may be obscurely striated transversely and even veiny above with 115venose interspaces. Occasionally a slight anise-like odor is perceptible, but in decay the plants have a very disagreeable odor and disgusting appearance.” 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, 1880–1885; Haddonfield, N.J., 1896. Gregarious, and in large bunches. Mt. Gretna and Eagle’s Mere, Pa., 1897, McIlvaine.

When fresh, in good condition, the caps are good, but they are not nearly equal in substance or flavor to C. radicata and C. longipes. They are best broiled or fried.

Var. re´pens Fr. Pileus more fleshy, depressed. Stem hollow, compressed, pruinate at the apex, with a creeping, string-like mycelium.

It is best distinguished by its white, villous, anastomosing, very much branched mycelium which creeps a long distance in a rooting string-like manner. The so-called roots are quite different from the stem, not a prolongation of the stem itself. Fries.

Clearly a variety of C. platyphylla. C. platyphylla is quite variable, even puzzling. Edible qualities the same.

C. long´ipes Bull.—longus, long; pes, a foot. Pileus 1–2 in. across, conical then expanded, umbonate, dry, minutely, beautifully velvety. Color from pale to date-brown, sometimes umber. Flesh white, thin, elastic. Gills white, broad, tough, thick, adnexed, distant, ventricose, rounded behind, emarginate. Stem 4–6 in. long, 2–4 lines thick, tapering upward, usually densely and minutely velvety like the cap, nearly same color, with a long, tapering root.

On much decayed stumps and logs. July to October. Closely resembles C. radicata. It is readily distinguished by its velvety cap and stem. It is more glutinous.

Spores spheroid, 12µ Q.

California. Edible. H. and M.

West Virginia mountains, 1880–1885; Cheltenham, Pa., 1889. McIlvaine.

Excepting from California, C. longipes has not previously been reported as found in the United States. It is not plentiful in the forests of West Virginia, yet I often found it upon rotting stumps and logs, solitary, but up to a dozen in the same vicinity. It is unmistakable. Its rich yet dull velvety cap and stem and the purity of its gills hold the finder’s admiration.

116The caps fried or broiled are delicious, resembling in every way those of C. radicata.

C. fu´sipes Bull.—fusus, a spindle; pes, a foot. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 4, p. 112.) Pileus 1–3 in. broad, reddish-brown, becoming pale and also dingy-tan, fleshy, convex then flattened, umbonate (the umbo at length vanishing), even, smooth, dry, here and there broken up in cracks when dry. Stem 3 in. and more long, commonly ½ in., but here and there as much as 1 in. broad, fibrous-stuffed then hollow, remarkably cartilaginous externally, swollen, ventricose in the middle, attenuated at both ends, often twisted, longitudinally furrowed, red or reddish-brown, rooted in a spindle-shaped manner at the base. Gills annulato-adnexed (joined into a ring), soon separating, free, broad, distant, firm, connected by veins, crisped, white then becoming somewhat of the same color as the pileus, often spotted. Stevenson.

Spores 6×3µ W.G.S.; 4–5×2–4µ B.

Solitary, gregarious, usually densely clustered on decaying wood, roots, etc. August until after heavy frosts.

West Virginia, 1882, McIlvaine.

In the West Virginia mountains C. fusipes is frequent. Caps in the clusters rarely exceed 1½ in. across. They show an auburn or burgundy shade of brown in their color. When young they are smooth and appear to remain so unless rained upon or moistened, when they crack more or less finely in drying. At first the connection of the gills with the stem is peculiar—they join in a collar-like ring at the top of the stem. As the cap expands the gills part more or less and separate from the stem. The stem is markedly spindle-shaped, though variously flattened by compression in dense clusters; the outside often splitting, breaking and turning out from the stem.

The caps, alone, are good, the stem being hard and refractory. The caps are very fine, cooked in any way.

The caps dry well, and are a pleasant addition to gravies, soups and other dishes. They make a choice pickle.

** Gills narrow, crowded.

C. macula´ta A. and S.—macula, a spot. Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, even, glabrous, white or whitish, sometimes varied 117with reddish spots or stains. Flesh white. Gills narrow, crowded, adnexed, sometimes nearly or quite free, white or whitish. Stem generally stout, firm, equal or slightly swollen in the middle, striate, white, stuffed or sometimes hollow, commonly narrowed at the base, rooting, often curved at the base, rarely slightly thickened and blunt. Spores subglobose, 4–6µ broad, sometimes showing a slight point at one end.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 2–4 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Var. immacula´ta Cke. This differs from the type in having no reddish spots or stains.

This species is easily recognized by its large size, firm or compact substance and white color. It grows in soil filled with decaying vegetable matter or on much decayed wood. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Philadelphia, Pa. Weed grown lot near University of Pennsylvania. September to frost. Grew gregariously over a large lot. The plants varied greatly in size and appearance. The gills of most were crenulate (scalloped). Assorted specimens were sent Professor Peck who wrote: “They are all forms of C. maculata.”

The caps were stewed and eaten in abundance by many, and pronounced “Fine.”

(Plate XXX.)

Collybia butyracea.

C. butyra´cea Bull.—butyrum, butter; buttery to the touch. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, normally reddish-brown, but becoming pale, fleshy, convex then expanded, more or less umbonate, dry, even, smooth. Flesh buttery, soft, somewhat hygrophanous, flesh-color then white. Stem 2–3 in. long, attenuated upward from the thickened white downy base, hence much thinner at the apex, 2–3 lines only, but at the base ½-1 in. thick, externally covered over with a rigid cartilaginous cuticle, internally stuffed with soft spongy pith, or hollow only when old, striate, reddish, commonly smooth, but varying with white deciduous scales, and occasionally wholly downy with soft hairs. 118Gills slightly adnexed, somewhat free, thin, crowded, notched at the edge, white, never spotted-reddish. Stevenson.

Spores 6–10×3–5µ B.; elliptical, 7–9×4–5µ.

Cap greasy looking. Umbo dark.

The color of the cap is variable. The species differs from C. dryophila in having an umbonate pileus, slightly uneven gill-edges and stem which tapers upward.

Solitary and in troops under coniferous trees. Spring, autumn.

West Virginia, Chester county and Eagle’s Mere, Pa., McIlvaine.

The caps cook quickly, are tender and have a good flavor.

* Gills broad, rather distant.

(Plate XXIXb.)

Collybia velutipes.
Natural size.

C. velu´tipes Curt.—velutum, velvet; pes, a foot. Pileus 1–4 in. broad in the same cluster, tawny, sometimes paler at the margin, moderately fleshy at the disk, but thin at the circumference, convex then soon becoming plane, often eccentric, irregular and bent backward, smooth, viscous; margin spreading and at length slightly striate. Flesh watery, soft, slightly tawny-hyaline. Stem 1–3 in. long, 1–4 lines thick, tough, externally cartilaginous, umber then becoming black, densely, minutely velvety, commonly ascending or twisted, commonly equal, even, internally fibrous-stuffed and hollow. Gills broader and rounded behind, slightly adnexed, so as at first sight to appear free, somewhat distant, very unequal, becoming pallid-yellow or tawny. Fr.

Spores ellipsoid, 7µ W.G.S.; 6×4µ B.; elliptical, 7×3–3.5µ Massee.

Our American plant, common to the states, is rarely found attaining such dimensions. Its usual size is from 1–2 in. across, more frequently 119at 1–1¼. It is generally found in clusters more or less dense. The color varies from yellowish to a dark yellowish-brown. The center is darker than the margin. The cap viscid when moist, often irregular from crowding. Gills may be rounded or notched at their attachment to the stem, whitish or yellowish. Stem usually hollow, 1–4 in. long, 1–3 lines thick, whitish when young becoming colored with the dense brownish velvety hairs.

It grows on stumps, roots in the ground, trunks and earth heavily charged with wood matter. I have found it in every month of the year. The heavier crop appears in September, October and November, and lasts until long after heavy frosts. Then sporadic clusters spring up wherever the winter sun gives them encouragement.

It sometimes does considerable damage to the tree so unfortunate as to be its host. It begins its growth upon some injured or decayed spot and by continually insinuating itself under the surrounding bark it, by its mycelium and growth, pries the bark away from the wood until the tree is entirely denuded.

It is a valuable species, not only on account of its continuous growth, but because of its plentifulness and excellent substance.

** Gills very narrow, closely crowded.

C. con´fluens Pers.—Pileus ¾-1½ in. broad, thin, tough, flaccid, convex or nearly plane, obtuse, rarely somewhat umbonate, glabrous, hygrophanous, reddish grayish-red or reddish-brown and often striatulate on the margin when moist, pallid, whitish or grayish when dry. Lamellæ narrow, crowded, free, whitish or yellowish-gray. Stem 2–5 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, equal, cartilaginous, hollow, clothed with a short dense somewhat pulverulent whitish pubescence or down. Spores minute ovate or subelliptical, slightly pointed at one end, 5–6×3–4µ.

Among fallen leaves in woods. Common. July to October.

The plants commonly grow in tufts, but sometimes in lines or arcs of circles or scattered. They revive under the influence of moisture and thereby indicate an intimate relationship to the genus Marasmius. The pileus varies much in color, but commonly has a dull reddish or russety tinge when moist, sometimes approaching bay-red. It fades in drying and becomes almost white or grayish-white, but sometimes the center remains more deeply colored than the margin. The stem is commonly 120rather long in proportion to the width of the pileus. Occasionally it is somewhat flattened either at the top or throughout its entire length. Sometimes the stems become united at the base which union is suggestive of the specific name. Peck, 49th Rep.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, McIlvaine. July to frost.

The caps of C. confluens are of excellent substance and flavor. Their quantity makes up for their small size. I have gathered them 2 in. across, but their average size is about 1 in. They dry well.

* Gills broad, more or less distant.

C. esculen´ta Wulf.—esculent. Pileus ½ in. and more broad, ochraceous-clay, often becoming dusky, slightly fleshy, convex then plane, orbicular, obtuse, smooth, even or when old slightly striate. Flesh tough, white, savory. Stem 1 in. and more long, scarcely 1 line thick, or thread-like and wholly equal, obsoletely tubed, tough, stiff and straight, even, smooth, slightly shining, clay-yellow, with a long perpendicular, commonly smooth, tail-like root. Gills adnexed, even decurrent with a very thin small tooth, then separating, very broad, limber, somewhat distant, whitish, sometimes clay-color.

Gregarious but never cespitose. The tube of the stem is very narrow. Stevenson.

The smallest edible Collybia. Cooke. Edible. In dense woods. Curtis. It is dried and preserved. Cordier.

In pastures and grassy places. Spring and early summer.

Edible, but rather bitter flavor. In Austria, where it is in great plenty in April, large baskets are brought to market under the name of Nagelschwämme—nail mushrooms.

Professor Peck describes C. esculentoides Pk., 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot., which he states: “Differs from the type in its paler and more ochraceous color and in its farinaceous flavor, and is related to the European C. esculenta from which it differs essentially in the umbilicate pileus and in the absence of any radicating base to the stem.”

** Gills narrow, crowded.

C. dryophil´a Bull. Gr.—oak-loving. (Plate XXVIII, fig. 3, p. 112.) Pileus 1–3 in. across, bay-brown-rufous, etc., becoming pale, but not 121hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, tough, convexo-plane, obtuse, commonly depressed in the center, even, smooth; margin at first inflexed then flattened. Flesh thin, white. Stem 1–3 in. long, 1–3 lines thick, cartilaginous, remarkably tubed, thin, even, smooth, somewhat rooting, commonly becoming yellow or reddish. Gills somewhat free, with a small decurrent tooth, but appearing adnexed when the pileus is depressed, crowded, narrow, distinct, plane, white or becoming pale.

There are numerous monstrous forms which are very deceiving: a. Stem elongated, waved, decumbent, inflated at the base; pileus broader, lobed; gills white. b. Funicularis, larger, cespitose, the lax and decumbent stem equal and hairy at the base, gills sulphur-yellow. These forms, analagous with A. repens Bull., occur on heaps of leaves. c. Countless specimens growing together in a large cluster; stems thick, inflated, irregularly shaped, sulcate, brown, the mycelium collecting the soil in the form of a ball; pileus very irregularly shaped, full of angles, undulated, blackish then bay-brown. In gardens. Stevenson.

Spores elliptic-fusiform, 7–8×4µ; 6µ W.G.S.

Professor Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot., gives the following: Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, sometimes with the margin elevated, irregular, obtuse, glabrous, varying in color, commonly some shade of bay-red or tan-color. Flesh white. Lamellæ narrow, crowded, adnexed or almost free, white or whitish, rarely yellowish. Stem equal or sometimes thickened at the base, cartilaginous, glabrous, hollow, yellowish or rufescent, commonly similar in color to the pileus. Spores, 6–8×3–4µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick.

Woods, groves and open places. Common. June to October.

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. McIlvaine.

C. dryophila is so common and variable that descriptions would fail to cover it in its eccentricities. The writer has eaten it in all the forms obtained since 1881. A very pretty form grew in large quantities among pine needles at Eagle’s Mere, Pa., in August, 1897. It was cooked and served at the hotel table. Many ate it and were delighted.

Dr. Badham refers to a case in which illness was caused by eating it. In my eighteen years' experience with it, knowing it to have been enjoyably eaten by scores of persons, I have not heard of the slightest discomfort from it.

122C. spinulif´era Pk.—spinula, a little thorn. Pileus fleshy, thin, convex or nearly plane, glabrous, hygrophanous reddish tan-color tinged with pink and slightly striatulate on the margin when moist, paler when dry, adorned with minute colored spinules or setæ. Gills narrow, close, rounded behind and free, pale cinnamon-color, becoming somewhat darker with age, spinuliferous. Stem slender, tough, glabrous, shining, hollow, reddish-brown, often paler or whitish at the top, especially in young plants, with a whitish myceloid tomentum at the base. Spores elliptical or nearly so, 4µ.

Plant cespitose. Pileus 8–16 lines broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, about 1 line thick.

Prostrate trunks and ground among leaves in woods. Lewis county. September.

In this species the lamellæ, under a lens, appear to be minutely pubescent or velvety. This is due to the colored spinules or setæ which clothe them. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Angora, Pa. September, 1897. Among moss in mixed woods. September to frost. McIlvaine.

Specimens identified by Professor Peck. Stems of some tapered at base.

Excepting the extreme base of stems the whole plant is tender and of good flavor.

(Plate XXXI.)

Collybia Acervata (young).

C. acerva´ta Fr.—acervus, a heap. Pileus fleshy but thin, convex or nearly plane, obtuse, glabrous, hygrophanous, pale tan-color or dingy pinkish-red and commonly striatulate on the margin when moist, paler or whitish when dry. Gills narrow, close, adnexed or free, whitish or tinged with flesh-color. Stem slender, rigid, hollow, glabrous, reddish, reddish-brown or brown, often whitish at the top, especially when young, commonly with a white matted down at the base. Spores elliptical, 6×3–4µ.

Plant cespitose. Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, about 1 line thick.

123Decaying wood and ground among fallen leaves in woods. Adirondack mountains. August and September. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

This very pretty plant resembles forms of C. dryophila. The coloring of the stems is often extremely delicate, like paintings upon rice paper.

West Virginia mountains; Eagle’s Mere, Pa. August to frost. McIlvaine.

The entire plant is tender, delicate and of fine flavor. In these qualities it is not distinguishable when cooked from the smaller forms of C. dryophila.

124MYCE´NA Fr.
Gr.—a fungus.

(Plate XXXII.)

Mycena Galericulata.

Pileus regular, rarely depressed in the center, thin, usually streaked with longitudinal lines, at first conico-cylindrical, margin at the first straight, closely embracing the stem which is attenuated upward. Stem hollow, slender, cartilaginous. Gills adnate or adnexed, sometimes with a small tooth, never decurrent. Spores white.

Generally small and slender, growing on branches, twigs, heaps of leaves, sometimes on the ground, some minute species on single dead leaves. Long, rooting stems are not uncommon. Clitocybe and Omphalia are separated by their decurrent gills and in Collybia the margin is at first incurved.

In this genus the species of the various sections are not always distinguished by single sharply defined characteristics, so that it will sometimes be necessary to pay attention to all the features. Species with a thread-like stem are found in other sections than Filipedes and some of the Lactipedes are slippery when moist, but not truly viscous.

Calodontes (kalos, beautiful; odontes, teeth). Page 126.

Stem juiceless, not dilated into a disk at the base. Edges of gills darker, minutely toothed.

Adonideæ (Adonis, referring to beauty). Page 126.

Stem juiceless, not dilated at the base. Gills of one color, not changing color. Color pure-colored, bright, not becoming brownish or gray. On the ground.

125Rigipedes (rigid-stemmed). Page 126.

Stem firm, rigid, rather tough, juiceless, more or less rooting. Gills changing color, white, then gray or reddish, generally at length connected by veins.

Tough, persistent, inodorous, usually on wood, very cespitose, but individuals of the same species sometimes grow singly on the ground.

Fragilipedes (fragile-stemmed). Page 130.

Stem fragile, juiceless, fibrillose at the base, scarcely rooting. Pileus hygrophanous. Gills becoming discolored, at length somewhat connected by veins.

Thin, fragile, often soft, normally growing singly on the ground. A few strong smelling, cespitose on wood.

Filipedes (thread-stemmed). Page 130.

Stem thread-like, flaccid, somewhat tough, rooting, juiceless, generally extremely long in proportion to the pileus. Gills becoming discolored, paler at the edge.

Straight, growing singly on the ground; inodorous. Pileus dingy-brown, becoming paler.

Lactipedes (milky-stemmed). Page 130.

Gills and rooting stem milky when broken.

Glutinipedes (glutinous-stemmed). Page 131.

Stem juiceless but externally sticky with gluten. Gills at length decurrent with a tooth.

Basipedes (base-stemmed). Page 131.

Stem dry, rootless, the base naked and dilated into a disk or small hairy bulb. Growing singly, slender, soon becoming flaccid.

Insititiæ (insero, to insert or graft). Page 131.

Stem very thin, dry, growing as if inserted in the supporting surface, not downy, not disk-like at the base.

Gills adnate with a small decurrent tooth. Small, very tender, becoming flaccid with the first touch of the sun.

126Mycena is a large genus composed of small species. About sixty members have been found in America. They are from ½ to 1 in. across the cap, with thin stems and altogether delicate appearance. Yet the flesh of most of them has a gummy consistency in the mouth, and they shrink but little in stewing. Heretofore not any appear to have been reported as edible, probably because the size of the species has not attracted experimenters. While some have a strong odor and taste of radishes, and one species is bitter, it is probable that all are edible. The writer has eaten, raw and cooked, small quantities (all he has found) of many species not here reported as edible, which will, when further tested, be reported upon.

The substance and flavor of those here given is remarkably pleasant. Their late coming, hardiness and abundance are commendable qualities.

I.—Calodon´tes. Stem juiceless. Gills minutely toothed.
None tested.
II.—Adoni´deæ. Stem juiceless. Gills of one color, etc.
None tested.
III.—Rigidi´pedes. Stem rigid. Gills at first white, changing
color, etc.

M. prolif´era Sow.—proles, offspring; fero, to bear. (Plate X, figs. 6, 7, p. 28.) Pileus ⅔-1¼ in. across, slightly fleshy, expanded bell-shape, dry, the broad umbo darker (dingy-brown), slightly striate, and at length furrowed or rimosely split at the margin (pale yellowish or becoming brownish-tan). Stem 2½-3 in. long, firm, rigid, smooth, shining, slightly striate, rooted. Gills adnexed, somewhat distinct, becoming pale white.

Inodorous, only at length nauseous. Very closely allied to M. galericulata, in habit approaching nearest to M. cohærens. The stems are pallid at the apex, but slightly tawny-bay-brown below, and glued together by hairy down at the base. There is a white form with transparent stem—on trunks. Fries.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. On ground in grass. Mycelium spreading on leaves. McIlvaine.

127Found in great plenty. Base of stems is sometimes white when in dense tufts.

The whole plant is tender, cooking in fifteen minutes, and is of fine flavor. No one will want a better fungus.

M. rugo´sa Fr.—ruga, a wrinkle. Pileus ash-color but becoming pale, very tough, slightly fleshy at the disk, otherwise membranaceous, bell-shaped then expanded, at length rather plane, somewhat obtuse, more or less corrugated (unequal with elevated wrinkles), always dry, not moist even in rainy weather, striate at the circumference. Stem commonly short, remarkably cartilaginous, tubed, rigid, tough, straight, at length compressed, even, smooth, pallid, with a short oblique hairy root. Gills arcuato-adnate, with a decurrent tooth, united behind in a collar, somewhat distant, connected by veins, broad, ventricose, white then gray, edge sometimes quite entire, sometimes with saw-like teeth.

Always inodorous. Formerly connected with M. galericulata. M. rugosa is arid, very tough, more rarely cespitose, the pileus firm, somewhat obtuse, wrinkled but without striæ, the gills arcuato-adnate with a hooked tooth, white then ash-color. The genuine M. galericulata is fasciculato-cespitose, somewhat fragile, the pileus thinner, at first conical and umbonate, striate without wrinkles, the gills adnate, with a decurrent tooth, white then flesh-color. Between these there is a long series of intermediate forms. Fries.

California, H. and M.; Kansas, Cragin; Wisconsin, Bundy; New York, September, Peck, 46th Rep.; West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. On decaying wood and ground near stumps. August to November. McIlvaine.

The tenacity frequently occurring in Mycena is well shown in this species. The caps and stem cook tender, but it is better to discard the stems, as the two do not become tender at the same time.

M. galericula´ta Scop.—galericulum, a small peaked cap. (Plate Plate X, fig. 5, p. 28.) Pileus somewhat membranaceous, conical bell-shaped then expanded, striate to the umbo, dry, smooth, becoming brownish-livid or changeable in color. Stem rigid, polished, even, smooth, with a spindle-shaped root at the base. Gills adnate, decurrent with a tooth, connected by veins, whitish and flesh-colored.

Very protean. Normally growing in bunches, the numerous stems 128(never sticky) glued together with soft hairy down at the base. But it occurs also solitary, larger, pileus as much as 2 in. broad, wrinkled-striate. The essential marks by which it is distinguished from A. rugosa are these: Stem in general thinner, less tense and straight, often curved, more fragile. Pileus membranaceous, conico bell-shaped, umbonate, striate but not corrugated, moist in rainy weather. Gills adnate, with a decurrent tooth, more crowded, whitish then flesh-colored. The color both of the pileus (normally dingy-brownish then livid) and of the stem (normally becoming livid-brownish) is much more changeable than that of A. rugosa, becoming yellow, rust colored, etc. It is not so tough and pliant as A. rugosa. Forms departing from the type are very numerous; the most beautiful is var. calopus (Gr., beautiful; Gr., a foot) with chestnut-colored stems, united in a spindle-shaped tail. Fries.

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, 9–10×6–8µ K.; 8–11×4–6µ B.; 6–7×4µ Massee.

Common. Autumnal. Very variable. On trunks, fallen leaves.

Two well-marked varieties of this very variable species were observed the past season. One grows on the ground among fallen leaves. It has a dark brown pileus, close lamellæ and a very long stem, generally of a delicate pink color toward the top. It might be called var. longipes. The other grows under pine trees, has a broadly convex or expanded grayish-brown pileus and a short stem. It might be called var. expansus. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

M. alcalina is closely allied to it (M. galericulata), but has a stronger alkaline odor and a rather more fragile stem. In one of your specimens I detect a slight incarnate tint to the gills, and this is pretty conclusive evidence that it belongs to M. galericulata. Species of Mycena are not generally reckoned among edible fungi or even promising fungi; I suppose on account of the thin flesh of the cap, but of course it is possible to make up in numbers what is lacking in size. I am glad to know you have found this to be an esculent one.” Letter Professor Peck to C. McIlvaine, October 5, 1893.

The caps and stems when young make as good a dish as one cares to eat. The substance is pleasant, and the flavor delicate. They are best stewed slowly in their own fluids, after washing, for ten minutes and seasoned with pepper, salt and butter.

M. parabo´lica Fr.—shaped like a parabola. Pileus becoming black 129at the disk, inclining to violaceous, otherwise becoming pale, whitish, somewhat membranaceous, at first erect and oval, then parabolic, obtuse, never expanded, moist, somewhat shining when dry, smooth, even, striate toward the entire margin. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1 line thick, tubed, tense and straight but not very rigid, thickened and bearded-rooted at the base, pale below, dark violaceous above, when young white-mealy, otherwise even, smooth, dry. Gills simply adnate, ascending, somewhat distant, rarely connected by veins, quite entire, white, somewhat gray at the base.

Stem less rigid than that of A. galericulatus. Truly gregarious or cespitose. Fries.

Spores 12×6µ B.; elliptical, 11–12×6µ Massee.

Trenton, N.J. June. E.B. Sterling; West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, on decaying stumps, trunks of oak, chestnut, poplar, pine. June until far into the winter. McIlvaine.

Plant up to 2½ in. high. Caps usually about ½ in., but reaching ¾ in.

A neat, attractive plant, whether single or in dense tufts. Its smell is strong of fresh meal, and taste of that delicate flavor one finds in the succulent base of the round, swamp rush, when pulled from its sheath—one that every country school boy and girl knows. It is pleasant raw, and delicious when cooked.

M. latifo´lia Pk.—latus, broad; folium, a leaf. Pileus convex, rarely somewhat umbonate, striatulate, grayish-brown. Gills white, broad, hooked, decurrent-toothed. Stem slender, smooth, hollow, subconcolorous, white-villous at the base.

Height 1–1.5 in., breadth of pileus 4–6 lines. Stem .5 lines thick.

Under pine trees. Center. October.

A small species with quite broad gills, growing among the fallen leaves of pine trees. Gregarious. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. Among pine needles, scattered, sometimes four or five in a cluster. September to October. McIlvaine.

Autumnal. Not rare. The caps though small are tenacious in the mouth and lose little in cooking. The substance is agreeable and flavor fine.

130IV.— Fragili´pedes. Stem fragile, juiceless, etc. None tested.
V.—Fili´pedes. Stem thread-like, etc.

M. collaria´ta Fr.—collare, a collar. Pileus ½ in. and more broad, typically dingy-brown, but becoming pale, commonly gray-whitish, becoming brownish only at the disk, membranaceous, bell-shaped then convex, somewhat umbonate, striate, when dry rigid, smooth, not soft nor slightly silky. Stem about 2 in. long, tubed, thread-like but almost 1 line thick, tough, dry, smooth, even or slightly striate under a lens, becoming pale. Gills adnate, joined in a collar behind, thin, crowded, hoary-whitish or obsoletely flesh-colored.

The gills are somewhat distant when the pileus is expanded. There is not a separate collar as in Marasmius rotula; the gills are only joined in the form of a collar, and remain cohering when they separate from the stem. Fries.

Spores 8–10×4–6µ B.

New York. Old stumps and rotten logs. June. Peck, 23d Rep. Mt. Gretna, Pa. Cespitose on decaying wood. July, September and October. McIlvaine.

Very much like M. galericulata, but gills not connected by veins. The caps usually have a pinkish hue, often brownish. The stems are not as tender as the caps. The flavor is excellent.

VI.—Lacti´pedes. Stem and gills milky, etc.

M. hæma´topa Pers. Gr.—blood; Gr.—a foot. Pileus about 1 in. broad, white flesh-color, fleshy-membranaceous, slightly fleshy chiefly at the disk, conical then bell-shaped, obtuse, nay convex and spuriously umbonate, naked, even or slightly striate at the margin, which is at the first elegantly toothed. Stem 2–4 in. long, 1 line and more thick, remarkably tubed, rigid, normally everywhere powdered with whitish, delicate, soft hairy down, sometimes, however, denuded of it. Gills adnate, often with a small decurrent tooth, the alternate ones shorter, in front disappearing short of the slight margin of the pileus, whitish and wholly of the same color at the edge.

Cespitose (very many of the stems conjoined and hairy at the base), 131firm, stature almost that of M. galericulata, wholly abounding with dark blood-colored juice.

On stumps. Frequent. September. Stevenson.

Spores spheroid-ellipsoid, 10×6–7µ K.

I find a non-cespitose form of this species with red-margined gills. Its red juice, however, will serve to distinguish it and show its true relations. Peck, 31st Rep.

Common in tufts like M. galericulata and of about the same size, but is readily distinguished by its red juice. This pretty plant can often be gathered in considerable quantity, and well repays the collector.

VII.—Glutini´pedes. Stems gelatinous, etc.
None tested.
VIII.—Basi´pedes. Stem dilated at base, etc.
None tested.
IX.—Insiti´tiæ. Stem inserted.
None tested.
(Plate XXXIII.)

Hiatula Wynniæ.

Hio, to gape.

Pileus symmetrical, very thin, without a distinct pellicle, formed by the union of the backs of the gills, splitting when expanded. Gills almost or quite free, white. Stem central. Spores white.

Allied to Lepiota in the thin pileus and free gills, but differing in the entire absence of a ring. Not at all deliquescent as in the genus Coprinus, near to which it was at one time placed by Fries. Massee. Reported from North Carolina.

Gr.—belonging to an umbilicus.
(Plate XXXIV.)

Omphalia Umbellifera.
Enlarged about two sizes.

Pileus generally thin, usually umbilicate at first, then funnel-shaped, often hygrophanous, margin incurved or straight. Gills truly decurrent from the first, sometimes branched. Stem distinctly cartilaginous, polished, tubular, often stuffed when young. Flesh continuous with that of the pileus but differing in character. Spores white, somewhat elliptical, smooth.

Generally on wood, preferring hilly woods and a damp climate.

Resembling Collybia and Mycena in the flesh of stem and pileus being different in texture and in the externally cartilaginous stem. It is perfectly separated by the gills being markedly decurrent from the first.

133The American species of Omphalia number between thirty-five and forty. Many of them are common. Few woods are free from them. Several of them are beautiful. They are usually small and lacking in substance. Raw, the writer has not found one that is objectionable in any way; a few have a woody taste. But two species have been found by him in sufficient quantity to make a dish. It is probable that all are edible. At best the species of Omphalia are valuable in emergency only.


* Pileus dilated from the first, margin incurved.


Pileus campanulate at first, margin straight and pressed to the stem.

* Pileus dilated from the first; margin incurved.

O. onis´cus Fr. Gr.—a wood-louse. From the ashy color. Pileus scarcely 1 in. broad, dark ashy becoming pale, gray-hoary when dry, somewhat membranaceous, or slightly fleshy, flaccid, fragile when old, convexo-umbilicate or funnel-shaped, often irregular, undulato-flexuous, even-lobed, smooth, even, margin striate. Stem 1 in. long, 1 line and more thick, stuffed then tubed, slightly firm, moderately tough, sometimes round, curved, sometimes unequal, compressed, ascending, undulated, gray. Gills shortly decurrent, somewhat distant, quaternate, ash-color. Not cespitose. Fries.

Spores 12×7–8µ B.

Massachusetts, Sprague; California, H. and M., who record it as edible.

O. umbellif´eraumbella, a little shade; fero, to bear. From its umbrella-like shape. (Plate XXXIV, p. 132.) Pileus about ½ in. broad, commonly whitish, slightly fleshy-membranaceous, convex then plane, broadly obconic with the decurrent gills, not at all or only slightly umbilicate, hygrophanous, when moist watery, rayed with darker striæ, 134when dry even, changeable in appearance, silky, flocculose, rarely squamulose, the margin, which is at first inflexed, crenate (scalloped). Stem short, not exceeding 1 in. long, almost 1 line thick, stuffed then soon tubed, slightly firm, equal or dilated toward the apex into the pileus, of the same color as the pileus, commonly smooth, but varying pubescent, white villous at the base. Gills very broad behind, triangular, decurrent, very distant, edge of the gills straight.

Cosmopolitan. The common form is to be found everywhere from the sea level to 4,000 feet. Stevenson.

Spores 3×4µ W.G.S.; 10×4µ W.P.; green variety 10×6µ W.P.; broadly elliptical, 8–10×5–6µ Peck.

O. umbellifera is known the world over. It is very variable in size and color. With us it is seldom over ¾ in. broad. Stem ½-1 line thick. It grows on decaying wood and ground full of decaying material. There are several varieties. All are edible, but not worth describing. This description is given that the student may recognize one of our common plants, and eat it, if very hungry.


O. campanel´la Batsch.—campana, a bell. Pileus thin, rather tough, hemispherical or convex, glabrous, umbilicate, hygrophanous, rusty yellow-color and striatulate when moist, paler when dry. Gills moderately close, arcuate, decurrent, yellowish, the interspaces venose. Stem firm, rigid, hollow, brown, often paler at the top, tawny-strigose at the base. Spores elliptical, 6–7×3–4µ.

Pileus 4–8 lines broad. Stem about 1 in. long, scarcely 1 line thick.

Much decayed wood of coniferous trees. Very common. May to November. Peck, 45th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores ellipsoid, 6–8×3–4µ C.B.P.; 7×3µ W.P.; 6–9×3–4µ B.

The quantity alone, in which this small species can be found, makes it worth mentioning as an edible species. It is common over the United States where coniferous trees abound. Its favorite habitat is upon the rotting debris of these trees. Occasionally it grows from the ground, but only from that which is heavily charged with woody material. It is social in troops, or affectionate in clusters, or maintains a single existence.

It is edible, of good substance when stewed, tender and of fair flavor.


Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.            Plate XXXV.

Gr.—a side; Gr.—an ear.

Stem excentric, lateral or none. Epiphytal (very rarely growing on the ground), irregular, fleshy or membranaceous. Fries.

The excentric, generally lateral stem, absent in some of the species, separates this from other genera of the white-spored series.

Pileus varying from fleshy in the larger to membranaceous in the smaller forms, but never becoming woody. Veil generally wanting, when present its remains sometimes appear on the margin of the pileus, or as an evanescent ring on the stem. Gills, edge acute, generally decurrent, in some species with a well-marked tooth, rarely simply adnate. Stem fleshy, confluent and homogeneous with the pileus.

Wood, dead or alive; a few species appear on the ground.

P. ulmarius and others of the larger forms, when growing in an upright position, may have the stem central and the pileus horizontal. The stems of some species of Clitocybe and Omphalia if growing laterally are sometimes excentric and oblique.

This genus is analogous to Claudopus, pink-spored, and Crepidotus, brown-spored.

Spores white, but those of P. sapidus are faintly tinged with lilac, and of P. ostreatus, var. euosmus, with purple.

Excentrici. Page 137.

Pileus entire, laterally extended, excentric, not truly lateral.

* Veil fugacious, fragments adhering to stem or margin of pileus.

** Veil none, gills sinuate or obtusely adnate.

*** Veil none, gills very decurrent, stem distinct, almost vertical.

**** Veil none, gills very decurrent, stem proper absent, pileus lateral, extended behind into a short, stem-like oblique base.

Dimidiati. Page 144.

Pileus not at first resupinate, lateral, prolonged without a definite margin behind, into a very short lateral, stem-like base.

136Resupinati. Page 146.

Pileus resupinate from the first, then reflexed.

If any odium attaches to the word toadstool, it should be forgotten and forever banished in presence of this cleanly, neat, handsome genus, choice in its growing places from lichen-covered stumps, or bark-clad boles, or highly perched limbs, or the scented surfaces of decaying wood. Several of its species perfume themselves throughout with pleasant spicy odors. Many are most accommodating in their constant coming.

Mr. H.I. Miller, superintendent Terre Haute and Indianapolis Railroad, writes: “Most of the mushroom books give greatest space to the A. campester. For some parts of the country this may be desirable, but for Indiana and Ohio, considering the food value, the P. ostreatus is the best fungus we have in these states, from the fact that anybody wanting a mess can nearly always obtain a basketful of this variety, whereas the others depend upon a good many weather conditions. Having located a few logs and stumps in the spring, where the P. ostreatus grows, these same stumps and logs can be used all season. The crops are successive, and while some of the spots seem to be barren for a few days at a time, the others will be bearing. It does not make much difference what the kind of log or stump, whether it be beech, oak or elm, or what the species of tree. I think I have found them on all our forest trees, and it is not necessary for the tree to be dead. If there is a decaying portion, the spores seem to be carried by the little black beetle that infests the ostreatus, from one place to another, and wherever a small spot of dead wood is found we are likely to find the P. ostreatus. This being the only edible mushroom that we can find in large quantities all through the season in this neck of the woods, it seems to me that a general knowledge of it will serve the economic purpose more than any other fungi.”

The presence of the P. ostreatus and its esculent companions is noted from our northern boundary to the gulf. Poplar, maple, birch, hickory, ash, apple, laburnum and oak trees are its favored residences. Deer feed upon it, and kine are attracted by its scent even when deep under snow. When properly selected and slowly cooked, the Pleuroti are toothsome.

From the fact that the spores of this fleshy and valuable genus find 137fostering lodgment in many trees when in decay, it is more than probable that the several species can be propagated by planting their spores upon such decaying woods, or by transplanting the mycelium.

Growths of P. ostreatus, P. sapidus, P. salignus, and probably other species of Pleurotus, can be forced, by watering the spots upon which they are known to grow. Dr. Kalchbrenner mentions that the P. sapidus is in this way cultivated in Hungary. Acting upon this mention the writer had good success with P. ostreatus. Experiments in this direction are likely to be interesting and rewarding.

No species is suspected of being noxious.

An analysis of P. ostreatus is given by Lafayette B. Mendel, Sheffield Laboratory of Physiological Chemistry, Yale University, as follows:

Water 73.70%
Total solids 26.30
The dry substance contained:
Total nitrogen 2.40
Extractive nitrogen 1.27
Protein nitrogen 1.13
Ether extract 1.6
Crude fiber 7.5
Ash 6.1
Material soluble in 85% alcohol 31.5
American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 1, No. 11, March 1, 1898.
*Veil fugacious, etc.

P. dry´inus Pers. Gr.—oak. Pileus 2 in. broad, whitish, variegated with spot-like scales which become dingy-brown, lateral, oblique, rather plane. Flesh thick. Stem very curt and obese, commonly 1 in. long and thick, somewhat lateral, somewhat woody, squamulose, white, with a short, blunt root. Veil scarcely conspicuous on the stem, but appendiculate round the margin of the pileus when young. Gills not very decurrent, somewhat simple, not anastomosing behind, narrow, white, becoming yellow when old.

On trunks, oak, ash, willow, etc. Stevenson.

Spores 10×4µ Massee.

Edible. Cordier, Cooke.

When young the caps are tender; of the consistency, when cooked, of 138Polyporus sulphureus. In taste and smell the species varies from other Pleuroti, in having a distinct musk-like flavor. This is agreeable, reminding one of the common mushroom—A. campester.

**Veil none, gills sinuate, etc.

P. ulma´rius Bull.—ulmus, an elm. Pileus 3–5 in. and more broad, becoming pale-livid, often marbled with round spots, fleshy, compact, horizontal, moderately regular although more or less excentric, convex then plane, disk-shaped, even, smooth. Flesh white, tough. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1 in. thick, solid, firm, elastic, somewhat excentric, curved-ascending, thickened and tomentose at the base, not rarely villous throughout, white. Gills horizontal, emarginate or rounded behind, slightly adnexed, broad (broader in the middle), somewhat crowded, whitish.

The pileus is sometimes cracked in a tessellated manner. Stevenson.

Spores nearly globose, 5µ long Morgan; 5–6.5µ broad Peck; 6µ W.G.S.

Var. aceri´colaacer, maple; colo, to inhabit. Plant smaller, cespitose.

Trunks and roots of maple trees. Adirondack mountains. September.

Var. populi´colapopulus, poplar; colo, to inhabit. Plant subcespitose, stem wholly tomentose. West Albany. Peck, Monograph, N.Y. Species of Pleurotus, Rep. 39.

The gills are sometimes torn across like those of Lentinus.

The historic elms of Boston Common have borne copious crops of this well-known and easily distinguished species from time immemorial. Every fall, about the first of September, if the season is favorable, later if not, copious crops appear decorating the trunks, and branches, sometimes at a height of thirty or forty feet. Growth takes place where branches have broken off or the trees have been wounded from other causes. They occur very generally on elms in the outlying districts of the city, but are rare in the country, seeming to be distinctly urban in their tastes. No damage is apparent from their growth.

Immediately in the rear of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, a fine cluster appears with equal autumnal regularity.

Though the elm tree is the chosen habitat of this fungus, it is little less select in its choice than other members of its genus.

139When young and small P. ulmarius is tender and of acceptable flavor. The stems and centers of older specimens should be cut away, and the tender parts of the caps, only, used.

P. tessula´tus Bull.—tessela, a small cube for pavement. Pileus becoming pale-tawny, horizontal, compactly fleshy, convex then plane, and in a form which is somewhat lateral depressed behind, irregular, even, smooth, variegated with round and hexagonal paler spots. Flesh thick, white. Stem short, 1 in. or little more long, solid, compact, equal or attenuated at the base, very excentric, curved-ascending, even, smooth, white. Gills sinuate behind, uncinato-adnate, thin, crowded, white or becoming yellow.

Solitary; according to some cespitose. The pileus is not cracked in a tessellated manner, as one might easily imagine from the name, but variegated with spots. Smaller than A. ulmarius (to which it is too closely allied), but almost more compact, with a smell of new meal.

On trunks. Stevenson.

North Carolina, Schweinitz. Edible. Curtis. Edible. Cordier.

On specimens growing cespitose and singly, found at Haddonfield, N.J. September, 1895, on trunk of apple tree, and at Eagle’s Mere, Pa., singly on sugar maple, August, 1898, the margin of caps were beautifully marked, but not cracked.

In quality it is better than P. ulmarius.

P. subpalma´tus Fr.—sub and palma, a palm. Pileus 3–5 in. across. Flesh thick, soft, variegated; convex then more or less flattened, irregularly circular, obtuse, wrinkled, smooth, with a gelatinous cuticle, rufescent. Stem excentric or almost lateral, but the pileus is always marginate behind, fibrillose, short, equal, flesh fibrous, soft. Gills adnate, 3–4 lines broad, crowded, joined behind, dingy. Massee.

On old trunks, squared timber, etc.

Very remarkable for having the flesh variegated as in Fistulina hepatica. Pileus, especially when young, covered with a viscid pellicle. Fr.

Spores minutely echinulate, nearly globose, 5.6×7µ Morgan.

Ohio, Morgan; Wisconsin, Bundy.

I frequently found this species in North Carolina, growing from oak ties and standing oak timber. I did not notice distillation of rufescent drops from the cap. The soft flesh had good flavor. The gelatinous 140cuticle imparts its character to the dish. Mixed with Lentinus lepideus, a much tougher plant, which grows in great abundance in the same localities, it makes toothsome food.

P. lignati´lis Fr.—lignum, wood. Dingy whitish. Pileus 1–4 in. broad, rarely central, commonly more or less excentric, occasionally wholly lateral, often kidney-shaped, fleshy, thin, but compact and tough, fissile, convex then plane, obtuse and often umbilicate, flocculoso-pruinate, at length denuded with rain, repand, margin at first involute then expanded, undulato-lobed when luxuriant. Stem sometimes 2–3 in., sometimes 3–4 lines long (even obliterated), stuffed then hollow, always thin, unequal, curved, curved or flexuous, tough and flexile, whitish, everywhere pruinato-villous, rooting and somewhat tomentose at the base. Gills adnate, very crowded and narrow, unequal, divergent in the lobes, shining white. Fries.

Exceedingly variable, wholly inconstant in form; substance thin and pliant; commonly densely cespitose, but also single. Odor strong of new meal.

On wood, beech, etc. Stevenson.

Parasitic on a rotten plant of Polyporus annosus on elm. W.G.S.

White and grayish-white, margin faintly striate; white-spotted, odor distinctly farinaceous. C.M.

Spores 3–4µ long, Morgan, Cooke, W.G.S.; 4–5µ K.

Var. abscon´dens Pk.—obscure. New York, Peck, Rep. 31, 39.

On trunks, scattered, sometimes loosely clustered. Griffins, Delaware county, N.Y. September. New York, Peck, Rep. 31, 39.

Kingsessing, near Philadelphia; Mt. Gretna, Pa. McIlvaine.

This is a good species in every way. I have not found it in extended quantity, but it is probable that it will be found in plenty when closer observed and better known.

P. circina´tus Fr.—to make round. Wholly white, not hygrophanous. Pileus about 3 in. broad, orbicular, horizontal, fleshy, tough, convex then plano-disk-shaped, obtuse, even, but covered over with a shining whitish slightly silky luster. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, stuffed, elastic, equal, central or slightly excentric, commonly straight, smooth, bluntly rooted at the base. Gills adnate, slightly decurrent, crowded, broad (as much as 3 lines), white. Fries.

141An exceedingly distinct species. Regular, solitary, with a weak, pleasant, not mealy odor. The pileus is a little thicker than that of A. lignatilis, but less compact; the gills are twice as broad. As A. lignatilis is changeable, this is always constant in form.

On rotting birch stump. Stevenson.

California, H. and M.

Found at Eagle’s Mere, Pa., August, 1898, on birch trees. Generally solitary; sometimes six or eight on one tree, beautifully shining white, at a distance resembling young Polyporus betulinus. Large quantities of it grow in the extensive birch forests at Eagle’s Mere, yielding a ready food supply. Its flavor is pleasant, and texture, when cooked, quite tender.

P. pubes´cens Pk.—pubes, down or soft hair. Pileus fleshy, convex, suborbicular, pubescent, yellowish. Gills broad, subdistant, rounded behind, sinuate, pallid tinged with red. Stem short, firm, curved, eccentric, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 8µ broad.

Pileus about 2 in. broad. Stem scarcely 1 in. long.

Trunks of trees. Lyndonville. C.E. Fairman. Peck, 44th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, on oak trunks. McIlvaine.

High, agreeable flavor; texture about as in P. ostreatus.

*** Gills decurrent; stem distinct, etc.

(Plate XXXVI.)

Section of Pleurotus sapidus.
One-half natural size.

P. sa´pidus Kalchb.—savory. Cespitose, or several pilei appearing to spring from a common branched stem. Pileus 1–3 in. across. Flesh thick, excentric, regular, convex or obtusely gibbous then depressed, glabrous, white or brownish. Stem stout, solid, several usually springing from a thickened knob, whitish, 1–2 in. long, expanding upward into the pileus. Gills decurrent, rather distant, narrow, whitish. Spores elliptical, 10–11×4–5µ.

On elm trunks.

A very variable species; according 142to Kalchbrenner, the spores have a faint tinge of lilac, and the pileus is white, tawny, brownish, or umber on the same trunk. The white form only has been met with in this country. Massee.

Spores with a lilac tinge, oblong or a little curved and pointed, 8.3×3.7µ Morgan; oblong, 9–11.5×4–5µ Peck; 10–11×4–5µ Massee.

Not observed in England until 1887.

Quite common throughout the United States, growing upon decaying wood, whether above or under ground. It has few distinct features. The only positive one distinguishing it from P. ostreatus is its lilac-tinted spores. The tint is faint but noticeable upon white background. Excepting for purposes of the student, its separation, as a species, from P. ostreatus is not necessary. When old it has more body than the latter, but is equally superior as a food fungus.

Professor Peck remarks of it: “A stew made of it is a very good substitute for an oyster stew.”

It can be cultivated by watering the places upon which it is known to appear.

P. pome´ti Fr.—pometum, an orchard. Pileus white, fleshy, soft, sub-flaccid, irregular, involute, convex, even, smooth, disk depressed. Gills decurrent, crowded, separate behind. Stem 2–3 in. high, 3–4 lines thick, excentric, solid, tough, ascending, rooting.

On trunks of pear and apple trees.

Especially distinguished by the rooting stem.

North Carolina, edible, Curtis; California, H. and M.

**** Gills decurrent. Stem lateral, etc.

P. ostrea´tus Jacq.—ostrea, an oyster. (Plate XXXV, p. 134, XXXVa, p. 142.) Pileus 3–5 in. broad, when young almost becoming black, soon becoming pale, brownish-ash color, passing into yellow when old, fleshy, soft, shell-shaped, somewhat dimidiate, ascending, smooth, moist, even, but sometimes with the cuticle torn into squamules. Stem shortened or obliterated, firm, elastic, ascending obliquely, thickening upward, white, strigoso-villous at the base. Gills decurrent, anastomosing behind, somewhat distant, broad, white, sometimes turning light yellow, and without glandules.

For the most part cespitose, imbricated, very variable, sometimes 143almost central. The pileus is at first convex and horizontal, then expanded and ascending. Stevenson.

Spores 10–12×4–5µ Massee; 7.5–10×4µ Peck.

General over the United States.

Var. glandulo´sus Ag. g. Bull.—With the habit of the typical form, but larger. Pileus dark brown, becoming pale. Gills white, with scattered small wart-like or glandular bodies.

On trunks. A very constant but somewhat rare variety; easily known by the dark-brown pileus. The gland-like bodies on the gills are due to the outward growth of the hyphæ of the trama in minute patches here and there. Massee.

Var. euos´mus Berk.—strong-smelling. Strong scented, imbricate. Pileus fleshy, depressed, shining, silky when dry, at first white with a tinge of blue, then brownish. Stem short or obsolete. Gills decurrent, ventricose, dingy, white. Spores 12–14×5µ, pale pinkish-lilac.

On elm trunks. Pilei very much crowded, 2 in. or more across, deeply depressed, unequal, at first white, invested with a slight blue varnish, at length of a pale brown. Stems distinct above, connate below. Gills rather broad; running down to the bottom of the free portion of the stem. Spores oblong, narrow, oblique, white, tinged with purple. The whole plant smells, when first gathered, strongly of tarragon. B. and Br.

Found at Richmond, Ind., Dr. J.R. Weist. On hickory stump at Mt. Gretna, Pa., McIlvaine; Haddonfield, N.J., T.J. Collins.

This esculent fungus closely allied to P. ostreatus, and differing only in having lilac spores, has been followed from book to book by a bad reputation, probably because of its “rosy” or lilac spores—all fungi having pink spores having been, until recently, ignorantly branded by authors as poisonous. The writer has eaten meals of it many times, as have his friends. It is in every way equal to P. ostreatus.

The rare qualities of this species are stated in the descriptive heading of the genus. Its very name implies excellence. The camel is gratefully called the ship of the desert; the oyster mushroom is the shellfish of the forest. When the tender parts are dipped in egg, rolled in bread crumbs, and fried as an oyster they are not excelled by any vegetable, and are worthy of place in the daintiest menu.

P. salig´nus Schwam.—salix, willow. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, sooty 144ash-color or ochraceous, fleshy, compact, spongy, somewhat dimidiate, horizontal, at first pulvinate, even, at length depressed behind and here and there strigose, the incurved margin entire. Stem always short, firm, more or less tomentose. Gills horizontal, hence less manifestly decurrent, separate behind, but branched in the middle, crowded, dingy, often eroded at the edge, not glandular.

Among the larger and firmer species. Solitary, scarcely ever cespitose. It is commonly confounded with A. ostreatus, but is certainly a different species. Although the stature is in general the same, it is easily distinguished by the pileus being more compact, and more pulverulent when young, then depressed, by the gills being thinner, more crowded, somewhat branched, but not anastomosing behind, and dingy soot-color; the spores also are dingy. Stevenson.

Spores oblong or cylindrical-oblong, 8×4µ W.G.S.; 8–10×3–4µ B.

Dr. Curtis wrote of this: “Indeed I have found several persons who class this among the most palatable species. To such persons a dish of fresh mushrooms need seldom be wanting, as this one can be had every month of the year in this latitude.”

In New Jersey, in the vicinity of Philadelphia, Pa., I have found P. salignus in quantity. It has been sent to me by Dr. J.R. Weist, of Richmond, Ind., who writes, “I have eaten it with great enjoyment.”

In 1881 I found it frequently on water beeches and willows, and thoroughly tested its edible qualities. R.K. Macadam, Boston.

When young or fresh, it is quite equal to any Pleurotus. When old, as with others of the Pleuroti, it is tough. Nevertheless their margins are always edible unless decaying.


P. petaloi´des Bull.—petal of a flower. Pileus 1–2 in. long, dingy-brown, becoming pale, dimidiate, fleshy, but in no wise compact, rather plane, somewhat spathulate, continuous with the stem and depressed behind, hence the villous down of the stem ascends to this point (the disk) of the pileus, otherwise smooth, even, margin at first involute then expanded. Stem about ½ in. long, sometimes however very short, solid, firm, compressed, channeled when larger, more or less villous, whitish. Gills decurrent, very crowded, very narrow (scarcely beyond 2 mm. broad), linear, very unequal, white then ash-color.

145Taste bitter. The form on wood is somewhat horizontal, gregarious here and there imbricated. Stevenson.

Spores 9–10×4µ Massee; 8×4µ W.G.S.; minutely globose, 3–4µ Peck.

Edible. Cooke, Cordier.

P. spathula´tus Pers.—shaped like a spathula. Pileus rather thin, 1–2 in. broad, ascending, spathulate, tapering behind into the stem, glabrous, convex or depressed on the disk and there sometimes pubescent, alutaceous or brownish tinged with gray, red or yellow. Gills crowded, linear, decurrent, whitish or yellowish. Stem compressed, sometimes channeled above, grayish-tomentose. Spores elliptical, 7.6×4–5µ broad; odor and taste farinaceous.

Ground. Sandlake. June. Edible.

It grows singly or in tufts and is an inch or more in height. The margin is thin and sometimes striatulate and reflexed. Toward the base the flesh is thicker than the breadth of the gills. The cuticle is tough and separable. The flesh is said by Gillet to be tender and delicate. Persoon describes the disk as spongy-squamulose, but in our specimens it is merely pubescent or tomentose. Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Recorded as edible by Professor Peck. At Eagle’s Mere, Pa., I found many specimens agreeing with this description. They grew from decaying wood under ground, yet had the appearance of growing from the earth. It is probable that others have been deceived. In quality I found this to be one of the best.

P. sero´tinus Fr.—late. Pileus fleshy, 1–3 in. broad, compact, convex or nearly plane, viscid when young and moist, dimidiate kidney-shaped or suborbicular, solitary or cespitose and imbricated, variously colored, dingy-yellow, reddish-brown, greenish-brown or olivaceous, the margin at first involute. Gills close, determinate, whitish or yellowish. Stem very short, lateral, thick, yellowish beneath and minutely tomentose or squamulose with blackish points. Spores minute, elliptical, 5µ long, 2.5µ broad.

Dead trunks of deciduous trees. Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1887, and at Mt. Moriah, near Philadelphia, from August until November, 1898. Upon these findings the pileus was tomentose at base, as was the short stem.

146The species is not noticeably viscid after its youth. The viscidity can be detected in old specimens by moistening the pileus. Its flavor is not marked, nor is its texture as pleasing as most others of its genus, but being a late species it satisfies the longing of the mycophagist for his accustomed food.

P. pulmona´rius Fr.—pulmo, lung, from texture. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, ash-colored, continuous with the stem, fleshy, soft, but tough, flaccid, obovate or kidney-shaped, plane or reflexo-conchate at the margin, even, smooth. Flesh thin, soft, white. Stem very short, solid, exactly lateral, horizontal or ascending, round, villous, expanded into the pileus. Gills decurrent but ending determinately, moderately broad, distinct, not branched or anastomosing at the base, livid or ash-color.

The primary form is solitary. The pileus is ashy-tan when dried. It differs from A. salignus alike in the definitely lateral stem and in the thin flaccid pileus. Fries.

Not previously reported.

Found by Miss Madeleine Le Moyne, Washington, Pa., September, 1898, and sent to writer. Gills 3 lines broad, not narrow in proportion to flesh.

Taste and smell similar to P. ostreatus. Cooked it is tender, and more succulent than P. ostreatus.


P. mastruca´tus Fr.—mastruca, a sheepskin. Pileus up to 2 in. long and 1 in. broad, sessile, at first resupinate then expanded and horizontal, often lobed, upper stratum of pileus gelatinous, brown, bristling with squarrose or erect squamules. Flesh thickish. Gills radiating from the point of attachment, broad, rather distant, grayish-white.

On old trunks. Imbricated. Readily distinguished by the brown, squarrosely scaly pileus. Massee.

Spores oblong, oblique, 8×5µ Morgan.

In June, 1886, the writer found this species in oak woods near Philadelphia. It grew on fallen trunks and on decaying spots of living timber.

It is edible, and of good flavor, but is rough in the mouth. If found in quantity, the extract of it would make a delicate soup.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.        Plate XXXVII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Hygrophorus pratensis (white var.), 152 5. Hygrophorus cantharellus, 156
2. Hygrophorus pratensis (colored var.), 152 6. Hygrophorus virgineus, 153
3. Hygrophorus pratensis (after rain), 152 7. Hygrophorus niveus, 153
4. Hygrophorus miniatus, 159
Gr.—moist; Gr.—to bear.

(Plate XXXVIII.)

Hygrophorus pratensis.

Pileus regular or undulated and wavy, often viscid or moist. Flesh of the pileus continuous with that of the stem and descending as a trama into the gills. Gills adnate or adnexed, more or less decurrent, waxy, often thick and forked, edge always thin and sharp, often branched.

On the ground. Many species are brightly colored. Spores white.

This genus differs from the preceding genera in the manifest trama, the substance of which is similar to that of the pileus; from Lactarius and Russula by the trama not being vesicular, but somewhat floccose with granules intermixed; from Cantharellus, its nearest ally, by the sharp edge of the gills. The Cortinarii, Paxilli and Gomphidii are at once distinguished from it by their colored spores and the changing color of their gills, as well as by other marks. From all the other genera of Agaricini it is distinguished by a mark peculiar to itself, viz., by the hymeneal stratum of the gills changing into a waxy mass, which is at length removable from the trama. This altogether singular character is specially remarkable in H. caprinus, coccineus, murinaceus, etc. Hence the gills seem full of watery juice, but they do not become milky like those of the Lactarii. Fries.

From the description by Fries, the author of the genus, it is manifest that one has to wait the ripening of the fungus before the peculiar characteristic mark of the genus, i. e.—gills turning into a waxy mass, easily removable from the cap—can be observed. Many of the species are difficult to determine when fresh. Nevertheless, there is an indescribable, watery, waxy, translucent appearance about the gills which catches the eye of the expert, and is soon learned by the novice. The white spores readily separate the genus from kindred shapes in the colored-spored genera.

So far as tested none of the species is poisonous. One English species 148is fetid. It is probable that they are all edible, varying in quality only. Fries well, and is superior in croquettes and patties.

Limacium (limax, a slug). Page 148.

Universal veil viscid, with occasionally a floccose partial one, which is annular or marginal.

* White or becoming yellowish.

** Reddish.

*** Tawny or yellow.

**** Olivaceous-umber.

***** Dingy cinereous or livid.

None known to be edible.
Camarophyllus (Gr.—a vault; a leaf). Page 152.
(From the arched shape of the gills.)

Veil none. Stem even, smooth or fibrillose, not rough with points. Pileus firm, opaque, moist after rain, not viscid. Gills distant, arcuate.

* Gills deeply and at length obconically decurrent.

** Gills ventricose, sinuately arcuate or plano-adnate.

Hygrocybe (Gr—moist; Gr—the head). Page 155.

Veil none. Whole fungus thin, watery, succulent, fragile. Pileus when moist viscid, shining when dry, rarely floccoso-scaly. Stem hollow, soft, without dots. Gills soft. Most of the species are brightly colored and shining. This tribe is the type of the genus.

* Gills decurrent.

** Gills adnexed, somewhat separating.

* White or yellowish-white.

H. chry´sodon Fr. Gr—gold; a tooth. From tooth-like squamules. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, white, shining when dry, but commonly yellowish with minute adpressed squamules at the disk, light yellow-flocculose at the involute margin, fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, viscid. Flesh 149white, sometimes reddish. Stem 2–3 in. long, about ½ in. thick, stuffed, soft, somewhat equal (sometimes, however, irregularly shaped or thickened at the base), white, with minute light yellow squamules, which are more crowded and arranged in the form of a ring toward the apex. Gills decurrent, distant, 3 lines broad, thin, white, somewhat yellowish at the edge, sometimes crisped.

Odor not unpleasant. There is a manifest veil, not woven into a continuous ring, but collected in the form of floccose squamules at the apex of the stem and the margin of the pileus. Var. leucodon with white squamules. Fries.

In woods.

The lamellæ are said to be crisped, and when young, to have the edge yellow-floccose; but I have seen no such specimens. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 8×4µ Cooke.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. McIlvaine.

A pleasant, excellent species, whose rarity is regrettable.

H. ebur´neus Bull. Fr.—ebur, ivory. Wholly shining white. Pileus fleshy, sometimes thin, sometimes somewhat compact, convexo-plane, somewhat repand, even, very glutinous in rainy weather, margin soon naked. Stem sometimes short, sometimes elongated, stuffed then hollow, unequal, glutinous like the pileus, rough at the apex with dots in the form of squamules. Gills decurrent, distant, veined at the base, 3–4 lines broad, tense and straight, quite entire. Fries.

Odor mild, not unpleasant. Very changeable. The veil is absent, unless the very plentiful gluten which envelops the stem be regarded as a universal veil; margin of the young pileus involute, only at the first pubescent, soon naked. The stem is soft internally, at length hollow, attenuated toward the base.

In woods and pastures. Frequent. September to October. Stevenson.

The whole plant is pure white when fresh, but in drying the gills assume a cinnamon-brown hue. Peck, Rep. 26.

Spores 6×5µ Cooke; 4×5µ W.G.S.; 5–6µ K.; 6×4µ C.B.P.

A common and wide-spread species frequenting woods and pastures.

Edible. Curtis.

The author ate it in West Virginia, in 1882; at Devon, Pa., 1887; 150Haddonfield, N.J., 1890. It is well flavored but in texture is not of first quality.

H. pena´rius Fr.—penus, food. Pileus tan-color, opaque, fleshy, especially when young, at first umbonate, then very obtuse, hemispherical then flattened, even, smooth, commonly dry, margin at first involute, exceeding the gills, undulated when flattened. Flesh thick, hard, whitish, unchangeable. Stem curt, 1½ in. or more long, about ½ in. thick at the apex, solid, compact, hard, attenuated at the base into a spindle-shaped root, ventricose to the neck, again attenuated upward or wholly fusiform-attenuated, pale-white, smeared with tenacious, easily dried slime, warty. Flesh firm, but externally more rigid, cuticle somewhat fragile. Veil not conspicuous. Gills adnato-decurrent, acute behind, distant, thick, 3–4 lines broad, veined, tan inclining to pale. Fries.

Odor pleasant, taste sweet. The fusiform root is as long as the stem.

In mixed woods. Stevenson.

Spores 7–8×4–5µ.

Edible. Cooke.

Large specimens occurred in mixed woods, in November, 1898, at Mt. Gretna. The caps varied from 1½-5 in. across. The color was white, tinged with yellow, much lighter than described. The caps look coarse and the stems are not inviting; but the caps have a pleasant odor. When stewed for twenty minutes they are meaty and tasty.

** Reddish.

H. erubes´cens Fr.—erubesco, to become red. Pileus 2–4 in. and more broad, white becoming everywhere red, fleshy, gibbous then convexo-plane, viscid, adpressedly dotted with squamules or becoming smooth, sometimes wholly compact, sometimes thin towards the margin which is at the first naked. Flesh firm, white. Stem sometimes short, robust, 2 in. long, 1 in. thick and attenuated upward, sometimes elongated, 4 in. long, equal or attenuated at the base, solid, flexuous, with red fibrils, dotted with red upward. Gills decurrent, distant, soft, white, with red spots. Fries.

Veil none. The ground color is white, as it is also internally, but it 151everywhere becomes red and the pileus often rosy blood-color. Handsome, growing in troops, commonly forming large lax circles.

In pine woods. Stevenson.

Spores ellipsoid, very obtuse at both ends, 8–10×4–5µ K.; 8×4µ Cooke.

Edible. Cooke.

*** Tawny or yellow.

H. ni´tidus B. and Rav.—shining. Pileus thin, fleshy, convex, broadly umbilicate, smooth, shining, viscid, pale yellow with the margin striatulate when moist, nearly white when dry. Gills arcuate, decurrent, yellow. Stem slender, brittle, smooth, viscid, hollow, yellow. Flesh yellow.

Height 2–4 in., breadth of Pileus 8–12 lines. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Swamps. Sandlake. August.

The cavity of the stem is very small. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found in many states and places, usually on moist ground beside streams, or spring heads. It sometimes parades itself in irregular processions, at others in sparse patches. It is delicate in flavor, and tender cooked.

**** Olivaceous-umber.

H. limaci´nus Fr.—limax, a slug. Pileus 1½-2½ in. broad, disk umber then sooty, paler round the margin, fleshy, convex then flattened, obtuse, smooth, viscid. Flesh rather firm, white. Stem 2–3 in. long, ½ in. thick, solid, firm, ventricose, sticky, flocculose, fibrilloso-striate, roughened with squamules at the apex. Gills adnate, then decurrent, somewhat distant, thin, white inclining to ash-color. Fries.

Veil entirely viscous, not floccose.

In woods among damp leaves. Stevenson.

Spores 12×4µ Cooke.

New York, Peck, Rep. 34. Thin woods and open places.

Reported edible Bulletin No. 5, 1897, Boston Mycological Club.

H. hypoth´ejus Fr. Gr.—under; Gr—sulphur (under gluten). Pileus 1–2 in. broad, at first smeared with olivaceous gluten, ash-colored, when the gluten disappears, becoming pale and yellowish, orange 152or rarely (when rotting) rufescent, fleshy, thin, convex then depressed, obtuse, even, somewhat streaked. Flesh thin, white then becoming light yellow. Stem 2–4 in. long, 2–3 lines and more thick, stuffed, equal, even, viscous, but rarely spotted with the veil, at length hollow. Partial veil floccose, at the first cortinate and annular, soon fugacious. Gills decurrent, distant, distinct, at first pallid (even whitish) soon yellow, sometimes flesh-color. Fries.

Very protean, changeable in color and variable in size. Stem not scabrous. There is no trace of the veil when the plant is full grown. Appearing after the first cold autumn nights, and lasting even till snow.

In pine woods. Frequent. Stevenson.

Spores 10×6µ Cooke; 12×4µ W.G.S.

Hollis Webster, in Bulletin No. 5, 1897, Boston Mycological Club, writes: “H. hypothejus Fr., when dried, is crisp and nutty, and very good to carry in the pocket for occasional nibble.”


* Gills deeply decurrent, etc.

H. praten´sis Fr.—pratum, a meadow. (Plate XXXVII, figs. 1, 2, 3, p. 146. Plate XXXVIII, p. 147.) Pileus 1–2 in. and more broad, somewhat pale yellowish, compactly fleshy especially at the disk, thin toward the margin, convex then flattened, almost top-shaped from the stem being thickened upward, even, smooth, moist (but not viscous) in rainy weather, when dry often rimosely incised, here and there split regularly round. Flesh firm, white. Stem 1½-2 in. long, ½ in. and more thick, stuffed, internally spongy, externally polished-evened and firmer, attenuated downward, even, smooth, naked. Gills remarkably decurrent, at first arcuate, then extended in the form of an inverted cone, very distant, thick, firm, brittle, connected by veins at the base, very broad in the middle, of the same color as the pileus. Fries.

Very protean. Veil none. The flesh of the pileus is formed as it were of the stem dilated upward. The typical form resembles the Cantharelli. Everywhere becoming light yellow-tawny, but varying with the stem and gills pale-white.

In pastures. Common. Stevenson.

Spores 6×4µ Cooke; 6–10×4–6µ K.

153Common over the United States. West Virginia, 1881, North Carolina, 1890, Pennsylvania, 1887, Mt. Gretna, 1897–1898. McIlvaine.

Gregarious, and often in tufts, sometimes in partial rings.

An exceedingly variable species. White, buff, smoky, pinkish colors are common. The cap shapes are also diverse. The margins of some are incurved; of others repand. The weather seems to have much to do with their shapes.

M.C. Cooke says: “It requires careful cooking, as it is liable to be condemned as tough, unless treated slowly, but it is a great favorite abroad.” He calls them “Buff Caps.”

All fungi are the better for slow cooking. The H. pratensis in all its forms is excellent, but particularly so in croquettes and patés.

H. virgin´eus Fr.—virgo, a virgin. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 6, p. 146.) Wholly white. Pileus fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, moist, at length depressed, cracked into patches, floccose when dry. Stem curt, stuffed, firm, attenuated at the base, externally becoming even and naked. Gills decurrent, distant, rather thick. Fries.

Flesh sometimes equal, sometimes abruptly thin. Commonly confounded with H. niveus, but it is more difficult to distinguish it from white forms of H. pratensis. It is distinguished chiefly by its smaller stature, by the color being constantly white, sometimes becoming pale, by the obtuse pileus being scarcely turbinate, at length cracked into patches and floccose when dry, and by the gills being thinner, etc.

In pastures. Common. Stevenson.

Spores 12×5–6µ Cooke.

Tastes like M. oreades. M.J.B. Delicious broiled or stewed. Cooke.

“Mony littles make muckle,” says the Scotch proverb. It applies well to the brave little toadstool looking through the first grass of lawns for the coming of spring, and coming again in the autumn, defiant of early frosts. Small though it be, its numbers soon fill the basket.

The “Ivory Caps” are plentiful, and extend their haunts to the woods, where thick mold or grassy places abound.

H. ni´veus Fr.—niveus, snow-white. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 7, p. 146.) Wholly white. Pileus scarcely reaching 1 in. broad, somewhat membranaceous, and without a more compact disk, hence truly umbilicate, 154bell-shaped then convex, smooth, striate and viscid when moist, not cracked when dry. Flesh thin, everywhere equal, white, hygrophanous. Stem 2 in. or a little more long, 1–2 lines thick, tubed, equal, even, smooth, tense and straight. Gills decurrent, distant, thin, scarcely connected by veins, arcuate, quite entire.

Thinner, tougher, and later than H. virgineus, etc. Being hygrophanous the pileus is shining white when dry. Very tender forms occur.

In pastures. Stevenson.

Spores 7×4µ Cooke.

The H. niveus, H. virgineus, “Ivory Caps” as M.C. Cooke calls them, are pretty and plentiful in some sections. In the West Virginia mountains, along grass-grown road-sides, their purity and exquisite perfume attracted me in 1881. I have them and a few others to thank for seducing me into becoming a mycophagist. I think of them affectionately. I have seldom met with them since. They are found on lawns and in pastures and on grassy edges of woods, early in spring and late in autumn.

H. boreal´is Pk.—northern. Pileus thin, convex or expanded, smooth, moist, white, sometimes striatulate. Gills arcuate-decurrent, distant, white. Stem smooth, equal or tapering downward, stuffed, white.

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 8–12 lines broad. Stem 1 line thick.

Ground in woods. Croghan and Copake. September and October.

The species is related to H. niveus but the pileus is not viscid. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Found at Mt. Gretna, Pa., October 20, 1898, ground in mixed woods. The cap is white, silky, smooth, not viscid. Stem likewise.

A neat species pleasant in every way.

** Gills ventricose, adnate, etc.

H. dis´tans Berk.—distant (of the gills). Pileus about 2 in. broad, white, with a silky luster, here and there stained with brown, somewhat fleshy, plane or depressed, viscid. Stem white above, gray below, and attenuated, not spotted. Gills decurrent, few, very distant, somewhat ventricose, pure white then tinged with ash-color, interstices obscurely wrinkled.

155Often umbilicate. Remarkable for the few and distant gills. Stevenson.

Spores 10×8µ Cooke.

Caps white, shaded to light pinkish-brown toward center. Gills very distant. Leaves adhere to cap.

Specimens tested were of mild, pleasant flavor.

H. sphæro´sporus Pk. Pileus fleshy and thick in the center, sub-obconic, convex, obtuse or slightly umbonate, whitish, inclining to reddish-brown, the margin incurved. Flesh firm, white. Gills rather broad, subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, white. Stems tufted, flexuous, solid, glabrous, often slightly thickened at the base, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 6–8µ broad.

Pileus 6–12 lines broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 2–3 lines thick.

Iowa. October. Communicated by C. McIlvaine.

The fresh plant is said to have no decided odor, but when partly dried it emits a slight but rather unpleasant odor. It belongs apparently to the section Camarophyllus, and is related to Hygrophorus Peckii. Peck, Torr. Bull., Vol. 22, No. 12.

Received by the writer from Hon. Thomas Updegraff, MacGregor, Iowa, and forwarded to Professor Peck as a new species.

The fungus has but slight taste and is without odor when fresh.

It is probably edible. Not received in sufficient quantity to test.

* Gills decurrent.

H. cera´ceus Fr.—cera, wax. Pileus about 1 in. broad, waxy-yellow, shining, slightly fleshy, thin, but slightly firm, convexo-plane, obtuse, slightly pellucid-striate, viscid. Stem 1–2 in. and more long, about 2 lines thick, hollow, often unequal, flexuous and at length compressed, even, smooth, of the same color as the pileus, never darker at the apex. Gills adnato-decurrent, broad, almost triangular, distinct, yellow. Fries.

Fragile; easily distinguished from others by its waxy (not changeable) color. Stevenson.

Spores 8×6µ Cooke.

Eaten in Germany.

156Found at Angora and Kingsessing, Philadelphia, 1887. August to October. Open grassy places in woods, and in pastures. Scattered and in troops. Excellent. Stew slowly.

H. cantharel´lus Schw. Gr—a small vase. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 5, p. 146.) Pileus thin, convex, at length umbilicate or centrally depressed, minutely squamulose, moist, bright red, becoming orange or yellow. Gills distant, subarcuate, decurrent, yellow, sometimes tinged with vermilion. Stem smooth, equal, subsolid, sometimes becoming hollow, concolorous, whitish within.

Height 2–4 in., breadth of pileus 6–12 lines. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Swamps and damp shaded places in fields or woods. July to September. Common. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. fla´va. Pileus and stem pale yellow. Gills arcuate, strongly decurrent.

Var. fla´vipes. Pileus red or reddish. Stem yellow.

Var. fla´viceps. Pileus yellow. Stem red or reddish.

Var. Ro´sea. Has the pileus expanded and the margin wavy scalloped. Swamps. Sandlake. Peck, 23d Rep.

Common in the Adirondack region, and throughout Pennsylvania and New Jersey, in all its varieties.

The resemblance to H. miniatus in color is great, but there is a marked difference in the gills, which extend further down the thinner stem. It is tougher, and takes longer to cook. It has a flavor of its own which is enjoyed by some and condemned by others.

H. cocci´neus Schaeff.—of a scarlet color. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 6, p. 508.) Pileus 1–2 in. and more broad, at first bright scarlet, then soon changing color and becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex, then plane and often unequal, obtuse, at first viscid and even, smooth, not floccose-scaly. Flesh of the same color as the pileus. Stem 2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, hollow, then compressed and rather even, not slippery, scarlet upward, always yellow at the base. Gills wholly adnate, decurrent with a tooth, plane, distant, connected by veins, watery-soft as if fatty, when full grown purplish at the base, light yellow in the middle, glaucous at the edge. Fries.

Flesh of the pileus descending into the gills and forming a trama of the same color. Fragile. Varying in stature, easily mistaken for some 157of the following species which are of the same color. Pileus at length becoming yellow. Stevenson.

Spores 10–12×6µ Cooke; 7×4µ Morgan.

Edible. Cooke, Peck.

In woods and pastures. In troops. Common in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. McIlvaine.

Excellent when stewed for twenty minutes.

(Plate XXXIX.)

Hygrophorus flavo-discus.
About two-thirds natural size.

H. fla´vo-dis´cus Frost—flavus, yellow; discus, disk. Pileus convex or plane, smooth, glutinous, white with a pale-yellow or reddish-yellow disk. Flesh white. Gills adnate or decurrent, subdistant, white, sometimes with a slight flesh-colored tint, the inter-spaces sometimes veiny. Stem subequal, solid, glutinous, white, sometimes slightly stained with yellow. Spores elliptical, 6–8×4µ.

Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 1–3 in. broad. Stem 2–8 lines thick.

Pine woods. West Albany. November.

This, like H. fuligineus, has a short white space at the top of the stem, free from the viscidity that exists elsewhere. It resembles in many respects Hygrophorus speciosus, which has the pileus red, fading to yellow with advancing age. Perhaps the three may yet prove to be forms of one very variable species, for the most conspicuous differences between them consist in the colors of the pileus. The constancy with which the three styles of coloration has thus far been maintained indicates a specific difference, but color alone is not generally regarded as having any specific value. Peck, 35th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 6.4–7.6×4µ Peck.

I find this very good but its dirty pellicle should be peeled before using. Peck, in letter, 1896.

Mr. Hollis Webster writes of H. flavo-discus (Yellow Sweet Bread) in Bull. No. 45, of the Boston Mycological Club, 1897: “This is a mushroom worth going a long way to get. It is abundant in rich woods 158under pines in certain localities, and is a great favorite with those who know it. It is easily prepared and requires little cooking.”

I have eaten enjoyably of it since 1881.

Plentiful in the Jersey pines, in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, and equal to any toadstool of its size.

(Plate XL.)

Hygrophorus fuligineus.
About one-half natural size.

H. fuligi´neus Frost—resembling soot. Pileus convex or nearly plane, glabrous, very viscid or glutinous, grayish-brown or soot-color, the disk often darker or almost black. Gills subdistant, adnate or decurrent, white. Stem solid, viscid or glutinous, white or whitish. Spores elliptical, 7–9×5µ.

The Sooty hygrophorous resembles the Club-stemmed clitocybe in the color of its cap, but in nearly every other respect it is different. When moist the cap is covered with an abundant gluten which when dry gives it a shining appearance as if varnished. The color varies from grayish-brown to a very dark or sooty-brown with the central part usually still darker or almost black, but never with an umbo. The flesh and the gills are white. The stem also is white or but slightly shaded toward the base with the color of the cap. It is variable in length and shape, being long or short, straight or crooked, everywhere equal in thickness or tapering toward the base. It is glutinous and unpleasant to handle.

The cap is 1–4 in. broad, the stem 2–4 in. long, and 4–8 lines thick. The plants grow either singly or in tufts. In the latter case the caps are often irregular from mutual pressure.

The plants occur early in October and November, in pine woods or woods of pine and hemlock intermixed.

This mushroom is tender and of excellent flavor, but its sticky and often dirty covering should be peeled before cooking. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

159Found at Angora, near Philadelphia, August 1, 1897. Densely cespitose.

Raw it tastes like dead leaves. Tender and of fine flavor when cooked.

H. minia´tus Fr.—minium, red lead. (Plate XXXVII, fig. 4, p. 146.) Pileus thin, fragile, at first convex, becoming nearly plane, glabrous or minutely squamulose, often umbilicate, generally red. Gills distant, adnate, yellow, often tinged with red. Stem slender, glabrous, colored like the pileus. Spores elliptical, white, 8µ long.

Cap ½-2 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick. Peck, 48th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. lutes´cens. Pileus yellow or reddish-yellow. Stem and gills yellow. Plant often cespitose. Peck, 41st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 10×6µ Cooke; elliptical, white.

Grows where it pleases and abundantly throughout the land. In wet weather I have found it in July and late in autumn.

Professor Peck says: It is scarcely surpassed by any mushroom in tenderness of substance and agreeableness of flavor.

The gunner for partridges will not shoot rabbits; the knowing toadstool seeker will pass all others where H. miniatus abounds.

** Gills adnexed, etc.

H. puni´ceus Fr.—blood-red. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, glittering blood-scarlet, in dry weather and when old becoming pale especially at the disk, slightly fleshy for its breadth, at first bell-shaped, obtuse, commonly repand or lobed, very irregular, even, smooth, viscid. Flesh of the same color, fragile. Stem 3 in. long, ½-1 in. thick, solid when young, at length hollow, very stout (not compressed), ventricose (attenuated at both ends), striate, and for the most part squamulose at the apex, when dry light yellowish or of the same color as the pileus, always white and often incurved at the base. Gills ascending, ventricose, 2–4 lines broad, thick, distant, white-light yellow or yellow and often reddish at the base. Fries.

The largest of the group and very handsome. It certainly differs from H. coccineus, for which it is commonly mistaken, in stature, in the adnexed gills, and in the white base of the striate stem. The attachment of the gills varies, but from the form of the pileus they ascend to the base of the cone and appear free.

160In pastures. Stevenson.

Spores 8×5µ Cooke.

Edible. Cooke. No harm would come of confusing it with the vermilion mushroom—H. miniatus Pk.

H. con´icus Fr.—conical. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, fragile, smooth, conical, generally acute, sometimes obtuse, the margin often lobed. Gills rather close and broad, subventricose, narrower toward the stem, free, terminating in an abrupt tooth at the outer extremity, scarcely reaching the margin, yellow. Stem equal, fibrous-striate, yellow, hollow.

Height 3–6 in., breadth of pileus 6–12 lines. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Ground in woods and open places. North Elba and Center. August to October.

The color of the pileus is variable. I have taken specimens with it pale sulphur-yellow and others with it bright red or scarlet. The plant turns black in drying. Peck, Rep. 23, New York State Bot.

Spores 10×7µ Cooke; 10×6µ Morgan.

An old-time cure-all had medicinal virtues proportionate to its offensiveness. Old-time writers, contrariwise, gave every toadstool a bad name which changed color or displeased their noses. The pretty little Hygrophorus conicus, for these reasons, has, until now, been under the ban of suspicion. M.C. Cooke, in his handy book, Edible and Poisonous Mushrooms, was the first to lighten its sentence and make it a sort of ticket-of-leave culprit.

The writer has frequently eaten it, and is glad to vouch for its harmlessness and testify to its eminent respectability.

H. chloroph´anus Fr. Gr—greenish-yellow. Pileus 1 in. broad, commonly bright sulphur-yellow, sometimes, however, scarlet, not changing color, somewhat membranaceous, very fragile, at first convex, then plane, obtuse, orbicular and lobed, and at length cracked, smooth, viscid, striate. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, hollow, equal, round, rarely compressed, wholly even, smooth, viscid when moist, shining when dry, wholly unicolorous, rich light yellow. Gills emarginato-adnexed, very ventricose, with a thin decurrent tooth, thin, distant, distinct. Fries.

Very much allied to H. conicus, but never becoming black, and otherwise 161certainly distinguished by its convex, obtuse, striate pileus, by its even and viscous stem, and by its emarginato-free, thin, somewhat distant, whiter gills. Like H. ceraceus in appearance.

In grassy and mossy places. Common. August to October. Stevenson.

Spores 8×5µ Cooke; 8µ Q.

Received from E.B. Sterling, Trenton, N.J., August, 1897.

Open grassy woods.

But three specimens were tested. They were in every way agreeable.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.              Plate XLI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Lactarius piperatus, 168 3. Lactarius deliciosus, 170
2. Lactarius indigo, 171 4. Lactarius volemus, 180
Giving lac (milk).

The hymenophore continuous with the stem. Pileus somewhat rigid, fleshy, becoming more or less depressed, often marked with concentric zones. Gills unequal, membranaceous-waxy, slightly rigid, milky, edge acute, decurrent or adnate and often branched. Stem stout, central, rarely excentric except in those growing on trunks. Spores globose, minutely echinulate, white, rarely yellowish.

Nearly all grow on the ground.

Distinguished from all other fungi by the presence of a granular milk which pervades every part of the plant and especially the gills; it is commonly white, sometimes changing color and in section Dapetes highly colored from the first. The nature of the milk, especially its taste, whether acrid, subacrid or mild, must be carefully noted in distinguishing species, as it is the most useful characteristic.

In Russula, the only allied genus, the milk-bearing cells are present, but their contents do not appear as milk.

Many of the species are peppery, acrid, astringent; some mildly so, others will be long remembered if tasted raw. Yet not a species is hotter than some radishes, onions, and others of our favorite vegetables. Who would condemn them because they are peppery? There is not a single species of Lactarius which retains its pepperiness after cooking. This quality has to be and is supplied by one of our favorite condiments—pepper 162itself. Simply because they are toadstools and hot, they have been condemned without trial. It is remarkable that not one of the fungi known to be deadly gives any warning by appearance or flavor of the presence of a poison. The day will probably come when it can be said that if toadstool eaters will confine themselves to hot species, otherwise attractive, they will run no risk. Panus stypticus is astringent, not hot.

Piperites (peppery, after piperitis, pepperwort). Page 163.

Stem central. Gills unchangeable, not pruinose nor becoming discolored. Milk white at first, usually acrid.

* Tricholomoidei—inclining to Tricholoma. Pileus moist, viscid, margin incurved and downy at first.

** Limacinilimax, a slug. Pileus viscid when moist, with a pellicle, margin naked.

*** Piperati. Pileus without a pellicle, hence absolutely dry, often more or less downy or unpolished.

Dapetes (daps, a feast). Page 170.

Stem central. Gills naked. Milk highly colored from the first.

Russularia (inclining to Russula). Page 173.

Stem central. Gills pallid then discolored, at length dark and powdered with the white spores. Milk at first white, mild, or from mild becoming acrid.

* Viscidiviscidus, viscid, sticky. Pileus viscid at first.

** Impolitiimpolitus, unpolished. Pileus squamulose, downy or pruinose.

*** Glabratiglaber, smooth. Pileus polished, smooth.

Pleuropus (pleura, side; pous, a foot).

Stem excentric or lateral. Growing on trunks. None known to be edible.

* Tricholomoi´dei. Pileus viscid, margin incurved, etc.

L. tormino´sus Fr.—tormina, gripes. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, convex, then depressed, viscid when young or moist, yellowish-red or paleochraceous tinged with red or flesh color, often varied with zones or spots, the at first involute margin persistently tomentose-hairy. Gills thin, close, narrow, whitish, often tinged with yellow or flesh color. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 4–8 lines thick, equal or slightly tapering downward, hollow, sometimes spotted, whitish. Spores subglobose or broadly elliptical, 9–10µ. Milk white, taste acrid.

Woods. Adirondack mountains and Sandlake. August. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Poisonous, and Gillet declares it to be deleterious and even dangerous, and that in the raw state it is a very strong drastic purgative. On the other hand, Cordier states that almost all authors agree in stating that it is eaten with impunity, and that Letellier has eaten it more than once without inconvenience.

Cooke states: “Whether it is poison is rather uncertain, and probably assumed from its acridity.”

Bulliard says: “It is very acrid and this is changed by heat into an astringent of such power that a very little suffices to produce the most terrible accidents.” On the other hand, Boudier says that the presence of an acrid milk is an indication of no importance, that in certain parts of the country they eat such Lactaria as even L. piperatus and do not experience any trouble. Certain Russulæ as acrid as any Lactaria are known to be inoffensive.

The Russians preserve it in salt and eat it seasoned with oil and vinegar.

L. tur´pis Fr.—turpis, base, from its ugly appearance. Pileus large, as much as 3–12 in. broad, olivaceous inclining to umber, fleshy, rigid, convex becoming plane, disk-shaped or umbilicate, at length depressed, innately hairy at the circumference or wholly covered over with tenacious gluten, zoneless, sometimes tawny toward the margin, at length entirely inclining to umber; margin for a long time involute, at the first villous, olivaceous-light-yellow, then more or less flattened, at length 164often densely furrowed. Flesh compact, white, then slightly reddish. Stem 1½-3 in. long, ½-1 in. and more thick, solid, hard, equal or attenuated downward, even or pitted and uneven, but not spotted, viscid or dry, pallid or dark olivaceous, ochraceous-whitish at the apex. Gills adnato-decurrent, thin, 1–2 lines broad, much crowded, forked, white straw-color, spotted brownish when broken or bruised. Milk acrid, white, unchangeable. Fries.

Gregarious, rigidly and compactly fleshy; habit almost that of Paxillus involutus. It varies with the stem hollow, and the pileus somewhat zoned.

Spores spheroid or subspheroid, uniguttate, echinulate, 6–8µ K.; minutely spinulose, 6–8µ Massee.

New Jersey, Trenton, E.B. Sterling; North Carolina, Curtis, Schweinitz; Mt. Gretna, Pa. September, 1898. Along road in woods, moist places. McIlvaine.

The species is attractive by its very homeliness and odd individuality. It is not inviting. Cooked it is coarse and resembles L. piperatus. An emergency species.

L. controver´sus Fr.—contra, against; verto, to turn. Pileus 3 in. and more broad, fleshy, compact, rigid, at the first convex, broadly umbilicate, when fuller grown somewhat funnel-shaped, oblique, on emerging from the ground dry, flocculose, whitish, then with rain smooth, viscid, reddish, with blood-colored spots and zones (especially toward the margin), margin acute when young, closely involute, more or less villous. Flesh very firm. Stem commonly 1 in. long and thick, sometimes, however, 2 in. long and then manifestly attenuated toward the base and often excentric, solid, obese, even but pruinate and as if striate at the apex from the obsoletely decurrent tooth of the gills, wholly white, never pitted. Gills decurrent, thin, very crowded, 1–2 lines broad, with many shorter ones intermixed, but rarely branched, pallid-white-flesh-color. Milk white, unchangeable, plentiful. Fries.

Odor weak but pleasant, taste very acrid. Allied to L. piperatus.

In woods. Uncommon. August to October. Stevenson.

Spores echinulate, 8×6µ W.G.S.; globose, rough, 6–8µ Massee.

California, H. and M.

Edible, rather deficient in aroma and flavor. Cooke.


(Plate XLa.)

Lactarius blennius.
About one-fourth natural size.

L. blen´nius Fr. Gr—slimy. Pileus 3–5 in. across. Flesh thick, firm; soon expanded and more or less depressed, glutinous, dingy greenish-gray, often more or less zoned with drop-like markings; margin at first incurved and downy. Gills slightly decurrent, crowded, narrow, whitish or with an ochraceous tinge. Stem 1–2 in. long, up to 1 in. thick at the apex, where it expands into the thick flesh of the pileus, often attenuated at the base, viscid, colored like the stem or paler, soon hollow. Milk persistently white, very acrid. Spores subglobose, 7–8×6µ.

In woods, on the ground, very rarely on trunks.

L. turpis somewhat resembles the present species but differs in the darker olive-brown pileus and the yellow down on the incurved margin, especially when young. Massee.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad, fleshy, rarely subzonate, convex, the margin generally involute and adpresso-tomentose (quite smooth, Fries); at length more or less depressed, dull cinereous-green, at first viscid, more or less pitted. Milk white, not changeable. Gills rather narrow, pale ochraceous, scarcely forked, not connected by veins. Stem 1 in. long, ¼-½ in. thick, paler than the pileus, attenuated downward, obtuse, smooth, at length hollow, sometimes pitted, very acrid. Berk.

Edible. Coarse.

** Limaci´ni. Pileus viscid, etc.

L. insul´sus Fr.—tasteless. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, convex and umbilicate, then funnel-shaped, glabrous, viscid, more or less zonate, yellowish, the margin naked. Gills thin, close, adnate or decurrent, some of them forked at the base, whitish or pallid. Stem 1–2 in. long, 4–6 lines thick, equal or slightly tapering downward, stuffed or hollow, whitish or yellowish, generally spotted. Spores 7.6–9µ. Milk white, taste acrid.

Thin woods and open, grassy places. Greenbush and Sandlake, N.Y. July and August.

166Our plant has the pileus pale yellow or straw color, and sometimes nearly white, but European forms have been described as having it orange-yellow and brick-red. It is generally, though often obscurely, zonate. The zones are ordinarily more distinct near the margin, where they are occasionally very narrow and close. The milk in the Greenbush specimens had a thin, somewhat watery appearance. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. July to September. Common in mixed woods and grassy places. McIlvaine.

Edible. Cordier, Curtis.

L. insulsus is another peppery member of Lactarius which has suffered unjustly. I have eaten it since 1881, and think it the best of the hot milk species. Its flesh is not as coarse as others, and is of better flavor. There is little difference in quality between it and L. deliciosus.

L. hys´ginus Fr. Gr—a crimson dye. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, rigid, at first convex, then nearly plane, umbilicate or slightly depressed, even, viscid, zoneless or rarely obscurely zonate, reddish-incarnate, tan-color or brownish-red, becoming paler with age, the thin margin inflexed. Gills close, adnate or subdecurrent, whitish, becoming yellowish or cream-colored. Stem 1–2 in. long, 4–8 lines thick, equal, glabrous, stuffed or hollow, colored like the pileus, or a little paler, sometimes spotted. Milk white, taste acrid.

Woods. Sandlake and Canoga, N.Y. July and August. Not common.

The reddish hue of the pileus distinguishes this species from its allies. The gluten or viscidity of the pileus in our specimens was rather tenacious and persistent. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores subglobose, whitish on black paper, yellowish on white paper, 9–10µ Peck; 10×7–8µ Massee.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897. Mixed woods. August, September.

Not very acrid. The entire acridity disappears in cooking. Several specimens were found and eaten, enough to prove it esculent and of good quality.

167*** Piperati. Pileus dry, etc.

L. plum´beus Fr.—like plumbum, lead. Pileus 2—5 in. broad, compact, convex, then infundibuliform, dry, unpolished sooty or brownish-black. Gills crowded, white, or yellowish. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 3–6 lines thick, solid, equal, thick. Milk white, acrid, unchangeable. Spores 6.3–7.6µ.

The specimens which I have referred to this species were found in the Catskill mountains several years ago, growing in hemlock woods, under spruce and balsam trees. I have not met with the species since. The pileus in the larger specimens had a minutely tomentose appearance, but in the dried specimens this has disappeared. They also varied in color from blackish-brown to pinkish-brown and grayish-brown, but they can scarcely be more than a mere form or variety of the species the description of which, as given by Fries, I have quoted. In the Handbook the pileus is described as dark fuliginous-gray or brown, and Gillet describes it as black-brown, dark fuliginous or lead color, and adds that the plant is poisonous and the milk very acrid and burning. Cordier says that the flesh is white and the taste bitter and disagreeable. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Poisonous. Gillet.

L. pergame´nus Fr.—parchment. White. Pileus fleshy, pliant, convex then plano-depressed, spread, zoneless, slightly wrinkled, smooth. Stem stuffed, smooth, changing color. Gills adnate, very narrow, horizontal, very crowded, branched, white, then straw-color. Milk white, acrid.

Very much allied to L. piperatus, but differing in the stem being stuffed, at length softer internally, elongated, 3 in., unequal, attenuated downward and here and there ascending, quite smooth; in the pileus being thinner, pliant, elastic, most frequently irregular and excentric, for the most part flexuous, at first convex (not umbilicate), then rather plane, the surface very smooth, but unpolished and wrinkled in a peculiar manner; and in the gills being adnate, not decurrent, very crowded, very narrow (scarcely 1 line broad), always straight and horizontal, not arcuate or extended upward, soon straw-color. The flesh is very milky, but the gills are sparingly so. Fries.

In woods. October.

168Spores subglobose, rather irregular, 6–8µ C.B.P.; broadly elliptical, echinulate, 7×5–6µ Massee.

Eaten on the continent and Nova Scotia. Edible. Cooke.

North Carolina, Curtis; New England, Frost; Ohio, Morgan.

L. pipera´tus Fr.—piper, pepper. (Plate XLI, fig. 1, p. 160.) Pileus 4–9 in. broad, white, fleshy, rigid, umbilicate when young, reflexed (margin at first involute) at the circumference, when full grown wholly funnel-shaped, for the most part regular, even, smooth, zoneless. Flesh white. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 in. thick, solid, obese, equal or obconical, even, obsoletely pruinose, white. Gills decurrent, crowded, narrow, scarcely broader than 1 line, obtuse at the edge, dividing by pairs, arcuate then all extended upward in a straight line, white, here and there with yellow spots. Milk white, unchangeable, plentiful and very acrid.

Compact, firm, dry, inodorous. The pileus becomes obsoletely yellow when old. Although the gills are spotted with yellow, they do not change to straw color like those of L. pergamenus. Fries.

Spores white, nearly smooth, 6.3–7.6µ Peck; subglobose, 8–9µ diameter Massee; 5×6µ W.G.S.

Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 1881–1885. New Jersey, Pennsylvania in woods and on grassy places. July to October. McIlvaine.

Edible. Curtis.

L. piperatus is a readily distinguished species. It is very common. In 1881, after an extensive forest fire in the West Virginia forests, I saw miles of the blackened district made white by a growth of this fungus. It was the phenomenal growth which first attracted my attention to toadstools. I collected it then in quantity and used it, with good results, as a fertilizer on impoverished ground.

It has been eaten for many years in most countries, yet a few writers continue to warn against it. It is the representative fungus of its class—meaty, coarse, fair flavor. It is edible and is good food when one is hungry and can not get better. It is best used as an absorbent of gravies.

L. decepti´vus Pk.—deceiving. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, compact, at first convex and umbilicate, then expanded and centrally depressed or subinfundibuliform, obsoletely tomentose or glabrous except on the margin, white or whitish, often varied with yellowish or sordid stains, the 169margin at first involute and clothed with a dense, soft or cottony tomentum, then spreading or elevated and more or less fibrillose. Gills rather broad, distant or subdistant, adnate or decurrent, some of them forked, whitish, becoming cream-colored. Stem 1–3 in. long, 8–18 lines thick, equal or narrowed downward, solid, pruinose-pubescent, white. Spores white, 9–12.7µ. Milk white, taste acrid.

Woods and open places, especially under hemlock trees. Common. July to September.

Trial of its edible qualities was made without any evil consequences. The acridity was destroyed by cooking. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Alabama, U. and E.; New York, Peck, 38th Rep.; West Virginia, 1881–1885, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods and open places. July to October. McIlvaine.

In common with all peppery Lactarii the present species loses the quality in cooking. The edible qualities then depend upon texture, substance, flavor. The species is coarse but meaty and of fair flavor.

L. velle´reus Fr.—vellus, fleece. Pileus 2–5 in. broad, compact, at first convex and umbilicate, then expanded and centrally depressed or subinfundibuliform, the whole surface minutely velvety-tomentose, soft to the touch, white or whitish, the margin at first involute, then reflexed. Gills distant or subdistant, adnate or decurrent, sometimes forked, whitish becoming yellowish or cream-colored. Stem .5–2 in. long, 6–16 lines thick, firm, solid, equal or tapering downward, pruinose-pubescent, white. Milk white, taste acrid. Spores white.

Woods and open places. Common. July to September. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores white, nearly smooth, 7–9µ. Peck; 4×8µ W.G.S.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Woods and open places. July to October. McIlvaine.

Poisonous according to some authors. Cordier. Edible. Leveille. Eaten it for eighteen years. McIlvaine.

This common, very acrid species is characterized by the downy covering of its cap.

It is a coarse species, but meaty. Its acridity is lost in cooking, when it makes a fair dish.

170L. involu´tus Soppitt.—involved. Every part white or with a very slight ochraceous tinge. Pileus 1–2 in. across, flesh about 1½ lines thick, equal up to the margin, compact, rigid, convex, soon becoming plane or slightly depressed, margin strongly and persistently involute, extreme edge minutely silky, remainder even and glabrous. Gills very slightly decurrent, densely crowded, not ½ line broad, sometimes forked. Stem ⅔-1 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, equal, or slightly thickened at the base, glabrous, even, solid, very firm. Milk white, unchangeable, not scanty, very hot. Spores obliquely elliptical, smooth, 5×3µ.

Very firm and rigid, resembling in habit L. vellereus in miniature. Most nearly allied to L. scoticus, but known at once by the exceedingly narrow, densely-crowded gills and the smooth, elliptical spores. Massee.

West Virginia, 1881–1885, plentiful. Angora, West Philadelphia. August, September, 1897. In mixed woods. McIlvaine.

Much smaller than L. piperatus. Pileus convex, then plane with depressions in center, margin involute. Gills slightly decurrent, densely crowded, very narrow. Stem short, firm, solid. Milk white, very hot.

L. involutus is readily mistaken for small forms of L. vellereus and L. piperatus. The extremely narrow gills, so close and firm that it takes sharp eyes to follow them, are a distinguishing mark.

Its flesh is of same consistency as L. piperatus—hard and coarse. It loses its pepperiness in cooking and is a good emergency plant, or solvent.

II.—Dapetesdaps, food. Milk highly colored, etc.

America is rich in this section. Fries records but two species, L. deliciosus and L. sanguifluus, while America has four. The edible properties of three are known to be good; L. subpurpureus has not come under observation, but is added to complete the series as it is probably edible and is well marked by its dark-red milk. McIlvaine.

L. delicio´sus Fr.—delicious. (Plate XLI, fig. 3, p. 160.) Pileus 2–6 in. broad, orange-brick-color, yellowish or grayish-orange, becoming pale, fleshy, when quite young depressed in the center, margin naked, involute, then plano-depressed or broadly funnel-shaped with the margin unfolded, smooth, slightly viscid, zoned (zones sometimes obsolete). Flesh soft, not compact, pallid, colored at the circumference 171only by the juice. Stem 1–2 in. and more long, 1 in. thick, stuffed then hollow, at length fragile, equal or attenuated at the base, spotted in a pitted manner, of the same color as the pileus or paler. Gills somewhat decurrent, crowded, narrow, arcuate, often branched, typically saffron-yellow, but becoming pale and always becoming green when wounded. Milk aromatic, from the first red-brick-saffron. Fries.

Spores white, spheroid, echinulate 7–8µ K.; 6µ W.G.S.; echinulate, 9–10×7–8µ Massee; subglobose, 7.6–10µ Peck.

In woods, under firs, etc.

Pileus dingy orange-red becoming pale, often greenish. Every part turns to a homely green when bruised. It is from 3 to 5 in. across, thick, convex, then depressed in center, margin at first curved in. Gills decurrent, narrow, saffron-color. Milk saffron-red or orange changing to green; sweet scented but slightly acrid. I have never seen but one specimen with milk distinctly orange, and changing to green. The milk in this species varies in color, much depending upon moisture. It grows in patches, sometimes in clusters.

Edible. Curtis.

There is no question of its edibility. Old and modern writers applaud it. Each cooks to his liking and thinks his own way best. It requires forty minutes' stewing or baking; less time if roasted or fried. It can be cooked in any way, but, like all Lactarii, it must be well cooked.

L. in´digo Schw.—(Plate XLI, fig. 2, p. 160.) Pileus 2–5 in. broad, at first umbilicate with the margin involute, then depressed or infundibuliform, indigo-blue with a silvery-gray luster, zonate, especially on the margin, sometimes spotted, becoming paler and less distinctly zonate with age or in drying. Gills close, indigo-blue, becoming yellowish and sometimes greenish with age. Stem 1–2 in. long, 6–10 lines thick, short nearly equal, hollow, often spotted with blue, colored like the pileus. Milk dark-blue.

Dry places, especially under or near pine trees. Not rare but seldom abundant. July to September. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores subglobose, 7.6–9µ long Peck.

West Virginia, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Solitary and in groups, in pine and mixed woods. July to September. McIlvaine.

The exceptional color of L. indigo will halt anyone with ordinary observing power. It is unnecessary to describe it further. Being a 172large, stout plant it frequently lifts the leaf mat as it pushes upward, making leaf-mounds under which it is hidden, as do many of the Cortinarii. But even in such instances there are usually a few solitary plants standing prominently forth as sentinels.

It is edible, but coarse. Good flavor.

L. chelido´nium Pk. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, at first convex, then nearly plane and umbilicate or centrally depressed, grayish-yellow or tawny, at length varied with bluish and greenish stains, often with a few narrow zones on the margin. Gills narrow, close, sometimes forked, anastomosing or wavy at the base, grayish-yellow. Stem 1–1.5 in. long, 4–6 lines thick, short, subequal, hollow, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 7.5µ. Milk sparse, saffron-yellow; taste mild.

Sandy soil, under or near pine trees. Saratoga and Bethlehem.

The milk of this species resembles in color the juice of celandine, Chelidonium majus. It is paler than that of L. deliciosus. By this character and by the dull color of the pileus, the narrow lamellæ, short stem and its fondness for dry situations, it may be separated from the other species. Wounds of the flesh are at first stained with the color of the milk, then with blue, finally with green. A saffron-color is sometimes attributed to the milk of L. deliciosus, which may indicate that this species has been confused with that, or that the relationship of the two plants is a closer one than we have assigned to them. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. In mixed woods, gravelly low ground. September, October. McIlvaine.

A score or more solitary specimens were found and eaten. The substance and flavor are not distinguishable from L. deliciosus, which is lauded to the summit of good toadstools.

L. subpurpu´reus Pk.—sub, under; purpureus, purple. Pileus at first convex, then nearly plane or subinfundibuliform, more or less spotted and zonate when young, and moist dark-red with a grayish luster. Gills close, dark-red, becoming less clear and sometimes greenish-stained with age. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, soon hollow, often spotted with red, colored like the pileus, sometimes hairy at the base. Spores subglobose, 9–10µ. Milk dark-red.

Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 3–5 lines thick.

173Damp or mossy ground in woods and swamps. July and August.

At once known by the peculiar dark-red or purplish hue of the milk, which color also appears in the spots of the stem and in a more subdued tone in the whole plant. The color of the pileus, gills and stem is modified by grayish and yellowish hues. In age and dryness the zones are less clear, and dried specimens can scarcely be distinguished from L. deliciosus. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I have not seen this species.

* Viscidi. Pileus viscid.

L. pal´lidus Fr.—pale. Pileus 3–6 in. broad, flesh-color or clay-color to pallid, somewhat tan, fleshy, umbilicato-convex, depressed, obtuse, margin broadly and for a long time involute, smooth, gluey, zoneless. Flesh pallid. Stem 2 in. and more long, about ¾ in. thick, somewhat equal, stuffed then hollow, even, smooth, of the same color as the pileus. Gills somewhat decurrent, arcuate, rather broad, 1½-2 lines and more; somewhat thin, crowded, somewhat branched, whitish at length of the same color as the pileus. Milk white, unchangeable. Fries.

Taste somewhat mild. Stature that of L. deliciosus, but more lax in texture and always pallid. There is a variety with the pileus inclining to dingy-brown. Stevenson.

Mixed woods. September to October.

Spores echinulate, almost round, 8µ W.G.S.; 7–11µ Cooke; 9–10×7–8µ Massee.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; Rhode Island, Bennett.

Edible. Cooke.

L. quie´tus Fr.—calm, mild. Pileus 3 in. broad, fleshy, depressed, obtuse, margin deflexed, smooth, at first viscid, somewhat cinnamon, flesh-color, disk darker, somewhat zoned, soon dry, somewhat silky, opaque, becoming pale. Flesh white then reddish. Stem 2–3 in. long, ½ in. and more thick, stuffed, spongy, smooth, reddish, at length beautifully rust-color. Gills adnato-decurrent, somewhat forked at the 174base, 1½-2 lines broad, white then soon brick-red. Milk white, unchangeable, sweet. Fries.

In woods. August to November. Stevenson.

Spores echinulate, 8–10×6–7µ Massee; 10–12µ Cooke.

Nova Scotia, Somers; New York, Peck, Rep. 42.

Edible. Cooke. Eaten in France and held in estimation.

L. theio´galus Fr. Gr—brimstone; milk. Pileus 2–5 in. broad, fleshy, thin, convex, then depressed, even, glabrous, viscid, tawny-reddish. Lamellæ adnate or decurrent, close, pallid or reddish. Stem 1–3 in. long, 4–10 lines thick, stuffed or hollow, even, colored like the pileus. Spores yellowish, inclining to pale flesh-color, subglobose, 7.5–9µ. Milk white, changing to sulphur-yellow, taste tardily acrid, bitterish.

Woods and groves. Common. July to October.

Our plant does not fully accord with the description of the species as given by Fries. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores subglobose, 7–8µ diameter Massee; subglobose, 7.5–9µ Peck.

West Virginia, 1881–1885; Mt. Gretna, Pa. July, 1897; New Jersey, common in mixed woods. July to frost. McIlvaine.

L. theiogalus possesses all the good qualities of the hot milk species. While I ate it whenever I chose in West Virginia, I did not again eat it until 1897 at Mt. Gretna. There several partook of it and thought it rather coarse, but of good flavor. It requires long cooking.

L. fuligino´sus Fr.—fuligo, soot. Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad, firm, becoming soft, convex plane or slightly depressed, even, dry, zoneless, dingy ash-color or buff-gray, appearing as if covered with a dingy pruinosity, the margin sometimes wavy or lobed. Gills adnate or subdecurrent, subdistant, whitish then yellowish, becoming stained with pink-red or salmon-color where wounded. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, equal or slightly tapering downward, firm, stuffed, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, yellowish, 7.5–10µ. Milk white, taste tardily and sometimes slightly acrid.

Thin woods and open grassy places. Greenbush and Sandlake, N.Y. July and August. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A form with the pileus colored like that of L. lignyotus, but with the gills much closer than in that species, was found in a swamp near Sevey. July. Peck, 43d Rep.

POISONOUS. Barla and Reveil, Cordier.

175L. fumo´sus Pk. Pileus 1.5–2.5 in. broad, firm, convex, then expanded and slightly depressed in the center, smooth, dry, smoky-brown or sordid-white. Gills close, adnate or slightly rounded behind, white, then yellowish. Stem 3–5 lines thick, firm, short, smooth, stuffed, generally tapering downward. Spores distinctly echinulate, yellow, 6µ in diameter. Flesh and Milk white; taste at first mild, then acrid.

Plant 1.5–2 in. high.

Grassy ground in open woods. Greenbush. July.

The peculiar smoky hue of the pileus and yellow spores enable this species to be easily recognized. The flesh when wounded slowly changes to a dull pinkish-color. Related to L. fuliginosus. Peck, 24th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

** Impoliti. Pileus downy, etc.

L. ru´fus Fr.—red. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, convex and centrally depressed, then funnel-shaped, generally with a small umbo, glabrous, sometimes slightly floccose or pubescent when young, especially on the margin, zoneless, bay-red or brownish-red, shining. Gills narrow or moderately broad, sometimes forked, close, subdecurrent, yellowish or reddish. Stem 2–4 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, nearly equal, firm, stuffed, paler than or colored like the pileus. Spores white, 7.6–10µ. Milk white, taste very acrid.

Low woods and swamps. North Elba. August. Rare.

The red Lactarius is known by its rather large size, dark-red pileus and intensely acrid taste. It has been found but once in our state. The flesh is pinkish and the stem sometimes pruinose. It is designated by authors as very poisonous and extremely poisonous. Cordier even says that worms never attack it. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Massachusetts, Frost; New York, Peck, Rep. 23, Rep. 38.

I have not recognized this species. It is given as markedly POISONOUS.

L. glycios´mus Fr. Gr—sweet; Gr—scent. Pileus ½-1½ in. broad, thin, convex nearly plane or depressed, often with a small umbo or papilla, minutely squamulose, ash-colored, grayish-brown or smoky-brown, sometimes tinged with pink, the margin even or slightly and distinctly striate. Gills narrow, close, adnate or decurrent, whitish or 176yellowish. Stem ½-1½ in. long, 1–3 lines thick, equal, glabrous or obsoletely pubescent, stuffed, rarely hollow, whitish or colored like the pileus. Milk white, taste acrid and unpleasant, sometimes bitterish, odor aromatic. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Smell agreeable, of melilot, as that of L. camphoratus.

Spores spheroid, echinulate, 6–8µ K.; subglobose, size variable, 6–10µ Massee.

The American plant, so far as observed, does not have the red hues ascribed to the European.

Haddonfield, N.J., T.J. Collins; Scranton, Pa., Dr. J.M. Phillips; Chester county, Pa., September, 1887, on ground in woods, McIlvaine.

This small Lactarius was found on several occasions. Its odor is attractive, but its taste is not. Cooked it is of high flavor, but will not be liked by many.

L. aqui´fluus Pk.—watery. Pileus fragile, fleshy, convex or expanded, at length centrally depressed, dry, smooth, or sometimes appearing as if clothed with a minute appressed tomentum, reddish tan-colored, the decurved margin often flexuous. Gills rather narrow, close, whitish, becoming dull reddish yellow. Stem more or less elongated, equal or slightly tapering upward, colored like the pileus, smooth, hollow, the cavity irregular as if eroded. Spores subglobose, rough, 7.6µ. Flesh colored like the pileus. Milk sparse, watery.

Plant 3–8 in. high. Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 5–10 lines thick.

Swamps and wet mossy places in woods. Sandlake and North Elba. August and September.

The relationship of this plant is with L. serifluus, to which it was formerly referred, but from which I am now satisfied it is distinct. The hollow stem is a constant character in our plant, and affords a ready mark of distinction. The plant, though large, is very fragile, and breaks easily. The taste is mild or but slightly acrid. Sometimes there is an obscure zonation on the pileus, which, in large specimens, is apt to be irregular and much worm-eaten. The milk looks like little drops of water when first issuing from a wound, but it becomes a little less clear on exposure to the atmosphere. The decided but agreeable odor of the dried specimens persists a long time. Peck, 28th Rep.

This plant is sometimes cespitose. The pileus when dry is tawny-gray and scaly or cracked scaly. The margin may be even or coarsely 177sulcate-striate. The flesh is grayish or reddish-gray. The color of the lamellæ varies from creamy-white to tawny-yellow. The stem often has a conspicuous white myceloid tomentum at its base. I have never found this plant with a white or milky juice, and therefore I am disposed to regard it not as a variety of L. helvus, but as a distinct species. Its mild taste and agreeable odor suggested a trial of its edible qualities. It is harmless, but the lack of flavor induces me to omit it from the list of edible species. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. brevis´simus Pk. Pileus 1–1.5 in. broad, grayish-buff. Gills crowded, adnate, yellowish or cream-color. Stem very short, 6–8 lines long.

Black mucky soil in roads in woods. Township 24, Franklin county. September.

Plant fragrant; sometimes cespitose. Peck, 51st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Angora, West Philadelphia, in moist oak woods. August, 1897, Philadelphia Myc. Center.

Flesh rather hard when cooked, and insipid. Good as an absorbent or in emergency.

L. lignyo´tus Fr.—lignum, wood. Pileus 1–4 in. broad, broadly convex plane or slightly depressed, dry, with or without a small umbo, generally rugose-wrinkled, dark-brown, appearing subpulverulent or as if suffused with a dingy pruinosity, the margin sometimes crenately lobed and distinctly plicate. Gills moderately close or subdistant, adnate, white or yellowish, slowly changing to pinkish-red or salmon color where wounded. Stem 1–3 in. long, 2–6 lines thick, equal or abruptly narrowed at the apex, even, glabrous, stuffed, colored like the pileus, sometimes plicate at the top. Milk white, taste mild or tardily and slightly acrid.

Var. tenu´ipes. Pileus about 1 in. broad. Stem slender, 2–3 in. long and about 2 lines thick.

Wet or mossy ground in woods and swamps. Adirondack mountains and Sandlake. July and August. Not rare in hilly and mountainous districts. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores globose, yellowish, 9–11.3µ Peck; pale ochraceous, subglobose, minutely echinulate, 9–10µ diameter Massee.

West Virginia mountains, 1881–1885; Eagle’s Mere; Mt. Gretna, 178Pa. Solitary and gregarious, moist woods and wooded places. July to September. McIlvaine.

In my long experience with the plant I have not seen any change of color, save that, like the white milk of other species, it darkens slightly to a cream color. I have found it distinctly umbilicate and quite umbonate in the same patch.

L. lignyotus is one of the best of Lactarii and quite equal to L. volemus.

L. corru´gis Pk.—having wrinkles or folds. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, firm, convex, then nearly plane or centrally depressed, rugose reticulated, covered with a velvety pruinosity or pubescence, dark reddish-brown or chestnut-color, fading with age to tawny-brown. Gills close, dark cream-color or subcinnamon, becoming paler when old, sordid or brownish where bruised or wounded. Stem 3–5 in. long, 6–12 lines thick, equal, solid, glabrous or merely pruinose, paler than but similar in color to the pileus. Spores subglobose, 10–13µ. Milk copious, white, taste mild.

Thin woods. Sandlake, Gansevoort and Brewerton, N.Y. August and September.

This curious Lactarius is related to L. volemus, from which it may be separated by its darker colors and its corrugated pileus. The flexuous reticulated rugæ present an appearance similar to that of the hymenium of a Merulius. The pileus is everywhere pruinose-pubescent and the gills bear numerous spine-like or acicular cystidia or spicules, 4–5µ long. These are so numerous on and near the edges of the gills that they give them a pubescent appearance. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I found many at Mt. Gretna, Pa., up to 6½ in. in diameter. Flesh not so firm as L. volemus. Stem equal, rugulose, flattened in old specimens. Milk very slightly acrid.

Better in taste and quality than L. volemus.

L. lute´olus Pk.—yellowish. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, fleshy, rather thin, convex or nearly plane, commonly umbilicately depressed in the center and somewhat rugulose, pruinose or subglabrous, buff-color. Flesh white, taste mild. Milk copious, flowing easily, white or whitish. Gills close, nearly plane, adnate or slightly rounded behind, whitish, 179becoming brownish where wounded. Stem 1–1.5 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, short, equal or tapering downward, solid, but somewhat spongy within, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, 7.6µ broad.

Dry woods. East Milton, Mass. August. H. Webster.

This species is related to Lactarius volemus and L. hygrophoroides, but its smaller size and short stem will distinguish it from the former and its close gills from the latter. Its paler buff-color will separate it from both. Some specimens have a narrow encircling furrow or depressed zone near the margin and a slightly darker shade of color on the margin. The milk constitutes a remarkable feature of the species. According to the notes of the collector it is exceedingly copious, rather sticky, serous in character with white particles in suspension. It flows from many points as soon as the plant is disturbed and it stains the gills. It is impossible to collect an unstained specimen, so free is the flow of the milk. He, Mr. Webster, says: “I have never succeeded in picking a specimen so quietly as to prevent an instant and copious flow of its milk.” Torrey Bull., Vol. 23, No. 10, 1896.

Angora, West Philadelphia, August, 1897. In oak woods. August, September. McIlvaine.

Quite frequent there. My attention was directed to it by the “narrow encircling furrow or depressed zone near the margin.”

It is of like quality to L. volemus.

L. Gerar´dii Pk. Pileus 1.5–4 in. broad, broadly convex plane or slightly depressed, dry, generally rugose-wrinkled, with or without a small umbo or papilla, dingy-brown, the thin spreading margin sometimes flexuous lobed or irregular. Gills distant, adnate or decurrent, white or whitish, the interspaces generally uneven. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–6 lines thick, subequal, stuffed or hollow, colored like the pileus. Spores globose, white, 9–11.3µ. Milk white, unchangeable, taste mild.

Woods and open places. Poughkeepsie, W.R. Gerard. Greenbush, Sandlake and Croghan, N.Y. July to September.

This Lactarius closely resembles the Sooty lactarius in color, but differs from it in its more distant gills, white spores and constantly mild taste. Wounds of the flesh and gills do not become pinkish-red as in that plant. From L. hygrophoroides its darker color, hollow stem and more globose rougher spores separate it. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

180In the color of the pileus and stem this species is like the larger forms of L. fuliginosus. Peck, 26th Rep.

Edible. Boston Myc. Club Bull.

*** Glabra´ti. Pileus smooth.

L. vole´mus Fr.—volema pira, a kind of large pear. (Plate XLI, fig. 4, p. 160) Pileus 2–5 in. broad, firm, convex, nearly plane or centrally depressed, rarely funnel-shaped, sometimes with a small umbo, generally even, glabrous, dry, golden-tawny or brownish-orange, sometimes darker in the center, often becoming rimose-areolate. Gills close, adnate or subdecurrent, white or yellowish, becoming sordid or brownish where bruised or wounded. Stem 1–4 in. long, 4–10 lines thick, subequal, variable in length, firm, solid, glabrous or merely pruinose, colored like the pileus, sometimes a little paler. Milk copious, white, taste mild, flat.

Var. subrugo´sus. Pileus rugose-reticulated on the margin. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores globose, white, 9–11.3µ Peck; 5–6µ diameter Massee.

Very delicious raw and celebrated from early times. Fries.

Common over the United States, well known everywhere and distinguished for its edible qualities. It is crisp and unless carefully cooked is hard and granular. It should have long, slow cooking, though it may be roasted or fried.

(Plate XLII.)

Lactarius hygrophoroides.

L. hygrophoroi´des B. and C.—resembling Hygrophorus. Pileus 1–4 in. broad, firm, convex or nearly plane, umbilicate or slightly depressed, rarely funnel-shaped, glabrous or sometimes with a minute velvety pubescence or tomentum, dry, sometimes rugose-wrinkled and often becoming cracked in areas, yellowish-tawny or brownish-orange. Gills distant, adnate or subdecurrent, white or cream-color, the interspaces uneven or venose. Stem .5–1 in. long, 4–8 lines thick, short, equal or tapering downward, solid, glabrous or merely pruinose, colored like the pileus. Spores subglobose 181or broadly elliptical, nearly smooth, 9–11.3µ. Milk white, taste mild.

Grassy ground and borders of woods. Albany, Greenbush and Sandlake. July and August.

This plant has almost exactly the color of L. volemus, but differs from it in its distant gills, short stem, less copious milk and less globose spores. Its flesh is white, with a thickness about equal to the breadth of the gills. It is probably edible, but has not yet been tested. The typical L. hygrophoroides is described as having the pileus yellowish-red and pulverulent, and the gills luteous. It is also represented as a small plant; but our specimens, while not fully agreeing with this description, approach so closely to it in some of their forms that they doubtless belong to the same species. We have therefore extended the description so that it may include our plant. In wet weather the pileus sometimes becomes funnel-form by the elevation of the margin. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897, grassy grounds and borders of woods. Mixed, moist woods and grassy borders. July to September. McIlvaine.

Pileus up to 4 in. across. Stem 1–2½ in., tapering, equal or tapering downward. When growing in woods the stem is longer than when growing on borders.

Its edible qualities are excellent.

L. mitis´simus Fr.—mitis, mild. Pileus 1–3 in. broad, golden-tawny, zoneless, fleshy, thin, somewhat rigid, convex, papillate, depressed, papilla vanishing, even, smooth, somewhat slippery when moist. Flesh pallid. Stem elongated, 1–3 in. long, ⅓-½ in. thick, stuffed, then hollow, even, smooth, of the same color as the pileus. Gills adnato-decurrent, somewhat arcuate, then tense and straight, 1–1½ lines and more broad, thin, crowded, a little paler than the pileus, most frequently stained with minute red spots. Milk white, mild, plentiful.

Thin; very much allied to L. subdulcis, but distinguished by the taste being mild, then somewhat bitterish, and especially by the bright, golden-tawny, resplendent color of the pileus and stem. Fries.

In mixed and pine woods. August to November. Stevenson.

Spores 6–8×5–6µ Massee; 10µ Cooke; spheroid, echinulate, 6–7µ C.B.P.

182California, H. and M.

Edible. Cooke. Eaten on the continent.

(Plate XLIII.)

Lactarius subdulcis.

L. subdul´cis Fr.—sub; dulcis, sweet. Pileus .5–2 in. broad, thin, convex, then plane or slightly funnel-shaped, with or without a small umbo or papilla, glabrous, even, zoneless, moist or dry, tawny-red, cinnamon-red or brownish-red, the margin sometimes wavy or flexuous. Gills rather narrow, thin, close, whitish, sometimes tinged with red. Stem 1–2.5 in. long, 1–3 lines thick, equal or slightly tapering upward, slender, glabrous, sometimes villous at the base, stuffed or hollow, paler than or colored like the pileus. Spores 7.6–9µ. Milk white, taste mild or tardily and slightly acrid, sometimes woody or bitterish and unpleasant. Flesh whitish, pinkish or reddish gray, odor none.

Fields, copses, woods, swamps and wet places. July to October. Very common.

This species grows in almost every variety of soil and locality. It may be found in showery weather on dry, rocky soil, on bare ground or among mosses or fallen leaves. In drier weather it is still plentiful in swamps and wet, shaded places, and in sphagnous marshes. It sometimes grows on decaying wood. It is also as variable as it is common. Gillet has described the following varieties:

Var. cinnamo´meus. Pileus cinnamon-red, sub-shining. Stem stuffed, then hollow; taste mild, becoming slightly acrid or bitter.

Var. ru´fus. Pileus dull chestnut-red; becoming more concave. Stem spongy; taste mild.

Var. ba´dius. Pileus bay-red, shining as if varnished, with an obtuse disk and an inflexed, elegantly crenulate margin. Stem very glabrous, hollow.

The first and second varieties have occurred within our limits. The first also has the stem elastic and furnished with a whitish or grayish tomentum or strigose villosity at the base, when growing among moss in swamps. A form occurred in Sandlake, in which some of the specimens 183were proliferous. The umbo had developed into a minute pileus. With us the prevailing color of the pileus is yellowish-red or cinnamon-red. Sometimes the color is almost the same as that of L. volemus and L. hygrophoroides, and again it is a tan-color or a bay-red, as in L. camphoratus, from which such specimens are scarcely separable, except by their lack of odor. In young plants the pileus usually has a moist appearance, which is sometimes retained in maturity. Cordier pronounces the species edible, and says that he has tested it several times without inconvenience. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 10µ Cooke; 7µ W.G.S.

West Virginia mountains, 1881–1885; Pennsylvania, New Jersey, everywhere on moist ground. July to October. McIlvaine.

Edible. Curtis.

The description of Fries as enlarged and modified by Professor Peck, together with that of the varieties placed to the credit of the species by Gillet, are given above in full. The species with its ascribed varieties is common and well known. Var. ba´dius occurs in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. They are all edible and vary but little in quality. L. subdulcis requires long cooking.

L. muta´bilis Pk.—changeable. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, thin, convex or nearly plane, zonate when moist, reddish-brown, the disk and zones darker, zoneless when dry, flesh colored like the pileus. Milk sparse, white, taste mild. Gills narrow, close, adnate, whitish, with a yellowish or cream-colored tint when old. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, equal or tapering upward, stuffed or spongy within, glabrous, colored like the pileus. Spores subglobose, rough, 7.6µ broad.

Low, damp places. Selkirk and Yaphank, N.Y. June and September.

The species is allied to L. subdulcis, from which the larger size and zonate pileus separate it. The zones disappear in the dry plant, and this change in the marking of the pileus suggests the specific name. They appear to be formed by concentric series of more or less confluent spots and are suggestive of such species as L. deliciosus and L. subpurpureus. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania. Solitary but frequent. In moist woods and margins of woods. June to October. McIlvaine.

184I have been familiar with and eaten this plant since 1882, but thought it might be a variety of L. deliciosus, with light-colored milk.

L. mutabilis is an excellent species, equal to any Lactarius.

L. camphora´tus Fr.—camphor. Pileus 1–2 in. across, brown-brick-red, somewhat zoned, sometimes zoneless, fleshy, thin, depressed, dry, smooth. Stem short, 1–2 in., stuffed, somewhat undulated, of the same color as the pileus. Gills adnate, crowded, yellowish-brick-color. Milk mild, white, odor agreeable, spicy. Fries.

Strong smelling. So like L. subdulcis that it can be distinguished safely only by its odor of melilot when dried. Stevenson.

Pileus .5–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 2–3 lines. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores spherical, echinulate, 6–7µ Q.; subglobose, 8–9µ Massee; 7.6–9µ Peck.

Taste and smell not of camphor, but of melilot.

North Carolina, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; Wisconsin, Bundy; New York, Peck, Rep. 23, Mon. 38th Rep.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, July to October, in moist places. Mixed woods, etc. McIlvaine.

Edible. Gillet.

Its mild taste distinguishes it at once from L. rufus.

It has high but pleasant flavor. If the flavor is too evident to suit some tastes, it is well to mix milder species with it.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.           Plate XLIV.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Russula cyanoxantha, 198 5. Russula roseipes, 209
2. Russula emetica, 201 6. Russula virescens, 194
3. Russula flavida, 197 7. Russula puellaris, 208
4. Russula sordida, 190
185RUS´SULA Pers.

(Plate XLV.)


Pileus regular, rigid, usually becoming more or less depressed. Flesh of the pileus descending into the gills forming a cellular trama. Veil and consequently the ring absent. Stem smooth, stout, rigid, brittle, spongy within. Gills rigid, fragile, edge thin and acute. Spores rounded, often echinulate, white or yellowish. On the ground.

Closely allied to Lactarius but separated by the absence of milk. The gills of some species exude watery drops in moist weather. Owing to the similarity of form and the variable coloring many species are difficult to determine; all the characters should be carefully noted, not omitting that of the taste.

Russulæ are readily distinguished by the stout, short, brittle stem and the fragility of the pileus and gills. They especially love open woods and appear during the summer and fall months, some being found until sharp frosts occur.

It has been claimed by mushroom growers, until within a few years, that the spores of the mushroom have to pass through the digestive apparatus of the horse before they will germinate. It has been conclusively demonstrated that such a transmission is not a necessity. It was for a long time my opinion—following the opinion of others—that such assistance was necessary. In my many efforts to propagate valuable food species of the wild toadstools I endeavored to find the method by which the spores were disseminated, and through what digestive medium they passed—either of insect or animal—before germination. Noticing that the Russulæ were fed upon by a small black beetle, I planted in suitable places, not the toadstools, but the beetles found upon them. The result was that in several instances I grew the Russulæ. My experiments, while interesting, are not conclusive, because I later found that the same results could be obtained from the toadstool itself when 186planted under its own natural life conditions. It is certain that beetles can not be raised by planting Russulæ.

The beetles known as tumble-bugs—canthon lævis—deposit eggs in the center of balls made of animal droppings; dig a hole in the ground and drop them into it. These droppings frequently contain the spores of the meadow mushroom. Thus planted with the proper surrounding of manure, and at the proper depth, the spores germinate, spread mycelium, and a crop of mushrooms is the result. The beetle becomes a horticulturist. No wonder the Egyptians, thousands of years ago, made it—the scarabeus—their sacred emblem, and that, today, the fleur-de-lis of France, so the Rosicrucians say, perpetuates its glorious worth and calling.

Most Russulæ are sweet and nutty to the taste; some are as hot as the fiercest of cayenne, but this they lose upon cooking. To this genus authors have done especial injustice; there is not a single species among them known to be poisonous, and, where they are not too strong of cherry bark and other highly flavored substances, they are all edible; most of them are favorites. Where they present no objectionable appearance or taste, their caps make most palatable dishes when stewed, baked, roasted or escalloped. The time of cooking should be determined by the consistency of the variety; some will cook in five minutes, others not under thirty. Salt, butter and pepper are the only necessaries as seasoning.

I.—Compactæ (compingo, to put together; compact). Page 187.

Pileus fleshy throughout, hence the margin is at first bent inward and always without striæ, without a distinct gluey pellicle (in consequence of which the color is not variable, but only changes with age and the state of the atmosphere). Flesh compact, firm. Stem solid, fleshy. Gills unequal.

II.—Furcatæ (furca, a fork. With forked gills). Page 191.

Pileus compact, firm, covered with a thin, closely adnate pellicle, which at length disappears, margin abruptly thin, at first inflexed, then spreading, acute, even. Stem at first compact, at length spongy-soft within. Gills somewhat forked, with a few shorter ones intermixed, commonly attenuated at both ends, thin and normally narrow.

187III.—Rigidæ (rigidus, rigid). Page 194.

Pileus without a viscid pellicle, absolutely dry, rigid, the cuticle commonly breaking up into flocci or granules. Flesh thick, compact, firm, vanishing away short of the margin which is straight (never involute), soon spreading, and always without striæ. Stem solid, at first hard, then softer and spongy. Gills, a few dimidiate, others divided, rigid, dilated in front and running out with a very broad, rounded apex, whence the margin of the pileus becomes obtuse and is not inflexed. Exceedingly handsome, but rather rare.

IV.—Heterophyllæ (R. heterophylla, the typical species

of the section). Page 198.

Pileus fleshy, firm, with a thin margin which is at first inflexed, then expanded and striate, covered with a thin adnate pellicle. The gills consist of many shorter ones mixed with longer ones, along with others which are forked. Stem solid, stout, spongy within.

V.—Fragiles (fragilis, fragile or brittle). Page 201.

Pileus more or less fleshy, rigid-fragile, covered with a pellicle which is always continuous, and in wet weather viscid and somewhat separable; margin membranaceous, at first convergent and not involute, in full-grown plants commonly sulcate and tubercular. Flesh commonly floccose, lax, friable. Stem spongy, at length wholly soft and hollow. Gills almost all equal, simple, broadening in front, free in the pileus when closed. Several doubtful forms occur. R. integra is specially fallacious from the variety of its colors.

* Gills and spores white.

** Gills and spores white, then light-yellowish or bright lemon-yellowish.

*** Gills and spores ochraceous.


R. ni´gricans Bull.—nigrico, to be blackish. Pileus 2–4 in. and more broad, olivaceous-fuliginous, at length black, fleshy to the margin which is at first bent inwards, convex then flattened, umbilicato-depressed, when young and moist slightly viscid and even (without a separable pellicle), at length cracked in scales. Flesh firm, white, 188when broken becoming red on exposure to the air. Stem 1 in. thick, persistently solid, equal, pallid when young, at length black. Gills rounded behind, slightly adnexed, thick, distant, unequal, paler, reddening when touched. Fries.

Compact, obese, inodorous, within and without at length wholly black, in which it differs from all others. The flesh becomes red when broken because it is saturated with red juice, although it does not exude milk. Sometimes a very few of the gills are dimidiate.

In woods. Common. June to November. Stevenson.

Var. albo´nigra Krombh.—albo, white; negro, to be black. Pileus fleshy, convexo-plane, depressed in the middle, at length funnel-shaped, viscid, whitish, smoky about the margin. Flesh white, turning black when broken. Stem solid, stout, dusky, becoming blackened. Gills decurrent, crowded, unequal, dusky-whitish. In grassy places.

Spores papillose, 8µ W.G.S.; subglobose, rough, 8–9µ Massee.

New York. Our specimens agree with the description in every respect, except that the gills are not distant. Peck, 32d Rep.

Mild when raw, but with a heavy woody taste.

Cooked it makes a good dish, but does not equal most Russulæ.

R. purpuri´na Quel. and Schulz.—purple. (Plate XLVa.) Pileus fleshy, margin acute, subglobose, then plane, at length depressed in the center, slightly viscid in very wet weather, not striate, often split, pellicle separable, rosy-pink, paling even to light yellow. Gills crowded in youth, afterward subdistant, white, in age yellowish, reaching the stem, 2–4 lines broad in front, not greatly narrowed behind, almost equal, not forked. Stem spongy, stuffed, very variable, cylindrical, attenuated above and below the middle, rosy-pink becoming paler (rarely white) toward the base, color obscure in age. Flesh fragile, white, reddish under the skin; odor slight, taste mild. Spores white, globose, sometimes sub-elliptical, 4–8µ long, minutely warted.

Pileus 1.5–2.5 in. across. Stem up to .4 in. thick, 1.2 in. long.

“This is a beautiful and very distinct species easily known by its red stem, mild taste and white spores.” Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.            Plate XLVa.

R. adus´ta Fr.—aduro, to scorch. Pileus pallid or whitish, grayish-sooty, equally fleshy, compact, depressed then somewhat infundibuliform, margin at first inflexed, smooth, then erect, without striæ. Flesh 189unchangeable. Stem solid, obese, of the same color as the pileus. Gills adnate then decurrent, thin, crowded, unequal, white then dingy, not reddening when touched. Fries.

Spores subglobose, almost smooth, 8–9µ Massee.

In pine and mixed woods.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in pine woods and in mixed woods. August to frost. McIlvaine.

R. adusta is solitary but often in small troops. It is easily recognized by the brownish blotches upon its cap, and the crowding of its thin gills.

The solid flesh must be well cooked. It is then of good flavor.

(Plate XLVb.)

Russula brevipes.
After Prof. Peck.

R. bre´vipes Pk.—brevis, short; pes, a foot. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, at first convex and umbilicate, then infundibuliform, dry, glabrous or slightly villose on the margin, white, sometimes varied with reddish-brown stains. Flesh whitish, taste mild, slowly becoming slightly acrid. Lamellæ thin, close, adnate or slightly rounded behind; white. Stem solid, white.

Spores globose, verruculose, 10–13µ.

Stem 6–10 lines long, 6–10 lines thick.

Sandy soil in pine woods. Quogue. September.

This species is related to Russula delica, but is easily distinguished by its short stem and crowded gills. The pileus also is not shining and the taste is tardily somewhat acrid. From Lactarius exsuccus it is separated by the character of the gills and the very short stem which is about as broad as it is long. The spores also are larger than in that species. The gills in the young plant are sometimes studded with drops of water. They are not clearly decurrent. Some of them are forked at the base. The pileus is but slightly raised above the surface of the ground and is generally soiled by adhering dirt and often marked by rusty or brownish stains. The plants grew in old roads in the woods where the soil had been trodden and compacted. Peck, 43d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

190West Virginia, 1882; Pennsylvania, 1887–1894; New Jersey, 1892. Solitary in pine and hemlock woods, generally on bare, compact ground. August to October. McIlvaine.

This species is a sparse grower, but its good size and respectable numbers soon fill the basket. When fresh it is of good substance and flavor.

R. del´ica Fr.—delicus, weaned. (Milkless, juiceless in gills.) White. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, fleshy throughout, firm, umbilicate then infundibuliform, regular, everywhere even, smooth with a whitish luster, the involute margin without striæ. Flesh firm, juiceless, not very thick, white. Stem curt, 1–2 in. long, ½ in. and more thick, solid, even, smooth, white. Gills decurrent, thin, distant, very unequal, white, exuding small watery drops in wet weather. Fries.

Spores minutely echinulate, white, broadly elliptical, 8–10×6–7µ Massee.

In appearance it resembles Lactarius vellereus and L. piperatus, but its gills do not distill milk or juice. It differs, too, in its mild taste. It is related to R. brevipes Pk.

A large, coarse species, cup-shaped at maturity. I have found it in several localities in Massachusetts in July and August. It is of fair quality cooked, but much inferior to R. virescens, etc. Macadam.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in mixed woods, August to October. McIlvaine.

Edible. Taste mild. From the juiceless variety of L. vellereus its mild taste alone furnishes a separate character. Peck.

I have eaten it since 1882, but it is not a favorite. Its quality is fair.

R. sor´dida Pk.—dirty. (Plate XLIV, fig. 4, p. 184.) Pileus firm, convex, centrally depressed, dry, sordid-white, sometimes clouded with brown. Gills close, white, some of them forked. Stem equal, solid, concolorous. Spores globose, 7.5µ. Taste acrid. Flesh changing color when wounded, becoming black or bluish-black.

Plant 4–5 in. high. Pileus 3–5 in. broad. Stem 6–12 lines thick.

Ground under hemlock trees. Worcester. July.

It resembles L. piperatus in general appearance. The whole plant turns black in drying. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Ohio, Morgan; Pennsylvania, Herbst; West Virginia, 1881–1885, 191Pennsylvania, New Jersey, pine, hemlock and mixed woods, July to September. McIlvaine.

It is of better quality than most coarse-grained Russulæ.


R. furca´ta Fr.—furca, a fork. Pileus 3 in. broad, sometimes greenish, sometimes umber-greenish, fleshy, compact, gibbous then plano-depressed or infundibuliform, even, smooth, but often sprinkled with slightly silky luster, pellicle here and there separable, margin thin, at first inflexed, then spreading, always even. Flesh firm, somewhat cheesy, white. Stem 2 in. or a little more long, solid, firm, equal or attenuated downward, even, white. Gills adnato-decurrent, rather thick, somewhat distant but broad, attenuated at both ends, frequently forked, shining white. Fries.

Spores globose, echinulate, 6–7µ C.B.P.; 7–8×9µ Massee.

In woods, and grass under trees.

The frequently forked gills, from which the species takes its name, their being thick and slightly decurrent, help to distinguish it. It is quite common in its several varieties.

Taste mild at first. A slight bitter develops which disappears in cooking. It is then of good quality, not equal to R. virescens. Older writers marked it poisonous, doubtless for no other cause than its slight bitter. I have eaten it freely for fifteen years.

R. sangui´nea Fr.—sanguis, blood. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, blood-red or becoming pale round the even, spreading, acute margin, fleshy, firm, at first convex, obtuse, then depressed and infundibuliform and commonly gibbous in the center, polished, even, moist in damp weather. Flesh firm, cheesy, white. Stem stout, spongy-stuffed, at first contracted at the apex, then equal, slightly striate, white or reddish. Gills at first adnate, then truly decurrent, very crowded, very narrow, connected by veins, fragile, somewhat forked, shining white. Fries.

Spores 9–10µ diameter Massee.

In pine and mixed woods. July to October.

Color same as R. rubra but differs in its hard cheesy flesh, rigid, slightly yellowish gills in age. The gills of R. sanguinea are truly decurrent, and pointed in front.

192Poisonous. Stevenson. Krapp says he has experienced grave inconveniences from eating it.

Myself and very many friends eat all fresh inviting Russulæ. We do not discriminate against a single peppery or acrid species, not even the R. emetica which has been severely maligned. In fact the peppery Russulæ are usually substantial in flesh and choice in substance.

The opinion of many is that R. sanguinea is one of the best. I have eaten it for years.

R. depal´lens Pers.—palleo, to be pale. Pileus 3–4 in. across, pallid-reddish or inclining to dingy-brown, etc., fleshy, firm, convex, then plane, more rarely depressed, but commonly irregularly shaped and undulated, even, the thin, adnate pellicle presently changing color, especially at the disk, the spreading margin even, but slightly striate when old. Flesh white. Stem about 1½ in. long, solid, firm, commonly attenuated downward, white, becoming cinereous when old. Gills adnexed, broad, crowded, distinct, but commonly forked at the base, often with shorter ones intermixed. Inodorous, taste mild. The color of the pileus is at first pallid-reddish, or inclining to brownish, then whitish or yellowish, opaque in every stage of growth. It approaches nearest to the Heterophyllæ. Fries.

In beech woods, pastures, etc. August to September.

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 7–8µ Massee.

R. depallens somewhat resembles R. heterophylla. Both are edible. It is a solitary grower and not common, but when found it occurs in good quantity. It belongs to the best class of Russulæ.

R. subdepal´lens Pk.—sub, de and palleo, to be pale. Pileus fleshy, at first convex and striate on the margin, then expanded or centrally depressed and tuberculate-striate on the margin, viscid, blood-red or purplish red, mottled with yellowish spots, becoming paler or almost white with age, often irregular. Flesh fragile, white, becoming cinereous with age, reddish under the cuticle, taste mild. Lamellæ broad, subdistant, adnate, white or whitish, the interspaces venose. Stem stout, solid but spongy within, persistently white.

Spores white, globose, rough, 8µ broad.

Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 6–12 lines thick.

Under a hickory tree. Trexlertown, Pa. June. W. Herbst.

193Closely related to Russula depallens, from which it differs in having the margin of the pileus striate at first and more strongly so when mature, also in the pileus being spotted at first, the gills more distant, the stem persistently white and the spores white. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. Vol. 23, No. 10. October, 1896.

I do not doubt its edibility. See R. depallens.

R. ochrophyl´la Pk.—ochra, a yellow earth; phyllon, a leaf. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, firm, convex becoming nearly plane or slightly depressed in the center, even or rarely very slightly striate on the margin when old, purple or dark purplish red. Flesh white, purplish under the adnate cuticle, taste mild. Gills entire, a few of them forked at the base, subdistant, adnate, at first yellowish, becoming bright ochraceous buff when mature, dusted by the spores, the interspaces somewhat venose. Stem equal or nearly so, solid or spongy within, reddish or rosy tinted, paler than the pileus. Spores bright ochraceous buff, globose-verruculose, 10µ broad.

The ochery-gilled Russula is a large fine species, but not a common one. It differs but little in color and size from the European pungent Russula, Russula drimeia, but it is easily distinguished from it by its mild taste.

The cap is dry, convex or a little depressed in the center, purple or purplish red, the white flesh purplish under the cuticle, which, however, is not easily separable.

The gills are nearly all entire, extending from the stem to the margin of the cap. They are therefore much closer together near the stem than at the margin. They are at first yellowish, but a bright ochraceous buff when mature. They are then dusted by the similarly colored spores.

The stem is stout, nearly cylindric, firm but spongy in the center and colored like the cap, but generally a little paler. There is a variety in which the stem is white and the cap deep red. In other respects it is like the typical form. Its name is Russula ochrophylla albipes.

The ochery-gilled Russula grows in groups under trees, especially oak trees, and should be sought in July and August. Peck, 51st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, July to September, McIlvaine.

Edible. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.


R. lac’tea Fr.—lac, milk. Pileus 2 in. broad, at the first milk-white, then tan-white, throughout compactly fleshy, bell-shaped, then convex, often excentric, without a pellicle, always dry, at the first even, then slightly cracked when dry, margin straight, thin, obtuse, even. Flesh compact, white. Stem 1½-2 in. long, 1½ in. thick, solid, very compact, but at length spongy-soft within, equal, even, always white. Gills free, very broad, thick, distant, rigid, forked, white. Fries.

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 7–9µ Massee.

Closely allied to R. albella Pk. from which it differs in its shorter stem, and pileus cracking into areolæ, and gills not being entire.

In mixed woods, in patches, not common.

Botanic creek, West Philadelphia, Pa., patches, McIlvaine, 1887.

Edible and of good flavor. Macadam.

Raw, it has a raw, rather unpleasant taste and odor, a little like some acorns. But its firm, thick flesh, meaty gills and stem, and good flavor when well cooked, rank it equal to any.

R. albel’la Pk.—whitish. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, thin, fragile, dry, plane or slightly depressed in the center, even or obscurely striate on the margin, commonly white, sometimes tinged with pink or rosy-red, especially on the margin. Flesh white, taste mild. Lamellæ entire, white, becoming dusted by the spores. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, equal, solid or spongy within, white.

Spores white, globose, 7.6µ broad.

Dry soil of frondose woods. Port Jefferson. July.

Closely allied to R. lactea, but differing in its fragile texture, entire lamellæ, more slender stem, and in the pileus not cracking into areas. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

R. vires’cens Fr.—viresco, to be green. (Plate XLIV, fig. 6, p. 184.) Pileus green, compactly fleshy, globose then expanded, at length depressed, often unequal, always dry, not furnished with a pellicle, wherefore the flocculose cuticle is broken up into patches or warts, margin straight, obtuse, even. Flesh white, not very compact. Stem solid, internally spongy, firm, somewhat rivulose, white. Gills free, somewhat 195crowded, sometimes equal, sometimes forked, with a few shorter ones intermixed, white. Fries.

Taste mild; good, raw.

Spores scarcely echinulate, almost globular, 6µ W.G.S. Spores 8–10µ Massee; 6–7.6µ Peck.

Cap round when young, very hard, then convex or becoming dished, sometimes repand. It is without a separable skin, covered with various sized areas of mouldy looking patches which are at times distinctly cracked. The color varies from a bright bluish-green to grayish-green, such shades remind one of mouldy cheese or the shades of Roquefort; again the color may vary in shades of light leather brown, occasionally the caps are almost white, opaque in each shade of color. Flesh crisp, brittle, thick, white, mild, good raw. Gills and stem as described.

R. virescens is common in the United States but not generally plentiful. It is a solitary grower, usually but few are found in a patch. Striking in appearance when its green colors are present, and always clean looking and inviting. It sometimes attains the size of 5 in. across. It is a hot weather Russula and rarely appears before the latter part of June, then after rains.

To eat, it should be in a healthy, fresh condition. All Russulæ impart a stale flavor if any part of gills or cap is wilting, drying or decaying. It requires forty minutes' slow stewing, or it can be dressed raw as a salad. Roasted or fried crisp in a hot buttered pan it is at its best. It should be well salted.

R. lep´ida Fr.—lepidus, neat, elegant. Pileus 3 in. broad, blood-red-rose, becoming pale, whitish especially at the disk, somewhat equally fleshy, convex then expanded, scarcely depressed, obtuse, opaque, unpolished, with a silky appearance, at length often cracked scaly, margin spreading, obtuse, without striæ. Stem as much as 3 in. long, often 1 in. thick, even, white or rose-color. Gills rounded behind, rather thick, somewhat crowded, often forked, connected by veins, white, often red at the edge.

Taste mild; wholly compact and firm, but the flesh is cheesy, not somewhat clotted. The gills are often red at the edge, chiefly toward the margin, on account of the margin of the pileus being continuous with the gills. Fries.

Spores 8–10×6–8µ Syll.

196Frequent. July to October, in mixed woods.

A common and variable species in size and color, but the cap is always some shade of rose-red or lake. The flesh is compact and cheesy. The gills sometimes edged with pink as they near the margin. Taste mild.

The crisp flesh of R. lepida requires forty minutes' slow stewing, if stewed. It yields a delicate pink shade to the dish. Roasted or cooked in a hot buttered pan it is excellent.

R. ru´bra Fr.—ruber, red. Pileus unicolorous, a cinnabar-vermilion, but becoming pale (tan) when old, disk commonly darker, compact, hard but fragile, convex, then flattened, here and there depressed, absolutely dry, without a pellicle, but becoming polished-even, often sinuously cracked when old, margin spreading, obtuse, even, always persistent. Flesh white, reddish under the cuticle. Stem 2–3 in. long, about 1 in. thick, solid, even, varying white and red. Gills obtusely adnate, somewhat crowded, whitish, then yellowish, with dimidiate and forked ones intermixed.

Very acrid, very hard and rigid, most distinct from all the others of this group in the pileus becoming polished-even, although without a pellicle, in the flesh being somewhat clotted, and in the very acrid taste. Gills often red at the edge. Fries.

Spores whitish, Fries; spheroid, 8–10µ K.

Krapp says he has experienced grave inconveniences from eating it. European authorities mark “poisonous.”

I do not hesitate to cook it either by itself or with other Russulæ and serve it at my table. It is easier cooked than R. virescens and others of the crisp species, and has equal flavor.

R. Linnæ´i Fr.—in honor of Linnæus. Pileus 3–4 in. broad, unicolorous, dark purple, blood-red or bright rose, opaque, not becoming pale, everywhere fleshy, rigid, plano-depressed, sometimes spread upward, even, smooth, dry, without a separable pellicle, margin spreading, obtuse, without striæ. Flesh thick, spongy-compact, white. Stem 1½ in. and more long, 1 in. and more thick, stout, firm, but spongy-soft within, somewhat ventricose, obsoletely reticulated with fibers, intensely blood-red. Gills adnate, somewhat decurrent, rather thick, not crowded, broad (more than ½ in.), fragile, sparingly connected by veins, white, 197becoming yellow when dry, with a few dimidiate ones intermixed, somewhat anastomosing behind. Fries.

Spores wholly white, Fries; ellipsoid, spheroid, echinulate, 11µ Q.; 9–11×8–9µ Massee.

West Virginia, 1881–1885. West Philadelphia, Pa., on Bartram’s Botanic creek. McIlvaine.

R. Linnæi is one of our handsomest and best Russulæ. European authors state its habit to be exactly that of R. emetica, but though I have known it intimately for many years I have not been struck with this in the American plant. Its large size, its more or less red stem never entirely white, at times hollow, cavernous, its less solid flesh, habit of growing in troops, sometimes parts of rings, flourishing best where the leaf mat is heaviest, loving the leaf drift in fence-corners, are well marked distinctions.

When young there is no better Russula. As it ages the stem becomes soft, spongy and should be thrown away. The caps, only, eaten.

R. oliva´cea Fr.—oliva, an olive; olivaceus, the color of an olive. Pileus 2–4 in. across, dingy-purple then olivaceous or wholly brownish-olivaceous, fleshy, convexo-flattened and depressed, slightly silky and squamulose, margin spreading, even. Flesh white, becoming somewhat yellow. Stem firm, ventricose, rose-color to pallid, spongy-stuffed within. Gills adnexed, wide, yellow, with shorter and forked ones intermixed.

Mild. Near to R. rubra, but certainly distinct in the stem being definitely spongy, in the pileus being unpolished, and in the gills being soft and brightly colored; corresponding with R. alutacea. Fries.

Spores light yellow, Fries; spheroid, punctate, 10µ Q.; globose, minutely granulate, yellow, 9–10µ diameter Massee.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., 1897–1898.

Pileus 2–4 in. across, 2–3 in. long, ½-⅓ in. thick.

The caps are equally good with R. alutacea. They must be fresh, and similarly cooked.

R. fla´vida Frost—yellow. (Plate XLIV, fig. 3, p. 184.) Pileus fleshy, convex, slightly depressed, unpolished, bright yellow. Gills white, adnate, turning cinereous. Stem yellow, solid, white at the extreme apex. Frost Ms.

198Pileus fleshy, convex, slightly depressed in the center, not polished, yellow, the margin at first even, then slightly striate-tuberculate. Gills nearly entire, venose-connected, white, then cinereous or yellowish. Stem firm, solid, yellow, sometimes white at the top.

Spores yellow, subglobose, 6.5–7.6µ in diameter. Flesh white, taste mild.

Plant 2–3 in. high. Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 4–6 lines thick. Frost Mss.

Ground in woods. Sandlake. August. Peck, 32d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

R. flavida is showy, solitary and in patches. The stem when young and solid is equally good with the cap. Cooks in twenty-five minutes and is of good flavor.


R. ves´ca Fr.—vesco, to feed. Pileus red-flesh-color, disk darker, fleshy, slightly firm, plano-depressed, slightly wrinkled with veins, with a viscid pellicle, margin at length spreading. Flesh cheesy, firm, shining white. Stem solid, compact, externally rigid, reticulated and wrinkled in a peculiar manner, often attenuated at the base, shining white. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, shining white, with many unequal and forked ones intermixed, but scarcely connected by veins.

Of middle stature. Taste mild, pleasant. Fries.

Spores globose, echinulate, white, 9–10µ diameter. Massee.

In mixed woods. Common. August to frost.

R. vesca is frequent in woods or margins, and under trees in the open. It is especially fond of growing in the grass under lone chestnut trees. The caps seldom exceed 2-½ in. across.

It is one of the best.

R. cyanoxan´tha (Schaeff.) Fr. Gr—blue; Gr—yellow. (From the colors.) (Plate XLIV, fig. 1, p. 184.) Pileus 2–3 in. and more broad, lilac or purplish then olivaceous-green, disk commonly becoming pale often yellowish, margin commonly becoming azure-blue or livid purple, compact, convex then plane, then depressed or infundibuliform, sometimes even, sometimes wrinkled or streaked, viscous, margin deflexed then expanded, remotely and slightly striate. Flesh firm, 199cheesy, white, commonly reddish beneath the separable pellicle. Stem 2–3 in. long, as much as 1 in. thick, spongy-stuffed, but firm, often cavernous within when old, equal, smooth, even, shining white. Gills rounded behind, connected by veins, not much crowded, broad, forked with shorter ones intermixed, shining white.

Allied to R. vesca in its mild, pleasant taste and in other respects, but constantly different in the color of the pileus, which is very variable, whereas in R. vesca it is unchangeable. The peculiar combination of colors in the pileus, though very variable, always readily distinguishes it. Fries.

Spores 8–9µ, cystidia numerous, pointed, Massee; 8–10×6–8µ Sacc.

In mixed woods. Common. August to October.

Pronounced one of the best esculent species by all authorities.

R. heterophyl´la Fr. Gr—differing; Gr—a leaf. (Gills differing in length.) Pileus very variable in color, but never becoming reddish or purple, fleshy, firm, convexo-plane then depressed, even, polished, the very thin pellicle disappearing, margin thin, even or densely but slightly striate. Flesh white. Stem solid, firm, somewhat equal, even, shining white. Gills reaching the stem in an attenuated form, very narrow, very crowded, forked and dimidiate, shining white.

Taste always mild, as in R. cyanoxantha, from which it differs in its smaller stature, in the pileus being thinner, even, never reddish or purplish, with a thin closely adnate pellicle, in the stem being firm and solid, and in the gills being thin, very narrow, very crowded, etc. The apex of the stem is occasionally dilated in the form of a cup, so that the gills appear remote. Fries.

Spores echinulate, 5×7µ W.G.S.; 7–8µ diameter Massee.

Common. Woods. July to November.

Edible, of a sweet nutty flavor. Stevenson.

R. heterophylla is very common. Its smooth, even pileus, colored in some dingy shade of green, distinguishes it. It is much infested by grubs. Specimens for the table should be young and fresh. Wilted specimens are unpleasant.

R. fœ´tens Fr.—fœtens, stinking. Pileus 4–5 in. and more broad, dingy yellow, often becoming pale, thinly fleshy, at first bullate, then expanded and depressed, covered with a pellicle which is adnate, not 200separable, and viscid in wet weather, margin broadly membranaceous, at the first bent inward with ribs which are at length tubercular. Flesh thin, rigid-fragile, pallid. Stem 2 in. and more long, ½-1 in. thick, stout, stuffed then hollow, whitish. Gills adnexed, crowded, connected by veins, with very many dimidiate and forked ones intermixed, whitish, at the first exuding watery drops.

Fetid. Taste acrid. Very rigid, most distinct from all others in its very heavy empyreumatic odor. In very dry weather the odor is often obsolete. The margin is more broadly membranaceous and hence marked with longer furrows than in any other species. It differs from all the preceding ones in the gills at the first exuding watery drops. The gills become obsoletely light yellow, and dingy when bruised. Fries.

Pileus fleshy, with a wide thin margin, hemispherical or convex, then expanded or depressed, viscid when moist, widely striate-tuberculate on the margin, dull pale yellow or straw color. Lamellæ rather broad, close, venose-connected, some of them forked, whitish. Stipe nearly cylindrical, whitish, hollow. Spores white. Plant sometimes cespitose.

Height 2–4 in.; breadth of pileus 2–3 in. Stipe 4–6 lines thick.

Pine woods. West Albany. October.

Taste mild at first, then slightly disagreeable. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores minute, echinulate, almost globular, 8µ W.G.S.; 8–10µ Massee.

In woods. Common. July to October.

Var. granula´ta has the pileus rough with small granular scales. Peck, Rep. 39.

A very coarse and easily recognized species. Reckoned poisonous, though eaten by slugs. W.G.S.

The verdict is against it. Both smell and taste are usually unpleasant. Cooked it retains its flavor, more closely resembling wild cherry bark than anything else. On two occasions I ate enough to convince me that it was not poisonous.

R. el´egans Bresad.—elegans, pretty. Mild at first, becoming acrid with age. Pileus 2–3 in. across. Flesh rather thick; convex then depressed; margin tuberculose and striate when old, viscid, bright rosy flesh-color, soon ochraceous at the circumference, everywhere densely 201granulated. Gills adnexed or slightly rounded, narrow behind, very much crowded, equal, rarely forked, whitish, becoming either entirely or here and there ochraceous-orange. Stem 1½-2 in. long, 5–7 lines thick, a little thickened at the base, rather rugulose, white, base ochraceous. Flesh white, turning ochraceous and acrid when old.

Spores 8–10µ diameter Massee.

Allied to R. vesca. Known by the bright rose-colored, densely granular pileus and tuberculose margin. When old the pileus is almost entirely ochraceous. Massee.

Frequent in the West Virginia forests, 1881–1885. Chester county, Pa., 1887–1890. In mixed woods. July to September. McIlvaine.

It differs from R. vesca in its cap being minutely granulated instead of streaked, and in becoming acrid with age.

The caps are of good quality, needing to be well cooked.


* Gills and spores white.

R. eme´tica Fr.—an emetic. (Plate XLIV, fig. 2, p. 184.) Pileus 3–4 in. broad, at first rosy then blood-color, tawny when old, sometimes becoming yellow and at length (in moist places) white, at first bell-shaped then flattened or depressed, polished, margin at length furrowed and tubercular. Flesh white, reddish under the separable pellicle. Stem spongy-stuffed, stout, elastic when young, fragile when older, even, white or reddish. Gills somewhat free, broad, somewhat distant, shining white.

Handsome, regular, moderately firm, but fragile when full grown, taste very acrid. Fries.

Spores shining white, Fries; spheroid, echinulate, 8–10µ K.; 7µ W.G.S.

Maryland, Miss Banning; New York, Peck, Rep. 22; Indiana, Illinois, H.I. Miller.

Said to act as its name implies as an emetic. Certainly poisonous. Stevenson.

Krapp says he has himself experienced rare inconveniences from eating it. Preferred to others in Indiana and Illinois. H.I. Miller, 1898.

The varying reports upon R. emetica are quoted above. In 1881, in 202the West Virginia mountains, I began testing this Russula and soon found that it was harmless. At least twenty persons ate it in quantity, during its season, for four years. Yet, in my many published articles, I continued, out of regard for the opinions of others and in excess of caution, to warn against all bitter and peppery fungi. But from that time until the present I have eaten it, and I have made special effort to establish its innocence by getting numbers of my friendly helpers to eat it.

It was suggested by one of its prosecutors that perhaps I was mistaking another fungus for it. In October, 1898, I sent to Professor Peck a lot of the Russula I was eating. He wrote: “It seems to be R. emetica as you state. It certainly is hot enough for it.”

R. pectina´ta Fr.—pecten, a comb. Pileus 3 in. broad, at first gluey, toast-brown, then dry, becoming pale, tan, with the disk always darker, fleshy, rigid, convex then flattened and depressed or concavo-infundibuliform (basin-shaped); margin thin, pectinato-sulcate (deeply ribbed), here and there irregularly shaped. Flesh white, light yellowish under the pellicle, which is not easily separable. Stem curt, 3 in. long, ¾–1 in. thick, rigid, spongy-stuffed, longitudinally slightly striate, shining white, often attenuated at the base. Gills attenuato-free behind, broader toward the margin, somewhat crowded, equal, simple, white.

Odor weak, but nauseous, approaching that of R. fœtens. Fries.

Spores 8–9µ diameter Massee.

New York, Peck, 43d Rep. West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey. Common in woods, grassy, mossy places. July to frost. McIlvaine.

Named from the furrows of the margin being like the teeth of a comb.

Both the appearance and smell of this Russula will detect it. The peculiar comb-like furrows of its margin, viscid or varnished-looking cap, and strong but more spicy smell than cherry-bark are noticeable.

It is edible, but so strong in flavor that a piece of one will spoil a dish if cooked with other kinds.

R. ochroleu´ca Fr. Gr—pale yellow; Gr—white. Pileus yellow, becoming pale, fleshy, flattened or depressed, polished, with an adnate pellicle, the spreading margin becoming even. Stem spongy, stuffed, firm, slightly reticulato-wrinkled, white, becoming cinereous. Gills rounded behind, united, broad, somewhat equal, white becoming pale.

Odor obsolete, but pleasant. The pileus is never reddish. It agrees 203wholly with R. emetica in structure and stature, as well as in the acrid taste; it differs however in the stem being slightly recticulato-wrinkled, white becoming cinereous, in the adnate pellicle of the pileus, in the margin remaining for a long time even (remotely striate, but not tubercular, only when old), and in the gills being rounded behind and becoming pale. The color of the pileus is constant. The gills remain free and do not exude drops. Fries.

Cap 2–4 in. across. Stem 2–3 in. long, up to ¾ in. thick.

Spores papillose, 7µ W.G.S., 8×9µ Massee.

Frequent in woods. July to October.

Not as common as R. emetica, yet frequently found, usually solitary, at times gregarious. It is quite peppery, but loses pepperiness in cooking. Myself and others have frequently eaten it.

R. ci´trina Gillet—citrina, citron colored. Mild. Pileus 2–3 in. across, slightly fleshy at the disk, margin thin; convex then more or less expanded and slightly depressed, rather viscid when moist, smooth, slightly wrinkled at the margin when old, bright lemon-yellow, color usually uniform, sometimes paler at the margin, occasionally with a greenish tint, center of pileus at length becoming pale-ochraceous; pellicle separable. Gills slightly decurrent, broadest a short distance from the margin, and gradually becoming narrower towards the base, forked at the base and also sometimes near the middle, white, 1½ lines deep at broadest part. Stem 2–3 in. long, about 4 lines thick, equal or slightly narrowed at the base, slightly wrinkled, straight or very slightly waved, solid.

Spores subglobose, echinulate, 8µ diameter.

In woods.

Known by the clear lemon-yellow or citron-colored pileus and the persistently white gills and stem. The taste is mild at first, but becomes slightly acrid if kept in the mouth for a short time. Massee.

R. citrina can hardly be classed among the acrid species. The taste is slightly of cherry-bark and disappears in cooking. It is usually found in patches which contain ten to twenty individuals. It is a species of fair quality.

R. fra´gilis Fr.—fragile. Pileus 1–1½ in. broad, rarely more, flesh-color, changing color, very thin, fleshy only at the disk, at the first convex 204and often umbonate, then plane and depressed, pellicle thin, becoming pale, slightly viscid in wet weather; margin very thin, tuberculoso-striate. Stem 1½-2 in. long, spongy within, soon hollow, often slightly striate, white. Gills slightly adnexed, very thin, crowded, broad, ventricose, all equal, shining white. Fries.

Very acrid. Smaller and more fragile than the rest of the group, directly changing color. The color is variable, often opaque, typically flesh-color, when changed in color white externally and internally, often with reddish spots. Among varieties of color is to be noted a livid flesh-colored form, with the disk becoming fuscous.

It is not easy to define it from fragile forms of R. emetica, but the gills are much more crowded, thinner, and often slightly eroded at the edge, ventricose; the pileus thinner and more lax, etc. Stevenson.

Var. nivea Fr.—nivea, snowy. Whole plant white.

Spores minutely echinulate 8–10×8µ Massee.

Though one of the peppery kind, I have not, after fifteen years of eating it, had reason to question its edibility. The caps are not meaty, but what there is of them is good.

R. puncta´ta Gillet—punctata, dotted. Mild. Pileus 1½-2½ in. across. Flesh thin, white, reddish under the cuticle; convex then flattened, viscid, rosy, disk darkest, punctate with dark reddish point-like warts, pale when old; margin striate. Gills slightly adnexed, 2 lines broad, white then yellowish, edge often reddish. Stem about 1 in. long, 4–5 lines thick, attenuated and whitish at the base, remainder colored like the pileus, stuffed.

Spores 8–9µ diameter Massee.

Among grass.

Edible. Boston Myc. Club Bull. 1896.

** Gills and spores white then yellowish or bright lemon.

R. in´tegra Fr.—integer, entire, whole. Pileus 4–5 in. across, typically red, changing color, fleshy, campanulato-convex then expanded and depressed, fragile when full-grown, with a gluey pellicle, at length furrowed and somewhat tubercular at the margin. Flesh white, sometimes yellowish above. Stem at first short, conical, then club-shaped 205or ventricose, as much as 3 in. long, up to 1 in. thick, spongy-stuffed, commonly stout, even, shining white. Gills somewhat free, very broad, up to ¾ in., equal or bifid at the stem, somewhat distant, connected by veins, pallid-white, at length light yellow, somewhat powdered yellow with the spores.

Taste mild, often astringent. The most changeable of all species, especially in the color of the pileus which is typically red, but at the same time inclining to azure-blue, bay-brown, olivaceous, etc. Sometimes the gills are sterile and remain white. Fries.

Spores ellipsoid-spheroid or spheroid echinulate, globose, rough, 8–9µ C.B.P.; 9–10µ diameter, pale ochraceous. Massee.

It is difficult to separate R. integra from R. alutacea. The spores usually show upon the gills as pale dull yellow powder. It is of equal excellence.

R. decolo´rans Fr.—de and coloro, to color. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, color various, at first orange-red, then light yellow and becoming pale, fleshy, spherical then expanded and depressed, remarkably regular, viscid when moist, thin and at length striate at the margin. Flesh white, but becoming somewhat cinereous when broken, and more or less variegated with black spots when old. Stem elongated, 3–5 in., cylindrical, solid, but spongy within, often wrinkled-striate, white then becoming cinereous especially within. Gills adnexed, often in pairs, thin, crowded, fragile, white then yellowish.

Taste mild. Colors changeable according to a fixed rule, but not variable. The gills are not ochraceous-pulverulent as in R. integra, nor shining and pure yellow as in R. aurata, etc. Fries.

Spores yellow, 8.3µ Morgan.

New York, Peck, 23d Rep. Angora, West Philadelphia, Pa., 1897, in mixed woods. August to October. McIlvaine.

Esculent and of good quality. Morgan.

Meals of it make one regret its scarcity.

R. basifurca´ta Pk.—forked near stem. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, firm, convex, umbilicate, becoming somewhat funnel form, glabrous, slightly viscid when moist, the thin pellicle scarcely separable except on the margin, dingy-white, sometimes tinged with yellow or reddish-yellow, the margin nearly even. Lamellæ rather close, narrowed toward the 206base, adnate or slightly emarginate, many of them forked near the base, a few short ones intermingled, white becoming yellowish. Stem 8–12 lines long, 5–6 lines thick, firm, solid, becoming spongy within, white.

Spores elliptical, pale yellow, uninucleate or shining, 9×6.5µ. Flesh white, taste mild, then bitterish.

Dry hard ground in paths and wood roads. Canoga, N.Y. July.

This species closely resembles pale forms of R. furcata, from which it is separated by the absence of any silky micor and by the yellowish color and elliptical shape of the spores and by the yellowish hue of the lamellæ. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., September, 1898, to frost. Gravelly ground. Solitary. Gills adnate. Identified as his species by Professor Peck.

The slight bitterish taste disappears in cooking. It is edible and of fair quality.

R. aura´ta Fr.—aurum, gold. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, varying lemon-yellow, orange and red, disk darker, fleshy, rigid, brittle however, hemispherical then plane, disk not depressed, pellicle thin, adnate, viscid in wet weather, margin even, and slightly striate only when old, but sometimes wrinkled. Flesh lemon-yellow under the pellicle, white below. Stem 2–3 in. long, solid, firm, but spongy within, cylindrical, obsoletely striate, white or lemon-yellow. Gills rounded free, connected by veins, broad, equal, shining, never pulverulent, whitish inclining to light yellow, but vivid lemon-yellow at the edge. Fries.

West Virginia, 1881–1885; Pennsylvania, 1887–1898. In woods under pines. July to October. McIlvaine.

Pileus sometimes depressed in center, very viscid when wet.

A troop of this Russula upon brown wood mat is a pretty sight. Its rich and brightly-colored cap attracts the eye from a distance. The yellow edge of its gills is the distinctive mark of the species.

The smell is pleasant, the taste slightly of cherry bark.

Cooked it is one of the best Russulæ.

R. atropurpu´rea Pk.—atre, black; purpureus, purple. Dark purple Russula. Pileus 3–4 in. broad, at first convex, then centrally depressed, glabrous, dark purple, blackish in the center, the margin even or slightly striate. Flesh white, grayish or grayish-purple under the separable pellicle, taste mild, odor of the drying plant fetid, very unpleasant. 207Lamellæ nearly equal, subdistant, sometimes forked near the stem, at first white, then yellowish, becoming brownish where bruised. Stem 2–3 in. long, 5–8 lines thick, equal, glabrous, spongy within, white, brownish where bruised. Spores subglobose, minutely rough, pale ochraceous with a salmon tint, 8–10µ.

Open woods. Gansevoort. July.

In color this species resembles R. variata, but in other respects it is very different. It is very distinct in the peculiar color of its spores, and in the brownish hue assumed by wounds. Peck, 41st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Philadelphia, Pa. July, 1897. Open woods. Solitary. Philadelphia Myc. Center.

Many were eaten and enjoyed. Only fresh plants are acceptable, and they should be cooked as soon as gathered. Even in wilting they become unpleasant.

*** Gills and spores ochraceous.

R. aluta´cea Fr.—aluta, tanned leather. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, commonly bright blood-color or red, even black-purple, but becoming pale, especially at the disk, fleshy, bell-shaped then convex, flattened and somewhat umbilicate, even, with a remarkably sticky pellicle, margin thin, at length striate, tubercular. Flesh snow-white. Stem 2 in. long, solid, stout, equal, even, white, most frequently variegated-reddish, even purple. Gills at first free, thick, very broad, connected by veins, all equal, somewhat distant, at first pallid light yellow, then bright ochraceous, not pulverulent.

It is distinguished from R. integra by its gills not being pulverulent. Fries.

Spores yellow 7–9µ Massee; 11–14×8–10µ Sacc., Syll.

July to frost. McIlvaine.

R. alutacea is easily recognized among Russulæ by its mild taste and broad yellow gills. In young specimens one sometimes has to look at the gills at an angle to detect the yellow. It is quite common but a solitary grower. It is everywhere eaten as a favorite. Only fresh plants yield a good flavor. When the stem is soft, it should be thrown away.

208R. puella´ris Fr. (Plate XLIV, fig. 7, p. 184.) Mild. Pileus 1–1½ in. across, flesh almost membranaceous except the disk; conico-convex then expanded, at first rather gibbous, then slightly depressed, scarcely viscid, color peculiar, purplish-livid then yellowish, disk always darker and brownish; tuberculosely striate, often to the middle. Gills adnate but very much narrowed behind, thin, crowded, white then pale-yellow, not shining nor powdered with the spores. Stem 1–1½ in. long, 2–4 lines thick, equal, soft, fragile, wrinkled under a lens, white or yellowish; stuffed, soon hollow; taste mild.

Spores subglobose, pale-yellow, echinulate, 10×8–9µ Massee.

In woods.

Among the most frequent and readily recognized of species, occurring in troops. Always small, thin, taste mild. Allied to R. nitida, but more slender; color paler, and not shining. Fries.

Distinguished from R. nitida and R. nauseosa by the absence of smell. Massee.

Var. inten´sior Cke. Nearly the same size as the typical form; pileus deep purple, nearly black at the disk.

The stem has a tendency to become thickened at the base, and turns yellowish when touched.

Var. rose´ipes Sec., given by Massee, has been retained as a distinct species by Professor Peck, Rep. 51, and is described in place. R. pusilla Pk., 50th Rep., is closely allied to it.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, North Carolina. Common in woods and under trees in short grass. July to September. McIlvaine.

This little Russula is ubiquitous. It does not amount to much when other fungi are plenty, because of its very thin cap, but it thrives in all sorts of summer weather. When its companions are scarce or parched R. puellaris is gladly gathered by the mycophagist, its numbers making up for its lightness and lack of flavor.

R. pusil´la Pk.—little. Pileus very thin, nearly plane or slightly and umbilicately depressed in the center, glabrous, slightly striate on the margin, red, sometimes a little darker in the center, the thin pellicle separable. Flesh white, taste mild. Lamellæ broad for the size of the plant, subventricose, subdistant, adnate or slightly rounded behind, white, becoming yellowish-ochraceous in drying. Stem short, soft, solid or spongy within, white.

209Spores faintly tinged with yellow, 7.6µ broad.

Pileus scarcely 1 in. broad. Stem 6–12 lines long, 2–3 lines thick.

Bare ground in thin woods. Port Jefferson. July.

The coloring matter of the pileus may be rubbed upon paper and produce on it red stains if the surface is previously moistened with water or dilute alcohol. This is one of the smallest Russulas known to me. The pileus was less than an inch broad and the stem less than an inch long in all the specimens seen by me. The species is closely allied to R. puellaris, and especially resembles the variety intensior in color. It differs in its smaller size, even or but slightly striate margin, broad lamellæ and in the stem or flesh not becoming yellowish spotted where touched. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia, 1881–1885. Pennsylvania, 1896–1897. July to September. McIlvaine.

It makes up in quality what it lacks in quantity.

R. rose´ipes (Secr.) Bres.—rosa, a rose; pes, a foot. (Plate XLIV, fig. 5, p. 184.) Pileus 1–2 in. broad, convex becoming nearly plane or slightly depressed, at first viscid, soon dry, becoming slightly striate on the thin margin, rosy-red variously modified by pink orange or ochraceous hues, sometimes becoming paler with age, taste mild. Gills moderately close, nearly entire, rounded behind and slightly adnexed, ventricose, whitish becoming yellow. Stem 1½-3 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, slightly tapering upward, stuffed or somewhat cavernous, white tinged with red.

Spores yellow, globose or subglobose.

The plants grow in woods of pine and hemlock and have been collected in July and August. The flesh is tender and agreeable in flavor. Peck, 51st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores globose, minutely echinulate, pale ochraceous, 8–10µ diameter Massee.

R. roseipes is common in West Virginia under hemlocks and spruces. At Mt. Gretna, Pa., it grew sparingly under pines. It is excellent.

R. Ma´riæ Pk. Pileus fleshy, convex, subumbilicate, at length expanded and centrally depressed, minutely pulverulent, bright pink-red (crimson lake), the disk a little darker, margin even. Lamellæ rather 210close, reaching the stem, some of them forked, venose-connected, white, then yellowish. Stem equal, solid, colored like the pileus except the extremities which are usually white. Spores globose, nearly smooth, 7.6µ in diameter; flesh of the pileus white, red under the cuticle, taste mild.

Plant 2 in. high. Pileus 1.5–2 in. broad. Stem 3–6 lines thick. Dry ground in woods. Catskill mountains. July.

The minute colored granules, which give the pileus a soft pruinose appearance, are easily rubbed off on paper, and water put upon the fresh specimens is colored by them. Peck, 24th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

New York, Peck, 24th and 50th Rep.; West Virginia, 1882–1885; Mt. Gretna, Pa., solitary in mixed woods. July to September. 1897–1898. McIlvaine.

It is on a par with most Russulæ.

R. ochra´cea Fr.—ochra, a yellow earth. Mild. Pileus about 3 in. across. Flesh rather thick at the center, becoming thin toward the margin, pale ochraceous, soft; convex then expanded and depressed, margin coarsely striate, pellicle thin, viscid, ochraceous with a tinge of yellow, disk usually becoming darker. Gills slightly adnexed, broad, scarcely crowded, ochraceous. Stem about 1½ in. long, 5–7 lines thick, slightly wrinkled longitudinally, ochraceous, stuffed, soft.

Spores globose, echinulate, ochraceous, 10–12µ diameter.

In pine and mixed woods.

The mild taste and ochraceous color of every part, including the flesh, separate the present from every other species.

Commonly confounded with Russula fellea, but known at once by its mild taste. Agreeing most nearly with R. lutea in color, but differing in the softer flesh, which becomes ochraceous upward; sulcate margin of the pileus, and broader, less crowded gills. Pileus persistently ochraceous, disk usually darker. Stem sometimes yellow, sometimes white. Fries.

North Carolina, borders of woods, Curtis; California, Harkness and Moore.

Fries says that the flavor is mild, but Roze places it in the list of suspected species, although he notes it as not acrid; it may be inferred that he considers the flavor unpleasant. Macadam.

“Like chicken,” not common. Boston Myc. Club Bull. 1896.

211R. lu´tea (Huds.) Fr.—luteus, yellow. Pileus 1–2 in. broad, yellow, at length becoming pale, and occasionally wholly white, thinly fleshy, soon convexo-plane or plano-depressed, sticky when moist, even or when old obsoletely striate at the margin. Flesh white. Stem ½ in. long, 3–4 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, soft, fragile, equal, even, white, never reddish. Gills somewhat free, connected by veins, crowded, narrow, all equal, ochraceous-egg-yellow.

Always small, very regular, taste mild. When young the pileus is always of a beautiful yellow. Fries.

Spores yellow, echinulate, 8µ W.G.S.; globose, rough, 6–7µ C.B.P.; 8–10×7–8µ Massee.

Allied to R. vitellina, but differs in having the margin of the cap even, and but little odor.

The plant I have so referred has the gills at first white and the stem yellow like the pileus; it may be a new species. In beech woods, Morgan; West Virginia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, in mixed woods, often under beeches, August to November, McIlvaine.

The plants I have found have white gills when young (few species have not), but rapidly become yellow. The stem is usually white when young, and sometimes remains so, but often becomes more or less yellow.

It is a pretty species. The flavor is not as strong as in some species, but is delicate.

R. nauseo´sa Fr. Pileus variable in color, typically purplish at the disk, then livid, but becoming pale and often whitish, laxly fleshy, thin, at first plano-gibbous, then depressed, viscid in wet weather, furrowed and somewhat tubercular at the somewhat membranaceous margin. Flesh soft, white. Stem short, about 1 in. long, 4 lines thick, spongy-stuffed, slightly striate, white. Gills adnexed, ventricose, somewhat distant, here and there with a few shorter ones intermixed, light yellow then dingy ochraceous.

The taste is mild, but also nauseous, as the odor often is. The habit is that of R. nitida, of the same color of pileus, but differing in the color of the gills. Fries.

Cap about 2 in. across. Stem 1–2 in. long, ¼-½ in. thick.

Spores dingy yellow, 8–9µ diameter. Massee.

North Carolina and Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; West Virginia, Pennsylvania, 212New Jersey, in pine and mixed woods. August to October. McIlvaine.

The odor and taste of R. nauseosa are misnamed, therefore the plant. They are heavy at times, when the plant is wet or old, as is the case with R. fœtens, but they are always of cherry bark. Both odor and taste disappear in cooking. The species is as good as any Russula of its texture.

R. vitelli´na Fr.—vitellus, yolk of egg. Pileus 1 in. broad, uni-colorous, light yellow then wholly pallid, somewhat membranaceous, at length tuberculoso-striate, somewhat dry, disk very small, slightly fleshy. Stem thin, scarcely exceeding 1 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal. Gills separating-free, equal, distant, rather thick, connected by veins, saffron-yellow.

Pretty, very fragile, strong-smelling, mild. Fries.

Spores 7–8µ diameter Massee.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, August to October. In pine and mixed woods, July to October. Not common in number.

This pretty species has a cherry-bark taste and smell like R. fœtens, though not so offensively heavy. It is not poisonous. A small piece of it will affect a whole dish of other Russulæ.

R. chamæleonti´na Fr.—changing color like a chamæleon. Pileus 1–2 in. broad, thinly fleshy, soon flattened, sometimes oblique with a thin, separable, viscid pellicle, which is at first flesh-color, then presently changing color, becoming yellow at the disk and at length wholly yellow, margin even, then slightly striate. Stem as much as 3 in. long, but thin, somewhat hollow, slightly striate, white. Gills more or less adnexed, thin, crowded, equal, narrow, somewhat forked, light-yellow-ochraceous.

Mild, inodorous, very fragile. Pileus rosy blood-red, purplish lilac, etc. Sometimes even at the first yellowish at the disk. Fries.

Spores globose, ochraceous, 7–8µ diameter Massee.

In pine and in mixed woods. August to October. McIlvaine.

The change in color of the cap which gives name to this species is not remarkable. Most species of Russulæ are sensitive to light. An otherwise highly colored cap will be almost white when a leaf adheres to it. If in youth it grows under dense shade it will be very much 213lighter than if where light is generous, and will remain so. If in growing it thrusts itself out of shadow, its color will change and it will deepen. The apparent rarity of R. chamæleontina I think due to the close observation necessary to detect its changes in color, which, as I have found it, are by no means constant. It is quite plentiful in the pines of southern New Jersey, and at Mt. Gretna, Pa., it is frequently found.

It is a good esculent species.

Gr—a vase, a cup.

Hymenophore continuous with the stem, descending unchanged into the trama. Gills thick, fleshy, waxy, fold-like, somewhat branched, obtuse at the edge. Spores white. Fleshy, putrescent fungi, without a veil. Fries.

Cantharellus Cibarius.

In Cantharellus the gills—vein-like and generally thick with an obtuse edge—are entirely different from those of all the preceding genera. In those they are thin, and distinct from the pileus and from each other. In Hygrophorus the gills are frequently thick, but the edge is always sharp. The species of Craterellus are funnel-shaped, resembling some of those in Cantharellus, but are distinguished by their lack of evident gills.

Monograph New York Species of Cantharellus, Peck, Bull. 1887.

The members of this genus are few, but they are choice. Of them is the Cantharellus cibarius, of which Trattinik quaintly says: “Not only this same fungus never did any one harm, but might even restore the dead.”

The writer first made its acquaintance when among the West Virginia mountains in 1881. The golden patches of single and clustered cibarius, fragrant as ripened apricots, tufting the short grass or mossy ground under beeches, oaks and like-growing trees, through which the sunlight filtered generously, were so tempting, that he determined there must be luxury, even in death, from such toadstools.

Experiments made by the writer in West Virginia where the species grows luxuriantly and is of much higher flavor than any he has found elsewhere, prove that it is easy to transplant within congenial habitats, either by the mycelium or spores. Nature, there, resorts to washing masses of leaves containing the propagating parts of the fungus along the depressions of the water-sheds, and it is found growing plentifully where the wind has drifted forest leaves against trees, brush, and fence-corners.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.           Plate XLVI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Cantharellus floccosus, 218 4. Cantharellus cibarius, 215
2. Morchella esculenta, 542 5. Cantharellus brevipes, 219
3. Craterellus cantharellus, 508

Other species of the genus do not, as a rule, grow so plentifully, neither are they of equal excellence, but several of them are equal to 215any other species. Suspicion has been thrown upon C. aurantiacus. There is such a marked difference between the excellence of the genus in West Virginia and other localities, that it is possible C. aurantiacus may be noxious elsewhere, but the writer has not found it so; and it would be an astonishing contradiction of Nature’s ways if it was.

Stevenson says: “It (C. cibarius) must have four hours slow cooking.” The writer has found thirty minutes to be sufficient; and it will fry in butter as quickly as any other fungus.

Mesopus (mesos, middle; pous, a foot). Page 215.
Stem central.

* Stem solid.

** Stem tubular.

Pleuropus (pleura, the side; pous, a foot).
Stem lateral.
Resupinatus (resupinatus, lying on the back).
Stem absent.

All the species known to be edible belong to Mesopus.

* Stem solid.

C. ciba´rius Fr.—cibaria, food. (Plate XLVI, fig. 4, p. 214. Plate XLVII.) Pileus fleshy, obconic, smooth, egg-yellow, slightly depressed. Gills thick, distant, more or less branching and anastomosing, concolorous. Stem firm, solid, often tapering downward, concolorous. Flesh white.

Height 2–4 in., breadth of pileus 2–3 in. Stem 3–6 lines thick.

In open woods and grassy places. Common. July and August.

Edible. The smell of apricots is not always clearly perceptible in American specimens. Peck, Monograph New York Species of Cantharellus, Rep. 23.

216Spores 6×8µ W.G.S.; 7.6×5µ Morgan; spheroid-ellipsoid, 8–9×5–6µ K.; 11µ Q.

Reported from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Columbia river to Louisiana. June to September.

Wherever grown C. cibarius is one of the best. In European countries it is highly rated, and is expensive. Its mode of growth varies with its plentifulness. In the West Virginia mountains large patches of it closely cover the ground. Clusters weighing ½ pound are frequent.

(Plate XLVII.)

Cantharellus cibarius.

When shredded, or cut across the fibers, slow cooking for half an hour is sufficient, if the plants are fresh. If gathered for some hours, they should be soaked for a time.

C. mi´nor Pk. Pileus fleshy, thin, convex then expanded and depressed, egg-yellow. Gills very narrow, distant, sparingly branched, yellowish. Stem slender, subflexuous, equal, smooth, hollow or stuffed, concolorous.

Height 1–2 in., breadth of pileus 6–12 lines.

In open woods. July. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 6.4–7.6×4–5µ Peck.

West Virginia, New York, Pennsylvania. McIlvaine.

Grows in the West Virginia mountains, along with C. cibarius, and separate from it. It is more tender than C. cibarius, and not equal in flavor to those found there. I usually cooked them together and thus got quantity well flavored.

C. auranti´acus Fr.—orange-yellow. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 4, p. 508.) Pileus fleshy, obconic, nearly plane above, smooth or minutely tomentose, dull orange with the disk usually brownish, the margin decurved 217and sometimes yellowish. Gills narrow, close, repeatedly forked, orange, sometimes yellowish. Stem inequal, generally tapering upward, colored like the pileus. Flesh yellowish, taste mild.

Height 2–3 in., breadth of Pileus 1–3 in. Stem 2–4 lines thick.

Ground and very rotten logs in woods or in fields. Common. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 6.4–7.6×4–5µ Peck, 10×5µ Massee.

Var. pallidus Pk. Pileus and gills pale yellow or whitish yellow.

Stevenson says of the English species, “Unpleasant, reckoned poisonous.” The writer’s acquaintance with C. aurantiacus has been principally confined to West Virginia. There its taste is mild, scent but little, flavor not distinguishable from eastern C. Cibarius. There it is perfectly safe and wholesome; neither have the writer and his friends any reason for condemning it.

C. umbona´tus Fr.—having an umbo. Pileus 1 in. and more broad, ashy-blackish, slightly fleshy, convex when young, umbonate, at length depressed, even, dry, flocculoso-silky on the surface, shining brightly especially under a lens. Flesh soft, white, often becoming red when wounded. Stem 3 in. long, about 4 lines thick, stuffed, equal, elastic, villous at the base, ash-colored, but paler than the pileus. Gills decurrent, thin, tense and straight, crowded, repeatedly divided by pairs, shining-white.

Odor and taste scarcely notable. Gregarious. Among the taller mosses the stem is longer. Often overlooked from its habit being that of an agaric. It varies with the pileus squamulose and blackish.

In woods. April to August. Fries.

The rather prominent gills of this small species are likely to confuse those not familiar with its variance from the genuine type. Reddish tinge to flesh not noticed in the American species. The writer has gathered it in several states and enjoyed it for many years.

(Plate XLVIII.)

Cantharellus rosellus.
Natural size.

C. rosel´lus Pk.—rosy. Pileus thin, funnel-shaped, regular, glabrous, pale pinkish-red. Flesh white. Gills narrow, close, dichotomous, deeply decurrent, whitish, tinged with pink. Stem equal, slender, solid, subglabrous, often flexuous, colored like the pileus. Spores minute, broadly elliptical, 3.5×2.5µ.

Pileus 4–8 lines broad. Stem about 1 in. long, scarcely 1 line thick.

218Mossy ground in groves of balsam. North Elba. September. This small species belongs to the section Agaricoides, and is apparently closely allied to C. albidus, from which its smaller size and different color distinguish it. The pileus is sometimes deeply umbilicate. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Frequent in pine woods of New Jersey, near Haddonfield, where the plant is sturdier than described. Though small it grows gregarious and in troops from which appetizing quantities can be gathered.

It makes a pretty dish of pinkish hue and one of rare excellence.

C. lutes´cens Bull.—yellowish. (Plate CXXXVI, fig. 9, p. 508.) Pileus thin, fleshy, convex, umbilicate, brownish-floccose, yellowish. Gills very distant, sparingly branched, arcuate-decurrent, pale ochraceous. Stem slender, slightly tapering downward, smooth, shining, bright orange-tinted yellow, stuffed or hollow.

Height 2–3 in., breadth of Pileus 8–15 lines.

Mossy ground in woods. Catskill and Adirondack mountains, also Sandlake. August to October.

This is regarded by some as a variety of A. tubæformis. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

In mixed and scrub-pine woods near Haddonfield, N.J.; mixed woods Angora and Kingsessing, Philadelphia.

Perhaps constancy to C. cibarius has influenced the writer in favor of members of its family, and accounts for the gusto in “Fine” set opposite his notes to the present species. Nevertheless such is his opinion.

** Stem tubular.

C. flocco´sus Schw.—woolly. (Plate XLVI, fig. 1, p. 214.) Pileus fleshy, elongated funnel-form or trumpet shape, floccose-squamose, 219ochraceous-yellow. Gills vein-like, close, much anastomosing above, long decurrent and subparallel below, concolorous. Stem very short, thick, rarely deeply rooting.

Height 2–4 in., breadth of Pileus at the top 1–3 in.

Woods and their borders. Not rare. Utica, Johnson. Albany and Sandlake. July and August. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 12.5–15×7.6µ Peck.

New York, Peck, Rep. 23; Maine, Mrs. Stella F. Fairbanks; West Virginia, McIlvaine.

A beautiful species of good quality.

(Plate XLIX.)

Cantharellus brevipes.
Small plant, two-thirds natural size.

C. bre´vipes Pk.—brevis, short; pes, a foot. (Plate XLVI, fig. 5, p. 214.) Pileus fleshy, obconic, glabrous, alutaceous or dingy cream-color, the thin margin erect, often irregular and lobed, tinged with lilac in the young plant; folds numerous, nearly straight on the margin, abundantly anastomosing below, pale umber tinged with lilac. Stem short, tomentose-pubescent, ash-colored, solid, often tapering downward. Spores yellowish, oblong-elliptical, uninucleate, 10–12µ×5µ.

Plant 3–4 in. high. Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 4–6 lines thick.

Woods. Ballston, Saratoga county. July.

This interesting species is related to the C. floccosus, both by its short stem and its abundantly anastomosing folds. The two species should be separated from the others and constitute a distinct section. The flesh in C. brevipes is soft and whitish, and the folds are generally thinner than in C. floccosus. Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Plentiful in West Virginia mountains in 1884, growing in patches. Found in mixed woods near Cheltenham, Pa., and at Springton, Pa., 1887.

220In West Virginia it is prolific and rivals the C. cibarius in excellence. The flesh is softer, not so fibrous, and cooks more readily.

In that locality there is a marked difference between C. brevipes and C. floccosus. The latter is much longer, and markedly resembles the large end of a gold lined cornet. Like the C. cibarius it is not of as good quality in eastern states.

Gr—night. From inhabiting dark places.

(Plate L.)

Nyctalis parasiticus.

Hymenophore continuous with the stem. Gills fleshy, thick, juicy, obtuse at the edge, not decurrent on the stem nor fold-like. Veil (in species which have been fully observed) floccoso-pruinose.

Fleshy fungi, not reviving, of uncertain and irregular occurrence, differing in many respects from one another and from the rest of the Agaricini. Fries.

The typical species are saprophytic on decaying fungi. But one species, Nyctalis asterophora, reported in America. See Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Gr—to wither or shrivel.

(Plate LI.)

Marasmius oreades.
About one-half natural size.

Pileus regular, thin, tough and pliant. Gills pliant, rather tough, somewhat distant, variously attached or free, with an acute entire edge. Stem cartilaginous or horny, continuous with the pileus but of different texture. Not putrescent but drying up with lack of moisture, reviving and assuming the original form with the advent of rain. This character distinguishes Marasmius from all other genera of Agaricaceæ.

Its nearer relations are Collybia and Mycena.

Fries says that all Agaricaceæ having the smell of garlic are found in this genus. On the ground, but generally on wood or leaves.

Professor Peck reports over forty species of this genus found in New York state. Several not found in New York are reported from other states. The writer has found a few such species in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Many untried species will probably prove to be edible; the majority are too small to be of food value. M. urens, reported poisonous, and M. peronatus, heretofore considered poisonous, have been found by the writer to be edible. Several species not described herein have been tested for edibility to a limited extent only.

In this genus occurs the famed M. oreades, the Mousseron of France, the Champignon and Scotch bonnet of England, the Fairy-ring mushroom of America.

Collybia (inclining to Collybia). Page 223.

Flesh of pileus pliant, at length rather leathery, grooved or wrinkled, margin incurved at first. Stem somewhat cartilaginous; mycelium woolly, absent in some species.

222A. Scortei (scorteus, leathery). Page 223.

Stem solid or stuffed, then hollow, fibrous within, outside covered with down. Gills separating from the stem, free.

* Base of stem woolly or strigose.

** Stem naked at the base, often interwoven with twisted fibers.

B. Tergini (terginus, leathery). Page 225.

Stem rooting, distinctly tubular, not fibrous, distinctly cartilaginous. Gills receding then free. Pileus thinner than in the preceding group, hygrophanous, even or with the margin striate.

* Stem woolly below, smooth above.

** Stem when dry covered with velvety down.

C. Calopodes (Gr—beautiful; Gr—a foot). Page 226.

Stem short, not rooting, often with a floccose or downy, tubercular base. Pileus convex, involute, then plane and more or less depressed, in which state the gills typically adnate are subdecurrent. On twigs, branches, etc. Gregarious.

* Stem quite smooth above, shining, base not swollen.

** Stem covered with velvety down, rather swollen at the base.

Mycena (inclining to Mycena). Page 227.

Stem horny, hollow, often filled with pith, tough, dry. Mycelium rooting, not floccose. Pileus somewhat membranaceous, bell-shaped, then expaned, margin at first straight and pressed to the stem.

A. Chordales (chorda, a gut). Page 227.

Stem rigid, rooting or dilated at the base. Pileus bell-shaped or convex. Type manifestly that of Mycena.

B. Rotulæ (rotula, a little wheel).

Stem thread-like, flaccid, base not dilated or floccose but appearing to enter the matrix abruptly. Pileus soon becoming plane or umbilicate. On leaves.

* Stem quite smooth, shining.

** Stem minutely velvety or hairy.

Apus (a, without; pous, a foot).

Pileus sessile, resupinate.

A. Scortei.

* Stem woolly or strigose at base.

M. u´rens Fr.—uro, to burn. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, unicolorous, pale yellowish, becoming pale, slightly fleshy, moderately compact at the disk, even, but here and there scaly or cracked in wavy lines when dry, smooth, the thin margin involute. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3 lines thick, solid, composed of crisp tough fibers, rigid, equal, sometimes however ventricose, ½ in. thick, everywhere clothed with white flocci, pale, white-downy at the base. Gills free, united behind, at length remote from the stem, distant, tough, at first pale-wood-color, then brown.

Gregarious, somewhat cespitose. Taste very stinging. The stem is not strigosely sheathed at the base. Fries.

In mixed woods. Frequent. June to September.

A curious form occurred with the pileus turning very dark when full-grown. B. and Br. POISONOUS. Worthington Smith has tested it by accident. It produced headache, swimming of brain, burning in throat and stomach, followed by severe purging and vomiting. Stevenson.

Gregarious or cespitose. Taste very pungent, a feature which separates the present from M. oreades. Not coarsely tomentose at the base, as in M. peronatus, but only downy. Massee.

Spores 3×4µ W.G.S.; elliptical, 8×4µ Massee.

Pennsylvania, New Jersey, West Virginia. McIlvaine.

I have not known it to disagree with myself or friends. That it may not agree with some persons is unquestioned. Collectors should carefully test it upon themselves.

M. perona´tus Fr.—pero, a kind of boot. Pileus 1–2 in. and more broad, light yellowish or pallid brick-red, then becoming pale, wood-color or tan, at first fleshy-pliant, then coriaceo-membranaceous, convex then plane, obtuse, flaccid, slightly wrinkled, even at the disk, at length pitted, striate at the margin. Flesh white. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, stuffed, fibrous, tough, attenuated upward, at length hollow and compressed, furnished with a bark, light yellow then pallid, cuticle villous but separating and reddish when rubbed, somewhat incurved at the base, where it is clothed with dense, somewhat strigose, yellowish or 224white villous down. Gills adnexed, then separating, free, moderately thin, and crowded, when young whitish, pallid wood-color, at length somewhat remote, reddish.

B. Woolly sheathed at the base. Taste acrid like that of M. urens, odor none. Fries.

In woods. Common. Stevenson.

Spores pip-shaped, 7×4µ W.G.S.; 10×6–7µ Massee.

New York. Thin woods. North Elba. August. September. Peck, 42d Rep.; West Virginia, June to December, West Philadelphia and Mt. Gretna, Chester county, Pa. McIlvaine.

M. peronatus is the wood-cousin of M. oreades. It is still reputed poisonous by all writers upon the subject, though M.C. Cooke gives it the benefit of a doubt. The name is given because of the base of the stem being densely covered with short hairs or a woolly down, and is thus easily recognized. It is common in woods, among decaying leaves, especially of the oak, from May until after frosts. It is usually solitary, but a few individuals are sometimes clustered. It is quite peppery to the taste, but pleasantly so. I have repeatedly eaten it, as have my friends. It loses its acridity in cooking, and though the caps are tougher than M. oreades, they make a highly flavored and delicious dish. Collectors should carefully test it for themselves.

** Stem naked at the base, etc.

M. ore´ades Fr. Gr—mountain-nymphs. Scotch bonnet. Champignon. Mousseron. (Plate LI, p. 221.) Pileus 1–2 in. broad, reddish then becoming pale, absorbing moisture, whitish when dry, fleshy, pliant, convex then plane, somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, slightly striate at the margin when moist. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1½ lines thick, solid, very tough, equal, tense and straight, everywhere clothed with a villous-woven cuticle which can be rubbed off, pallid; bluntly rooted at the base, naked, not villous or tomentose. Gills free, broad, distant, the alternate ones shorter, at first soft, then firmer, pallid-white.

Odor weak, but pleasant, stronger when dried, taste mild. Commonly growing in circles or rows. Fries.

Spores 6–7×5–6µ K.; elliptical, 8×5µ Massee; nearly elliptical, white, 7.6–9µ long Peck.

Common throughout the states during the summer months after rains, 225and in rings, but can be found from May until after frost. If one knows where the rings are to be found M. oreades can be gathered when shriveled, and are quite as good, after soaking, as when fresh.

M. oreades must be sought for where the grass is luxuriant. It hides among it. It is well worthy of the search. Raw, fresh or shriveled, it is sweet, nutty, succulent when eaten; stewed well it is delicious. Though tough its consistency is agreeable. The most delicate stomachs can digest it. The writer saved the life of a lovely woman by feeding her upon it when nothing else could be retained; and of another, by feeding Coprinus micaceus, after a dangerous operation. He introduced these species, together with a few others, into a large hospital in Philadelphia, where they were used with marked beneficial effect, and such use is now widespread.

When dried, by exposure to the air or sun, it can be kept indefinitely, neither losing its aroma or flavor, which it graciously imparts to soups or any other dish.

Collybia dryophila, Stropharia semi-globata, and Naucoria semi-orbicularis are sometimes found growing with it. These species are delicious and harmless.

Lafayette B. Mendel in the Am. Jour. of Physiology, March, 1898, gives the following analysis:

Twenty freshly gathered specimens (from New Haven) weighed 9 grams, an average weight of 0.45 grams each. The analysis gave:

Water 74.96%
Total solids 25.04
Total nitrogen of dry substance 5.97
Ash of dry substance 7.23
B. Tergini.
** Stem downy when dry, etc.

M. Wyn´nei B. and Br. Pileus 1–1½ in. broad, lilac-brown, tardily changing color, fleshy, convexo-plane, somewhat umbonate. Stem 2 in. long, 1½ line thick, tubed, furfuraceous, somewhat of the same color as the pileus. Gills adnexed, thick, distant, bright-colored, beautifully tinged with lilac; interstices even.

Inodorous. Gregarious or cespitose. The stem springs from a white mycelium, but is by no means strigose or tawny at the base. Quite distinct from M. fusco-purpureus. Fries.

226Among leaves, twigs, etc. Stevenson.

Spores elliptical, 7–8×4µ Massee.

Kingsessing, West Philadelphia. Gregarious and cespitose, among leaves, etc., in oak woods. September to October, 1885.

This very pretty fungus very much resembles at first sight the small purplish Clitocybes, but is readily distinguished on examination. I ate the caps and enjoyed them during the seasons of 1885 and 1887, but have not seen the plant since.

The caps are equal to M. oreades.

C. Calopodes.
* Stem smooth, etc.

M. scorodo´nius Fr. Gr—a plant that smells like garlic. Pileus ½ in. and more broad, rufous when young, but soon becoming pale, whitish (not hygrophanous), slightly fleshy, pliant, convex then soon plane, obtuse, always arid; even when young, at length wrinkled and crisped. Stem 1 in. long, scarcely 1 line thick, horny, tough, tubed, equal, very smooth throughout, shining, reddish, inserted and naked at the base. Gills adnate, often separating, connected by veins, at length crisped in drying, whitish.

Commonly gregarious. Readily distinguished from neighboring species by its strong odor of garlic. Fries.

Heaths and dry pastures on twigs, etc. Rare.

Edible. Esteemed for flavoring. Stevenson.

Spores elliptical, 6×4µ Massee.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; New England, Frost; New Jersey, Ellis; New York, August, Peck, 23d Rep.

M. ca´lopes Fr. Gr—beautiful; a foot. Pileus about 4 lines broad, whitish, slightly fleshy, tough, convex then flattened, obtuse, rarely depressed, even, smooth, slightly wrinkled when dried. Stem 1 in. long, 1 line thick, tubed, slightly attenuated upward, even, smooth, tough, dull-red or bay-brown-red, shining, somewhat rooted. Gills slightly emarginate, in groups of 2–4, thin, white.

Inodorous. Almost smaller than M. scorodonius, but the stem is longer, otherwise very like it. Fries.

Spores elliptical, 7×4µ Massee.

227Twigs and stems among fallen leaves in woods. Ticonderoga. August.

This might easily be mistaken for M. scorodonius, but it is without odor, and has a different insertion of the lamellæ. It is sometimes cespitose. The pileus in our specimens is whitish. Peck, 31st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Because of its similarity to M. scorodonius, which is edible, it is given here.


A. Chordales.

M. allia´ceus Fr.—allium, garlic. Pileus 1–1½ in. broad, whitish inclining to fuscous, often milk-white when young, somewhat membranaceous, campanulate then expanded, somewhat umbonate, even, at length striate and sulcate, smooth, dry. Stem as much as 8 in. long, horny, rigid, fistulose, attenuated upward, pruinato-velvety, blackish, rooted at the base where it is somewhat incurved and naked. Gills adnexed in the form of a ring, then free, slightly ventricose, arid, slightly distant, fuscous-whitish, crisped when dry.

Odor strong, of garlic, persistent. There is nothing of a reddish tinge in the whole plant. The stem is not tomentose at the base as in the Tergini. Fries.

Among leaves and on rotten wood. Frequent. August to October. Stevenson.

Spores 14–16×8µ. Massee.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Pennsylvania, Schweinitz; Minnesota, Johnson; Novia Scotia, Somers.

Edible. Bull. Boston Myc. Club.

Helios, the sun; myces, a fungus.

Pileus membranaceous, between leathery and gelatinous, radiately sulcate. Gills equal, edge acute. Stem somewhat woody, cylindrical, central.

Allied to Marasmius, but differing in its sub-gelatinous substance.

None reported edible.

Lentus, tough or pliant.

(Plate LII.)

Section of Lentinus.

Pileus fleshy-coriaceous, pliant, tough and hard when old, persistent. Gills becoming dry, tough, simple, unequal, thin, margin acute, toothed, more or less decurrent. Stem when present central, excentric or lateral, hard and firm, continuous with the flesh of the pileus.

Growing on wood.

Spores somewhat round, even, white.

Distinguished from other coriaceous genera by its serrated and torn gills.

“The genera Lentinus and Lenzites are found in every region of the world; their principal center, however, is in hot countries, where they attain a splendid development. On the contrary, toward the north they rapidly decrease in number.” Fungi. Cooke and Berkeley.

In habitat and mode of growth Lentinus closely resembles Pleurotus, and parallel genera with colored spores. When young the species are inviting, and when well cooked are meal-giving. They are not delicacies, but substantials. They dry well. Grated they make soups, and give their pleasant flavor to any dish.

Mesopodes (mesos, middle; pous, a foot). Page 229.

Stem distinct.

Pleuroti (pleura, a side; ous, an ear).

Stem lateral or absent. None known to be edible

I.—Meso´podes (center-stemmed).

L. Lecom´tei Fr. Pileus coriaceous, funnel-shaped, regularly reflexed, hairy, tawny. Gills crowded, pallid. Stem short, hairy, tawny.

Common to the states.

Professor Peck writes to me: “This plant, by reason of its rather tough substance, has commonly been referred to Lentinus, under the name L. Lecomtei Schw., but this reference is scarcely satisfactory to me, since the edge of the lamellæ is scarcely at all serrate as required by that genus. It seems to me it would go better under the genus Panus. It is variable—sometimes eccentric or even lateral. It is sometimes called Lentinus strigosus, but I do not think the two are distinct species, however distinct they may be in form.” February 26, 1894.

Like all Lentinus the present species is rather tough, yet chopped into small pieces, well cooked and seasoned, it is quite equal to P. ostreatus and many others of high renown.

(Plate LIII.)

Lentinus tigrinus.
About one-half natural size.

L. tigri´nus Fr.—tigris, a tiger. From the markings. Pileus commonly 2 in. broad, white, variegated with somewhat adpressed, blackish, hairy squamules, fleshy-coriaceous, thin, commonly orbicular and central, at first convexo-plane, umbilicate, at length funnel-shaped, often split at the margin when dry. Stem about 2 in. long, thin, solid, very hard, commonly attenuated downward, minutely squamulose, whitish, often ascending and becoming dingy-brown at the base, at first furnished at the apex with an entire reflexed ring, which soon falls off. Gills decurrent 230(by no means sinuate), narrow, crowded, unequal, toothed like a saw, white.

Somewhat gregarious, even cespitose, thinner and more coriaceous and regular than L. lepideus B., wholly blackish with squamules. Fries.

On old stumps. Rare. Stevenson.

When fresh very tender and easily torn, when dry coriaceous. Sow. Smell strong, acrid, like that of some Lactarii. M.J.B.

Spores 6.6×3.3µ Morgan; elliptical, smooth, 7×3.5µ Massee.

Agreeable taste and odor, eaten in Europe. Roques.

Edible, tough when old and never very delicate or digestible.—M. C. Cooke.

Not found in sufficient quantity to test.

L. lepi´deus Fr. Gr—scaly. (Plate XVI, fig. 3, 4, p. 52.) Pileus 2–4 in. broad, pallid-ochraceous, variegated with adpressed, darker, spot-like scales, fleshy, very compact and firm, irregular, commonly excentric, convex then depressed, but not truly umbilicate, sometimes broken up into cracks. Flesh pliant, white. Stem short, commonly 1 in. long, solid, stout, very irregularly formed, almost woody, tomentose-scaly, whitish, rooted at the base, at the first furnished with a veil toward the apex. Gills decurrent, but sinuate behind, crowded broad, transversely striate, whitish, edge torn into teeth.

Odor pleasant. Fries.

Spores 11×5µ W.G.S., 7×3µ. Massee.

Lentinus lepideus is a sort of commercial traveler. It is common wherever railroads are. It is partial to oak ties and its mycelium is injurious to them. It is found upon pine and other timbers. The writer has collected large clusters of it from oak sawdust. The European plant is noted as “almost always solitary.” In the United States it is seldom so. It is noted as growing in damp, dark places, but it loves the sun.

As a food it is about on a par with P. ulmarius, not as tough, but harder when old. It is a reliable species from spring until late autumn, is persistent and dries well. It is neat, handsome, prolific. When young it makes a good dish, and when old can be used to advantage in soups.

231L. cochlea´tus Fr.—cochlea, a snail. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, flesh-color, but becoming pale, somewhat tan, fleshy-pliant, thin, commonly excentric, imbricated, very unequal, somewhat lobed or contorted, sometimes plane, sometimes funnel-shaped-umbilicate, but not pervious, smooth. Stem solid, firm, sometimes central, most frequently excentric, sometimes wholly lateral, always sulcate, smooth, flesh-colored upward, reddish-brown downward. Gills decurrent, crowded, serrated, white-flesh-color. Fries.

Pliant, tough, flaccid, very changeable in form, sometimes solitary, sometimes cespitose, imbricated, growing into each other. From very small forms which are commonly solitary, with the stem and pileus scarcely 1 in. it ranges to 3 in.

On stumps. Frequent. August to October.

According to Fries the odor is weak, of anise; but it is generally strong and very pleasant. Stevenson.

Spores nearly globular, 4µ diameter Morgan; spheroid or ellipsoid-spheroid, uniguttate, 4–6µ K.; almost globular, 4µ W.G.S.

The dense clusters of all sized members are usually plenty in favored localities. It is inviting in appearance, taste and spicy odor. It retains a suspicion of the latter when cooked which gives the dish a flavor pleasant to many. It must be young to be tender. When dry—like others of its kind—it can be grated and used in many ways.

L. Un´derwoodii Pk. Pileus fleshy, tough, convex or nearly plane, the glabrous surface cracking into areola-like scales which are indistinct or wanting toward the margin, whitish or slightly tinged with buff or pale ochraceous. Flesh white. Gills moderately close, decurrent, slightly connecting or anastomosing at the base, somewhat notched on the edge, whitish, becoming discolored in drying. Stem stout, hard, solid, eccentric, squamose, colored like the pileus. Spores oblong, 13–15×5–6.5µ.

Plant cespitose. Pileus 3–6 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, about 1 in. thick.

This differs from L. magnus in its cespitose habit, eccentric stem, longer spores, less distinctly areolate-squamose pileus and in its habitat. The gills are connected at the base very much like those of Pleurotus ostreatus. Peck, Torr. Bull. Vol. 23, No. 10.

North Carolina, Pennsylvania, McIlvaine.

232The writer first met with it in North Carolina, near Washington, on oaks and railroad timbers, and in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. It attains quite a size, grows singly and in clusters. Its clean, cake-like appearance is attractive. Cooked it ranks with P. ulmarius, L. lepideus, and Panus strigosus.

A name given to a tree-growing fungus by Pliny.
(Plate LIV.)

Panus torulosus.
About one-fourth natural size.

Whole fungus between fleshy and leathery, tough, not woody, texture fibrous. Gills unequal, tough, becoming leathery, edge acute and unbroken. Stem present or absent.

Growing on wood. Various in form, lasting long. Allied to Lentinus but differing in the tough and very entire gills.

Spores even, white.


* Stem excentric.

** Stem lateral.

*** Stem absent. Pileus resupinate or dimidiate.

Species of this genus are among our most observable fungi. Their settlements are frequent on decaying trees, stumps, branches, on fences, cut timber, etc. Most of them are small, but their coriaceous build prevents their shrinking in cooking. Most species have a pleasant farinaceous taste and odor, which they yield, together with a gummy substance, to soups and gravies.

Tasting a small piece will immediately tell, if the species is not known, whether it is edible or of the styptic kind.

* Stem excentric.

P. concha´tus Fr.—Formed like concha, a shell-fish. Pileus about 2333 in. across, tough and flexible, unequal, excentric or dimidiate, margin often lobed, cinnamon-color becoming pale, at length more or less scaly. Flesh thin. Gills narrow, forming decurrent lines on the stem, somewhat branched; pinkish-white then pale-ochraceous. Stem about ⅔ in. long, 3–4 lines thick, solid, unequal, pale, base downy. Massee.

On trunks of beech, poplar, etc.

Often imbricated and more or less grown together. Allied to Panus torulosus, but distinguished by the much thinner pileus, more expanded and excentric, also dimidiate, flaccid, cinnamon becoming pale, but the form not constant. Stem about ½ in. long, 4 lines thick, often compressed, downy at the base. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, scaly when old. Gills decurrent in long, parallel lines, not at all resembling those of Pleurotus ostreatus, which anastomose behind, but frequently unequally branched, at first whitish or pale flesh-color, then wood-color, crisped when dry. Fries.

Always known by its shell-like form and its tough substance.

Sent to the writer by Mr. E.B. Sterling, Trenton, N.J. September, 1898.

The appearance of scales upon the pileus was scarcely noticeable. Taste pleasant. The fungus is tough when old, but yields an excellent gravy.

Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.               Plate LV.

P. torulo´sus Fr.—a tuft of hair. (Plate LIV, p. 232.) Pileus 2–3 in. broad, somewhat flesh-color, but varying reddish-livid and becoming violet, entire, but very excentric, fleshy, somewhat compact when young, plano-infundibuliform, even, smooth. Flesh pallid. Stem short, commonly 1 in., solid, oblique, tough, firm, commonly with gray, but often violaceous down. Gills decurrent, somewhat distant, simple, separate behind, reddish then tan-color.

Very changeable in form, at first fleshy-pliant, at length coriaceous. In the covering of the stem it approaches Paxillus atro-tomentosus, but there is no affinity between them. Fries.

On old stumps.

Spores 6×3µ W.G.S.

North Carolina, Curtis; Massachusetts, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; Kansas, Cragin; New York, Peck, Rep. 30.

Much esteemed in France, W.D.H. Edible, but tough. M.C.C.

234P. lævis B. and C.—light. Pileus 3 in. broad, orbicular, slightly depressed, white, clothed in the center with long, intricate, rather delicate hairs, which are shorter and more matted toward the inflected margin; substance rather thin. Stem 3 in. high, ½ in. thick, attenuated upward, generally excentric, sometimes lateral, not rooting, solid, hairy below like the margin of the pileus. Gills rather broad, entire, decurrent, but not to a great degree, the interstices even above, behind clothed with the same coat as the top of the stem. Spores white.

On oak and hickory trunks.

A most distinct species, remarkable for its great lightness when dry and the long villous but not compressed or compound flocci of the pileus. Sometimes the center of the pileus becomes quite smooth when old.

One of the prettiest of fungi. The markings upon the white margin are more precise than those of the finest bee comb. One does not tire looking at the work of Nature’s geometrician. It is not plentiful, but is of useful size. It has good flavor and cooks quite tender.

(Plate LVa.)

Panus Strigosus.
One-third natural size.

P. strigo´sus B. and C.—covered with stiff hairs. Pileus white, excentric, clothed with coarse strigose pubescence, margin thin. Stem strigose like the pileus. Gills broad, distant, decurrent. Allied to P. lævis.

Pileus 8 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1 in. or more thick.

On oak stumps.

Decaying wood of deciduous trees. September.

It is remarkable for its large size and the dense hairy covering of the pileus and stem. Peck, 26th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

A remarkably handsome fungus. A specimen taken from a cluster growing upon an apple tree measured 10 in. across. Its creamy whiteness, and short hairy stem make it unmistakable among other tree-fungi.

When very young it is edible, but soon becomes woody. Even when aged it yields a well flavored gravy.

235** Stem lateral.

P. farina´ceus Schum.—farina, meal. From the scurf on the pileus. Pileus cinnamon-umber, somewhat coriaceous, flexuous, cuticle separating into whitish-bluish-gray scurf. Stem short, lateral, of the same color as the pileus. Gills determinately free, distinct, paler.

The habit is that of P. stipticus. Stevenson.

Pennsylvania, A. pleurotus f., Schweinitz; Ohio, Morgan.

Var. albido-tomentosus. See Panus albido-tomentosus.

P. al´bido-tomento´sus Cke. Mass.albidus, white; tomentum, down. Pileus about ⅔ in. long, ½ in. broad, horizontal, sometimes imbricated, semi-circular, subcoriaceous, flexuous or regular, pale umber, densely clothed with a short, whitish, velvety down, which seems to be persistent, but thinner and shorter toward the shortly incurved margin. Stem lateral, very short, or entirely absent, and attached by a downy base. Gills radiating from the point of attachment; narrowed behind, lanceolate, honey-colored, margin entire, rigid, scarcely crowded, shorter ones intermixed. Spores subglobose, smooth, 5µ diameter.

On trunks and branches.

Pileus about 1 in. broad, often in imbricated tufts. It is doubtful whether this is not a distinct species from the type described by Fries. Cooke and Massee.

Panus albido-tomentosus is given by Cooke and Massee as a variety of Panus farinaceus. The writer decides to give it place as a species.

It has been sent to me by Mr. H.I. Miller, from Terre Haute, Ind., by Dr. E.L. Cushing, Albion, N.Y., Miss Madeleine Le Moyne, Washington, Pa. I have found it in West Virginia, New Jersey and many parts of Pennsylvania. It is plentiful in patches upon branches and boles of deciduous trees. Long, slow cooking makes it tender. It makes a luscious gravy after thirty minutes' stewing.

*** Stem absent, pileus resupinate or dimidiate.

P. betuli´nus Pk.—betula, birch. Pileus thin, suborbicular or dimidiate, nearly plane, glabrous, prolonged behind into a short stem, grayish-brown, darker or blackish toward the stem. Gills narrow, close, decurrent, 236whitish. Stem adorned with a slight tawny hairiness which is more fully developed toward the base. Spores minute, 4–5×1.5–2µ.

Decaying wood of birch. Newfoundland. October, Rev. A.C. Waghorne. Peck, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club, Vol. 23, No. 10.

Common in West Virginia mountains on birches, 1882; found at Eagle’s Mere, Pa., August, 1898. Quite plentiful on decaying birch trees, which abound there. Size from ½-1½ in. across.

Eaten raw it has a gummy quality and very pleasant nutty flavor. I did not have opportunity to cook it, but regard it as a species well worth trying.

P. stip´ticus Fr.—stypticus, astringent. Pileus ½-1 in. broad, cinnamon becoming pale, arid, thin, but not membranaceous, kidney-shaped, pruinose, the cuticle separating into furfuraceous scales. Stem not reaching 1 in. long, solid, definitely lateral, compressed, dilated upward, ascending, pruinose, paler than the gills. Gills ending determinately (not decurrent), thin, very narrow, crowded, elegantly connected by veins, cinnamon. Fries.

Gregarious, cespitose, remarkable for its astringent taste. The pileus sometimes has a funnel-shaped appearance with lobes all around.

On stumps, etc. Common. August to February.

Reckoned poisonous. Stevenson.

Spores obovoid-spheroid, 2–3×1–2µ K.; 3×4µ W.G.S.

Plentiful and general. The markings upon the cap in moist weather are sometimes exquisitely regular.

The immediate and lasting unpleasantness of this fungus to mouth and throat, whether cooked or raw, will cancel all desire to eat of it forevermore. A nibble will detect it. It is reckoned poisonous, and may be. No one but a determined suicide would resort to it. Dr. Lambotte asserts that it is a violent purgative.

Gr—dry; Gr—an ear.

(Plate LVI.)

Xerotus degener.

Hymenophore continuous with the stem, descending into the trama which is homogeneous with the coriaceous pileus. Gills coriaceous, broadly plicæform, dichotomous, edge quite entire, obtuse. Rigid, persistent, analogous with the Cantharelli, but differing in the whole structure. Fries. The gills are more distant than in any species of Agaricaccæ.

None edible.

After Trog, a Swiss botanist.

(Plate LVIII.)

Trogia crispa.
Natural size.

Gills fold-like, edge longitudinally channelled (in the single European species only crisped). In other respects agreeing with Xerotus. Soft, flaccid, but arid and persistent, texture fibrillose. Fries.

Reviving when wet. Spores white. Stevenson.

Spores elongated or cylindrical.

American representative, Trogia crispa, var. variegata.

Pileus and gills variegated with bluish or greenish-blue stains. Sandlake. September. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Not edible.

Gr—to split; Gr—a leaf.

(Plate LVIIIa.)

Schizophyllum commune.

Pileus fleshless, arid. Gills coriaceous, fan-wise branched, united above by the tomentose pellicle, bifid, split longitudinally at the edge. Spores somewhat round, white. Fries.

The two lips of the split edge of the gills are commonly revolute. The farthest removed of all the Agaricini from the type.

Growing on wood. Stevenson.

Common on decaying wood. Tough.

After Lenz, a German botanist.

Pileus corky or coriaceous, texture arid and floccose. Gills coriaceous, firm, sometimes simple and unequal, sometimes anastomosing and forming pores behind, trama floccose and similar to the pileus, edge somewhat acute. The European species are dimidiate, sessile, persistent, growing on wood, quite resembling Dædalea. Fries.

Allied most nearly to Trametes and Dædalea and forming as it were the transition from Agaricaceæ to Polyporaceæ. In tropical countries they are more woody in texture. Stevenson.

Very common. None edible.

(Plate LVII.)


Plate LVIIIb.
Chart of genera in pink-spored series—Rhodosporae.    Page 239.

Series II. RHODOSPORÆ. Gr—rose; Gr—seed.

under; rhodon, rose.

Spores pink or salmon-color.

In Volvaria, Pluteus and most of Clitopilus, the spores are regular in shape, as in the white-spored series, in the rest of the subgenera they are generally angular and irregular.

Though European writers, generally, condemn the rosy-spored series as inedible, a few of our best American edibles are found in it—notably Pluteus cervinus.

Volva, a wrapper.

Spores regular, oval, pink, or salmon. Veil universal, forming a perfect volva, distinct from the cuticle of the pileus. Stem separating easily from the pileus. Gills free, rounded behind, at the very first white then pinkish, soft. Analogous with Amanita.

Growing in woods and on rich mold, rotten wood and damp ground, hence often found in hot-houses and gardens. V. Loveiana Berk. is parasitic on Clitocybe nebularis.

There are thirteen species reported from different parts of the United States. Most of them grow upon wood. Two species have previously been reported as edible, to which I have added V. Taylori, tested by myself.

One species, V. gloiocephala, is upon the authority of Letellier, given as poisonous. It is found in several parts of the United States, but no comment has been made upon its edibility. I have not seen it. A careful study of its botanic characters is urged. It should be regarded as poisonous until its reputation is cleared up, as it probably will be.


* Pileus dry, silky or fibrillose.

** Pileus more or less viscid, smooth.


Photographed by Dr. J.R. Weist.            Plate LIX.

* Pileus dry, silky or fibrillose.

(Plate LIXa.)

Volvaria bombycina.
Natural size.

V. bombyci´na Schaeff.—bombyx, silk. Pileus 3–8 in. broad, wholly white, fleshy, soft, at first globose, soon bell-shaped, at length convex, somewhat umbonate, everywhere silky or, when older, hairy-scaled, more rarely becoming smooth at the vertex. Flesh not thick, white. Stem 3–6 in. long, ½ in. thick or more at the base, solid, equally attenuated from the base to the apex, even, smooth, white. Volva, soon torn asunder, ample, 2–3 in. broad, membranaceous, lax, slashed, somewhat viscid, persistent. Gills free, very crowded when young, almost cohering, ventricose, in groups of 2–4, then toothed, flesh-colored.

Ovate when young. According to some becoming brownish. The stem is curved-ascending on vertical trunks and straight on prostrate ones. Commonly solitary, sometimes however cespitose. Stevenson.

Spores elliptic, smooth, 6–7×4µ Massee; 6–8µ Lloyd.

Considered edible. Stevenson. Edible. Curtis.

Very general but not common over the United States. It is a large plant, from 3 in. upward across cap. Growing from wood, oaks, maples, beech, etc.

The writer has not been successful in finding it. Drawing, spore-print and description received from H.I. Miller, Terre Haute, Ind.

Upon such an authority as the late Dr. Curtis there is no doubt of its edibility.

(Plate LX.)

Volvaria volvacea.
Two-fifths natural size.

V. volva´cea Bull.—volva, a wrapper. Pileus 2–3 in. across. Flesh white, thick at the disk, very thin elsewhere, soft, bell-shaped then expanded, obtuse, grayish-yellow, virgate or streaked with adpressed blackish fibrils. Gills free, about 2 lines broad, pale flesh-color. Stem 2–4 in. long, about 4 lines thick, almost equal, white, solid. 241Volva large, loose, whitish. Spores smooth, elliptical, 6–8×3.5–4µ; no cystidia. Massee.

On the ground by roadsides, etc., also in stoves.

Allied to V. bombycina, but constantly different in the less ample and less persistent, brownish volva. Pileus 3 in. across, rarely more, gray, elegantly virgate with blackish fibrils; flesh-color of the gills not so pure. Fries.

Once found in woods at roots of a tree. It occurs every year in the cellar of our drug store. Lloyd “Volvæ.”

North Carolina, Schweinitz; Minnesota, Johnson; Ohio, Morgan.

Probably edible, should be carefully tested.

V. Tay´lori Berk. Pileus 1¾ in. high and broad, livid, conico-campanulate, obtuse, striately cracked from the apex, thin, margin lobed and sinuated. Stem 2½ in. long, ¼ in. thick, pallid, solid, nearly equal, slightly bulbous at the base. Volva date-brown, lobed, somewhat lax, small. Gills uneven, broad in front, very much attenuated behind, rose-color.

Pileus beautifully penciled and cracked. The dark volva, bell-shaped pileus, and uneven, attenuated gills are marked characters. The habit is rather that of some Entoloma than of its more immediate allies. Fries.

Spores 6×9µ W.G.S.; broadly elliptical, smooth, 5×3.5–4µ Massee.

Indiana, Mrs. L.H. Cox; West Philadelphia, in much decayed stump of maple. McIlvaine.

Caps 1½-2 in. across and beautifully penciled and cracked. Stem 1½-3 in. long. Gills up to ⅓ in. wide. The spores when shed in body are a beautiful maroon. Resembling V. volvacea, but lighter in color, and having a brown volva. Specimens sent me by J.J. Newbaker, Steelton, Pa., had snow-white caps and when young were velvety to the touch. Gills tinged with pink; volva dark brown.

The few specimens eaten were of good flavor, somewhat resembling Pluteus cervinus.

242**Pileus more or less viscid, smooth.

V. specio´sa Fr.—speciosus, handsome. Pileus 3–5 in. broad, whitish, gray or umber at the disk, fleshy, globose when young, then bell-shaped, at length plane and somewhat umbonate, even, smooth, gluey. Flesh soft, floccose, white. Stem 4–8 in. long, as much as 1 in. thick, solid, firm, slightly attenuated from the base as far as the apex, when young, white-villous and tomentose at the base, then becoming smooth, white. Volva bulbous rather than lax, free however, variously torn into loops, membranaceous, ½-1 in. broad, externally tomentose, white. Gills free, flesh-colored.

The gills are wholly the same as those of A. bombycinus. It occurs also thinner, with the pileus wholly gray. Fries.

Spores 12–18×8–10µ K.; elliptical or subglobose, smooth, 14–16×8µ Massee.

Distinguished by the whitish, viscid pileus, and the downy volva and stem. Massee.

“Common in cultivated soil, especially grain fields and along roads. A fine edible agaric and our most abundant one in California.” McClatchie. Volvæ, U.S., Lloyd.

V. gloioceph´ala Dec. Fl. Gr—sticking; head. Pileus dark opaque brown, fleshy, bell-shaped then expanded, umbonate, smooth, glutinous, striate at the margin. Stem solid, smooth, becoming brownish or tawny; the volva, which is circularly split, pressed close. Gills free, reddish.

Fragments of the volva are sometimes seen on the pileus. The stem is commonly more slender than that of A. speciosus. Fries.

On the ground. Uncommon. June to October. Stevenson.

Pileus about 3 in. across, with a strong regular, obtuse umbo in the center, of a delicate mouse-gray, viscid when moist, but when dry shining, quite smooth, margin striate in consequence of the thinness of the flesh. Stem 6 in. or more high, about ½ in. thick in the center, attenuated upward, bulbous at the base, clothed with a few slight fibers, easily splitting, solid, rather dingy, ringless. Volva loose, villous like the base of the stem, splitting into several unequal lobes; the gills are broad, especially in front, narrower behind and quite free, so as to leave a space round the top of the stem, white, tinged with grayish-pink; 243margin slightly toothed. Smell strong and unpleasant, and taste disagreeable. M.J.B. Very poisonous according to Letellier. Stevenson.

Spores 19×9µ W.G.S.; elliptical, smooth, 10–12×6–7µ Massee.

Distinguished by the smoky, glutinous pileus. The measurement of the spores as given by Saccardo (19×9µ) is certainly too large, and is probably an uncorrected error. Massee.

North Carolina, Curtis; South Carolina, Ravenel; Ontario, Dearness; California, Harkness and Moore; Ohio, Morgan; Mississippi, Minnesota, Johnson.

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.             Plate LXI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Pluteus cervinus, 243 2. Pluteus cervinus, var., 245
(Pluteus, a shed. From the conical shape of the pileus.)

Stem fleshy, distinct from the pileus. Gills free, rounded behind (never emarginate), at first cohering, white, then colored by the spores.

Generally growing on or near trunks of trees.

Resembling Volvaria in all respects but the volva. Spores rosy.

Several of the genus are edible. Pluteus cervinus is one of our earliest, persistent, plentiful, delicious food species. The caps of those tested are tender, easily cooked and best fried.


* Cuticle of the pileus separating into fibrils or down, which at length disappear.

** Pileus frosted with atoms, somewhat powdery.

*** Pileus naked, smooth.

* Cuticle of pileus fibrillose, etc.

P. cervi´nus Schaeff.—cervus, a deer. (Plate LXI, fig. 1, p. 242.) Pileus fleshy, at first campanulate, then convex or expanded, even, glabrous, generally becoming fibrillose or slightly floccose-villose on the disk, occasionally cracked, variable in color. Lamellæ broad, somewhat ventricose, at first whitish, then flesh-colored. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, firm, solid, fibrillose or subglabrous, variable in color. Spores broadly elliptical, 6.5–8×5–6.5µ.

244Plant 2–6 in. high. Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 3–6 lines thick.

The typical form has the pileus and stem of a dingy or brown color and adorned with blackish fibrils, but specimens occur with the pileus white, yellowish, cinereous, grayish-brown or blackish-brown. I have never seen it of a true cervine color. It is sometimes quite glabrous and smooth to the touch and in wet weather it is even slightly viscid. It also occurs somewhat floccose-villose on the disk, and the disk, though usually plane or obtuse, is occasionally slightly prominent or subumbonate. The form with the surface of the pileus longitudinally rimose or chinky is probably due to meteorological conditions. The gills, though at first crowded, become more lax with the expansion of the pileus. They are generally a little broader toward the marginal than toward the inner extremity. Their tendency to deliquesce is often shown by their wetting the paper on which the pileus has been placed for the purpose of catching the spores. The stem is usually somewhat fibrous and striated but forms occur in which it is even and glabrous. When growing from the sides of stumps and prostrate trunks it is apt to be curved. Two forms deserve varietal distinction.

Var. al´bus. Pileus and stem white or whitish.

Var. al´bipes. Pileus cinereous yellowish or brown. Stem white or whitish, destitute of blackish fibrils.

In Europe there are three or four forms which have been designated as species under the names of A. rigens, A. patricius, A. eximius and A. petasatus, but Fries gives them as varieties or subspecies of A. cervinus, though admitting that they are easily distinguished. None of these have occurred in our state. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. visco´sus. The normal character of the cuticle of the species is slightly viscid in wet weather, but the specimens we collected and photographed were exceedingly viscid. They also differed from the normal form in their lighter color, flesh much thicker at the disk and thin at the margins, and cuticle not appearing fibrillose. It is close to petasatus, but differs, however, in its narrower gills and in having no striæ. It is a good variety if it is not a good species. Lloyd, Myc. Notes.

Spores 7–8×5–6µ K.; 6–8×4–5µ B.; 4×5µ W.G.S.; 5.8×4.6µ Morgan.

Frequent on decaying stumps, roots and wood, May to frost. McIlvaine.

Its free gills should distinguish it from any Entoloma, though both have pink spores and eventually pink gills. Among the earliest of 245large species. The sight of it is stimulating to the mycophagist. He then knows the toadstool season to be truly opened.

Caps only are tender. The stems are edible, but they are not of the same consistency as the caps, therefore will not cook with them. Fried in a buttered pan or broiled, they are exceedingly toothsome.

In October, 1898, a beautiful variety (see Plate LXI, fig. 2, p.—), occurred which I had not previously seen. It was sent by me to Professor Peck. The plants grew in large clusters from rotting, refuse straw in the ruin of a stable; the white, cottony mycelium running upon and through the straw. The solid stems of some were straight, others curved, ranging from 2–6 in. long, the taller ones tapering from base to spindling apex, the shorter ones decidedly bulbous and ending abruptly. They were twisted and delicately marked. These markings break up into dark thread-like fibrils, leaving the stem striate and satin-glossy. Pileus from 2–4 in. across, dark Vandyke-brown when young, lighter in age, streaked, glossy. Gills at first white, tardily changing to light salmon color, broad, ventricose, free.

Taste and smell pleasant of almonds. Good, delicious.

Professor Peck wrote of it: “It has the general appearance of Pluteus cervinus, but these specimens seem to depart from the usual form of growing in clusters from the ground, and in having an almond flavor. Without knowing more about it I would scarcely feel justified in separating it from such a variable species. As Fries sometimes remarks concerning variable species: Perhaps several species are concealed under the one name, but a pretty full and accurate knowledge of them is desirable if one is to split them up.”

This is excellent judgment. While I believe the above to be a distinct species, the disposition to make new species of varieties is regrettable in many botanists.

Var. Bul´lii Berk., MS. Pileus 4–6 in. across, flesh thick, convex then expanded, smooth, even, pallid, the disk darker. Gills free, rounded behind, rather distant from the stem, crowded, ½ in. broad, pale salmon-color. Stem 3–4 in. long, 1 in. and more thick, slightly swollen at the base, fibrillose, pale brown, darkest at the base, solid. Massee.

Pileus 6 in. across, expanded from bell-shape, ashy-white (oyster color), glossy, like floss silk, silky fibrillose, irregularly corrugated. Skin separable. Flesh spongy, pure white, like shreds of cotton, separable 246into plates, very brittle, ½ in. thick at stem, immediately thinning to ⅛ in., very thin toward margin. Gills thin, elastic, rounded behind, close to stem, free, ½ in. wide, close, alternate short and long, white, then tinged and spotted pink with spores which when cast in mass are a pinkish-brown with slight lavender shade. Stem 5 in. long, ½-¾ in. thick, subequal, spreading at top, white, silky-fibrillose, changing to very light yellowish brown from center to base, exterior hard, skin thin, tough, interior filled with continuous, cottony fibers, snow-white, brittle, watery, slightly swollen at base. Taste pleasant.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., July, 1898, on chestnut stump and in woods on ground among leaves. Leaves adhere to base of stem which is powdery-white. McIlvaine.

Cooked, it is as good as P. cervinus.

Var. petasa´tus Fr. Pileus 3–4 in. across, flesh rather thick, campanulate then expanded, umbonate, grayish-white, very smooth, with a viscid cuticle, at length striate to the middle. Gills free, ½ in. and more broad, crowded, becoming dry, white then reddish. Stem 4–5 in. long, ½-⅔ in. thick, rigid, very slightly and equally attenuated from the base, whitish, fibrillosely striate, solid.

On heaps of straw and dung, sawdust, etc.

Color verging on bay when old. Stem and margin of gills at length with a tawny tinge. Fries.

Haddonfield, New Jersey, Bell’s Mill, sawdust, 1890; Mt. Gretna, Pa., August, 1898, among sawdust from ice-house. Caps 6 in. across. Stem easily split, exterior hard, fibrillose, streaked, whitish, shining, stuffed with cottony fibers. Spores dark pink. McIlvaine.

Equal to P. cervinus.

P. umbro´sus Pers.—shady, from its dark color. Pileus fleshy, at first bell-shaped, then convex or expanded, roughly wrinkled and more or less villose on the disk, fimbriate on the margin, blackish-brown. Gills broad, somewhat ventricose, at first whitish, then flesh-colored, blackish-brown and fringed or toothed on the edge. Stem solid, colored like or paler than the pileus, fibrillose or villose-squamose. Spores elliptical, 8×5µ.

Decaying woods and swamps, especially of pine, both in shaded and open places. Not rare. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

247Spores broadly elliptical, smooth, 6–7×5µ; cystidia ventricose, 65–75×18–20µ Massee.

New York, Peck, Rep. 32, 38; West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey, frequent on decaying logs, stumps, pine and other woods. McIlvaine.

At times the caps are a deep sepia-brown. It is readily distinguished from P. cervinus by the wrinkled, downy disk of the cap and the gills having dark-brown edges. Smell rather strong. Professor Peck says he has not seen it with the margin fimbriate. Neither have I, though this is prominent in the European species.

P. umbrosus is a fine species, equal in every way to P. cervinus, which is seldom excelled. Caps only are tender.

P. pelli´tus Fr. Pileus 1–2 in. across. Flesh thin, soft, white, convex then plane, somewhat umbonate, regular, silky-fibrous, dry, white. Gills free, rounded behind, crowded, 1½ line broad, ventricose, white then flesh-color, margin slightly toothed. Stem about 2 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, slightly thickened at the base, even, glabrous, shining, white, stuffed. Spores elliptical, smooth, 10×6µ.

Among grass at the roots of trees, etc.

Our only Pluteus with a pure white, even pileus and stem. Superficially resembling Entoloma prunuloides, which differs in the broadly emarginate—not free—gills, and in the strong smell of new meal. Massee.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., October, 1898. McIlvaine.

Pileus up to 3 in. across. Gills ¼ in. broad, free, moist, imbricated. Stem up to 5 in. long, easily detachable from cap, solid, juicy, solitary and cespitose. On very old sawdust, upon which grass was growing.

Tender, excellent.

** Pileus frosted, etc.

P. granula´ris Pk.—sprinkled with grains. Pileus convex or nearly plane, subumbonate, rugose-wrinkled, granulose or granulose-villose, varying in color from yellow to brown. Lamellæ rather broad, crowded, ventricose, whitish, then flesh colored. Stem equal, solid, colored like the pileus, often paler at the top, velvety-pubescent, rarely scaly. Spores subglobose or broadly elliptical, 6.5–8×5–6.5µ.

248Plant 1.5–3 in. high. Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–2 lines thick.

Decaying wood and prostrate trunks in woods. Hilly and mountainous districts. June to September.

The species is closely related to P. cervinus and P. umbrosus, but is readily distinguished from them by the peculiar vesture of the pileus and stem. The granules are so minute and so close that they form a sort of plush on the pileus, more dense on the disk and radiating wrinkles than elsewhere. The clothing of the stem is finer, and has a velvety-pubescent appearance, but in some instances it breaks up into small scales or squamules. The color of the pileus and stem is usually some shade of yellow or brown, but occasionally a grayish hue predominates. The darker color of the granules imparts a dingy or smoky tinge to the general color. The disk is often darker than the rest of the pileus. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

West Virginia mountains. Eagle’s Mere and Springton Hills, Pa.

Frequent. July to October, on decaying wood. McIlvaine.

P. granularis is a much smaller species than P. cervinus and its allies. At Eagle’s Mere, Pa., August, 1898, it was quite plentiful in mixed woods. Its caps are excellent.

*** Pileus naked.

P. admira´bilis Pk.—admirable. Pileus thin, convex or expanded, generally broadly umbonate, glabrous, rugose-reticulated, moist or hygrophanous, striatulate on the margin when moist, often obscurely striate when dry, yellow or brown. Lamellæ close, broad, rounded behind, ventricose, whitish or yellowish, then flesh-colored. Stem slender, glabrous, hollow, equal or slightly thickened at the base, yellow or yellowish white, with a white mycelium. Spores subglobose or broadly elliptical, 6.5–8×6.5µ.

Var. fus´cus. Pileus brown or yellowish-brown.

Plant 1–2 in. high. Pileus 6–10 lines broad. Stem .5–1 line thick.

Decaying wood and prostrate trunks in forests. Common in hilly and mountainous districts. July to September.

This beautiful Pluteus is closely related to P. chrysophlebius B. and R., a southern species, which, according to the description, has the veins of the pileus darker colored than the rest of the surface and the 249stem enlarged above and hairy at the base, characters not shown by our plant.

In our plant small young specimens sometimes have the stem solid, but when fully developed it is hollow, though the cavity is small. This character, with its small size, distinguishes it from P. leoninus. Peck, 38th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Springton Hills, Chester county, Pa., Mt. Gretna, Pa. Frequent. June to frost. McIlvaine.

Possesses the same rare edible qualities as P. cervinus, P. umbrosus. The caps, only, are tender.

P. chrysophæ´us Schaeff. Gr—gold. Pileus 1–2½ in. across. Flesh very thin except at the disk, bell-shaped then expanded, glabrous, naked, slightly wrinkled, margin striate, cinnamon-color. Gills free, 2–3 lines broad, whitish then pale salmon-color. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, whitish, glabrous, equal, more or less hollow.

On beech trunks, etc.

Resembling P. leoninus in size, but differing in the cinnamon color of the pileus, which is often obtusely umbonate. Massee.


Haddonfield, N.J. June to October, beech roots and trunks. McIlvaine.


Gr—within; Gr—a fringe.
(Probably referring to the innate character of the pseudo veil.)

Pileus rather fleshy, margin incurved, without a distinct veil. Stem fleshy or fibrous, soft, sometimes waxy, continuous with the flesh of the pileus. Gills sinuate, adnexed, often separating from the stem. Spores rosy, elliptical, smooth or subglobose and coarsely warted.

Corresponding in structure with Tricholoma, Hebeloma and Hypholoma; separated from other rosy-spored genera by the sinuate gills.

About twenty species of Entoloma are given in the states; of them seventeen are described by Professor Peck, as found in New York. I have not found a single species in sufficient quantity to test its edibility.

Two of the European species, E. sinuata Fr. and E. livida Bull., are reputed to be very poisonous, producing headache, dizziness, vomiting, etc. Worthington Smith ate ¼ oz., which nearly proved fatal.

Professor Peck reports a species, E. grande Pk., which he considers suspicious.

Even the reported poisonous species have a pleasant odor corresponding to those of the esculent species. This makes them the more deceptive and dangerous. The pinkish or flesh-colored spores and gills distinguish Entoloma from Hebeloma, which has brown spores, and Tricholoma, which has white. Pluteus, which has pink spores and gills, is readily separated from it.

Great caution should be observed. Entolomas should be thrown away or carefully tested.

Genui´ni (genuine, typical species). Page 251.

Pileus smooth, moist or viscid; not hygrophanous.

Leptoni´dei (inclining to Leptonia).

Pileus flocculose or squamulose; absolutely dry.

Nolani´dei (inclining to Nolanea). Page 252.

Pileus thin, hygrophanous, somewhat silky when dry.


E. gran´de Pk.—Pileus fleshy, thin toward the margin, glabrous, nearly plane when mature, commonly broadly umbonate and rugosely wrinkled about the umbo, moist in wet weather, dingy yellowish-white verging to brownish or grayish-brown. Flesh white, odor and flavor farinaceous. Lamellæ broad, subdistant, slightly adnexed, becoming free or nearly so, often wavy or uneven on the edge, whitish becoming flesh-colored with maturity. Stem equal or nearly so, solid, somewhat fibrous externally, mealy at the top, white. Spores angular, 3–10µ.

Pileus 4–6 in. broad. Stem 4–6 in. long, 8–12 lines thick.

Thin mixed woods. Menands. August.

The flavor of this mushroom is not at first disagreeable, but an unpleasant burning sensation is left in the mouth for a considerable time after tasting. It is therefore to be regarded with suspicion. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

SUSPICIOUS. I have not seen this species. It is given that it may be guarded against until tested for edibility.

(Plate LXII.)

Entoloma sinuatum.
About one-fourth natural size.

E. sinua´tum Fr.—waved. Pileus 6 in. broad, becoming yellow-white, very fleshy, convex then expanded, at first gibbous, at length depressed, repand and sinuate at the margin. Stem 3–6 in. long, 1 in. thick, solid, firm, stout, equal, compact, at first fibrillose, then smooth, naked, shining white. Gills emarginate, slightly adnexed, ½-¾ in. broad, crowded, distinct, pale yellowish-red. Fries.

Gregarious, compact, handsome.

Odor strong, pleasant, almost like that of burnt sugar, not of new meal. The pileus becomes broken into squamules when dry. There is a variety with a shorter stem.

In mixed woods. Uncommon. July to October.

The gills are often irregular in their attachment. Very poisonous; producing headache, swimming of the brain, stomach pains, vomiting, 252etc. Worthington Smith, who first experimented with it, ate about ¼ oz., which very nearly proved fatal. Stevenson.


Rhode Island, Olney (Curtis Am. Jour.); Massachusetts, Sprague; Connecticut, Wright; Minnesota, Johnson; New York, Peck, Rep. 35.

“This and E. fertilis, which are closely allied, are deserving of more than suspicion, for they are veritably dangerous.” Cooke.

“Wholesome and very good to eat.” Cordier.

In the presence of such opposite opinions it is better to choose the safer. Do not eat it.

E. prunulo´ides Fr.—prunus, a plum. Pileus 2 in. and more broad, whitish, becoming yellow or livid, fleshy, bell-shaped then convex, at length flattened, somewhat umbonate, unequal (but not repand), even, viscid, smooth, at length longitudinally cracked, at length slightly striate at margin. Stem 3 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, fibrous-fleshy, solid, equal, even or slightly striate, smooth, naked, white. Gills somewhat free, emarginate, rarely rounded, at first only slightly adnexed, 3–4 lines broad, crowded, ventricose, white then flesh-color. Fries.

Odor strong of new meal, wholly that of A. prunulus. Very scattered in growth. Like A. lividus, but very different, thrice as small. It differs entirely from A. cervinus.

On the ground in woods. Autumn. Spores subglobose, coarsely warted, 10µ Massee; regularly six-angled or one angle more marked, 8µ B.; 9µ W.P.

North Carolina, dry swamps, Curtis; Minnesota, Johnson.


I have not seen this species. Do not eat it before carefully testing.

Pileus thin, hygrophanous, repand, etc.

E. clypea´tum Linn.—resembling a shield. Pileus as much as 3 in. broad, lurid when moist, when dry gray and variegated or streaked with darker spots or lines, fleshy, bell-shaped then flattened, umbonate, smooth, fragile. Flesh thin, white when dry. Stem almost 3 in. long, 3–4 lines and more thick, stuffed, at length hollow, wholly fibrous, equal, round, fragile, longitudinally fibrillose, becoming ash-colored, pulverulent 253at the very apex. Gills rounded-adnexed, separating-free, 3–4 lines broad, ventricose, somewhat distant, dingy, then red-pulverulent with the spores, serrulated at the edge chiefly behind.

It has occurred in May cespitose; better developed and solitary in the end of August.

In woods, gardens and waste places. Frequent. Spring, autumn. Stevenson.

North Carolina, Schweinitz, Curtis; Ohio, Morgan; New England, Frost; California, H. and M.; Rhode Island, Bennett; New York, Peck, Rep. 23.


I have not seen this species. It should not be eaten before careful testing.

E. rhodopo´lium Fr. Gr—rose; Gr—gray. Pileus 2–5 in. broad, hygrophanous, when moist dingy-brown (young) or livid, becoming pale (when full grown), when dry isabelline-livid, silky-shining, slightly-fleshy, bell-shaped when young, then expanded and somewhat umbonate or gibbous, at length rather plane and sometimes depressed, fibrillose when young, smooth when full grown, margin at the first bent inwards and when larger undulated. Flesh white. Stem 2–4 in. long, 3–5 lines thick, hollow, equal when smaller, when larger attenuated upwards and white-pruinate at the apex, otherwise smooth, slightly striate, white. Gills adnate then separating, somewhat sinuate, slightly distant, 2–4 lines broad, white then rose-color. Fries.

Fragile, commonly large and often handsome, almost inodorous.

In mixed woods. Frequent. August to October.

Spores pretty regular, 8–10×6–8µ B.; 7µ W.G.S.

New England, Frost; Minnesota, Johnson; Iowa, Brœndle; Rhode Island, Bennett; Ohio, Morgan; New York, Peck, Rep. 23d, 38th, A. rhodopolius, var. umbilicatus Pk., the same as Clitopilus subvilis Pk., Rep. 40.

Edible. Paulet. Edible. Cooke.


Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.             Plate LXIII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Clitopilus abortivus, 257 4. Clitopilus prunulus, 255
2. Clitopilus abortivus (aborted), 256 5. Clitopilus prunulus (section), 255
3. Clitopilus abortivus (aborted) (section), 258
Gr—a declivity; Gr—a cap.

(Plate LXIV.)

Clitopilus prunulus.
One-third natural size.

Pileus more or less excentric or regular, margin at first involute. Gills more or less decurrent, never sinuate nor seceding from the stem, salmon-color. Stem fleshy or fibrous, not polished and cartilaginous externally, central, expanded upward into the flesh of the pileus. Spores smooth or warted.

Closely resembling Eccilia, differing mostly in the stem not being cartilaginous at the surface. Distinguished from Entoloma by the gills not being sinuate.

Agrees in structure with Clitocybe in the Leucosporæ. Massee.

Growing on the ground, often strong smelling. Caps usually depressed or umbilicate and waved on margin.

Some of the best of edible kinds are within this genus; a few are unpleasant raw, none poisonous.

Most authors follow Fries in the arrangement of the species, dividing them into two groups, the Orcelli, distinguished by deeply decurrent gills and an irregular, scarcely hygrophanous pileus, with the margin at first flocculose; and Sericelli, distinguished by adnate or slightly decurrent gills and a regular silky or hygrophanous-silky pileus with a naked margin. This arrangement is not strictly applicable to some of our species. C. abortivus, C. erythrosporus and C. Noveaboracensis have the gills deeply decurrent in some individuals, adnate or slightly decurrent in others, and therefore the same species might be sought in both groups. For this reason the primary grouping of our species has been made to depend upon the variation in the spore colors. By far the greater number of our species appear to be peculiar to this country, only two of them occurring also in Europe.

Spores and mature gills flesh-colored 1
Spores and mature gills rosy-red 9
Spores very pale flesh-colored 10
1. Pileus hygrophanous 8
1. Pileus not hygrophanous 2
2. Pileus gray or grayish-brown 5
2. Pileus some other color 3
3. Pileus white or whitish 4
3. Pileus pale tan-color C. pascuensis
4. Pileus firm, dry, pruinate C. prunulus
4. Pileus soft, slightly viscid when moist C. Orcella
5. Pileus large, more than 1.5 in. broad C. abortivus
5. Pileus small, less than 1.5 in. broad 6
6. Spores even C. unitinctus
6. Spores angular 7
7. Stem longer than the width of the zoneless pileus C. albogriseus
7. Stem shorter than the width of the commonly zonate pileus C. micropus
8. Pileus brown or grayish-brown C. subvilis
8. Pileus white or yellowish-white C. Woodianus
9. Stem colored like the pileus C. erythrosporus
9. Stem white, paler than the pileus C. conissans
10. Pileus even 11
10. Pileus rivulose C. Noveboracensis
11. Stems cespitose, solid C. cæspitosus
11. Stems not cespitose, hollow C. Seymourianus
Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.
Spores Flesh-Color.
A. Spores Even.

C. pru´nulus Scop.—prunus, plum. (Plate LXIII, fig. 4, 5, p. 254.) Pileus fleshy, compact, at first convex and regular, then repand, dry, pruinate, white or ashy-white. Flesh white, unchangeable, with a pleasant farinaceous odor. Gills deeply decurrent, subdistant, flesh-colored. 256Stem solid, naked, striate, white. Spores subelliptical, pointed at each end, 10–11×5–6µ.

Pileus 1.5–3 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick.


Not abundant, but edible, and said to be delicious and one of the best of the esculent species. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

June to October. Most plentiful in August and September.

Very plentiful in oak woods at Angora, West Philadelphia, moderate crops at Mt. Gretna, Pa.

An abortive form (see Plate LXIII, fig. 2, 3, p. 254) occurs not distinguishable from that of Armillaria mellea. It grows singly and in tufts, very variable in shape, white, tinged with brown on ruptured surfaces. This form equals its original.

C. prunulus has a strong smell of fresh meal. It is a delicious species.

Stew. It is one of the very best in patties, croquettes, etc.

(Plate LXV.)

Clitopilus orcella.
Two-thirds natural size.

C. Orcel´la Bull.—Pileus fleshy, soft, plane or slightly depressed, often irregular, even when young, slightly silky, somewhat viscid when moist, white or yellowish-white. Flesh white, taste and odor farinaceous. Gills deeply decurrent, close, whitish then flesh-colored. Stem short, solid, flocculose, often eccentric, thickened above, white. Spores elliptical, 9–10×5µ.

Generally a little smaller than the preceding species, softer and more irregular, but so closely allied that by some it is considered a mere variety of it. It is said to be edible and of delicate flavor. It occurs in wet weather in pastures and open places. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Grows in oak woods, Angora, West Philadelphia; Mt. Gretna, Pa.

Qualities same as C. prunulus. Delicious.

C. pascuen´sis Pk.—pasture. Pileus fleshy, compact, centrally depressed, glabrous, reddish or pale yellowish, the cuticle of the disk cracking into minute areas. Gills rather narrow, close, decurrent, 257whitish, becoming flesh-colored. Stem short, equal or tapering downward, solid, glabrous, colored like the pileus. Spores subelliptical, pale incarnate, 7.5–10×5–6µ.

Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 8–18 lines long, 4–6 lines thick.

Pastures. Saratoga county.

The species is related to C. prunulus from which it is distinct by its shorter, paler spores, its glabrous pileus cracked in areas on the disk and tinged with red or yellowish and by its paler gills. From C. pseudo-orcella it differs in its glabrous pileus with no silky luster and in its closer gills. Its odor is obsolete but it has a farinaceous flavor. It is probably esculent, but has not been found in sufficient quantity to afford a test of qualities. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

C. unitinct´us Pk.—one-colored. Pileus thin, submembranaceous, flexible, convex or nearly plane, centrally depressed or umbilicate, glabrous, subshining, often concentrically rivulose, grayish or grayish-brown. Flesh whitish or grayish-white, odor obsolete, taste mild. Gills narrow, moderately close, adnate or slightly decurrent, colored like the pileus. Stem slender, straight or flexuous, subtenacious, equal, slightly pruinose, grayish-brown, with a close white myceloid tomentum at the base and white root-like fibers of mycelium permeating the soil. Spores elliptical, 7.5×5µ.

Var. al´bidus. Whitish or grayish-white, not rivulose. Gills broader. Spores brownish flesh-color.

Pileus 6–16 lines broad. Stem about 1 in. long, 1 line thick.

Woods of pine or balsam. Albany and Essex counties. Autumn.

The variety is a little paler than the typical form, with gills a little broader, but is probably not specifically distinct. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I have not seen this species. Edibility not reported.

B. Spores Angular or Irregular.
1. Pileus not hygrophanous.

C. aborti´vus B. and C.—abortive. (Plate LXIII, fig. 1, 2, 3, p. 254.) Pileus fleshy, firm, convex or nearly plane, regular or irregular, dry, clothed with a minute silky tomentum, becoming smooth with age, gray or grayish-brown. Flesh white, taste and odor subfarinaceous. 258Gills thin, close, slightly or deeply decurrent, at first whitish or pale gray, then flesh-colored. Stem nearly equal, solid, minutely flocculose, sometimes fibrous-striated, colored like or paler than the pileus. Spores irregular, 7.5–10×6.5µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Ground and old prostrate trunks of trees in woods and open places. August and September.

Our species has been found to be edible, but its flavor is scarcely as agreeable as that of some other species. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

It requires longer cooking than C. prunulus, and is then quite equal in excellence.

The fungus is so named because of the abortive form of it frequently found associated with it. This is faithfully portrayed on Plate LXIII. This is in every way similar to the aborted forms of C. prunulus and Armillaria mellea.

Both forms plentiful near Philadelphia. The undeveloped masses are also similar to those of C. prunulus.

The abortive form is a superior edible to the original.

C. popina´lis Fr.—popina, a cook-shop. Pileus 1–2 in. across, flesh thin, flaccid, convex then depressed, somewhat wavy, glabrous, opaque, gray, spotted and marbled. Flesh grayish-white, unchangeable. Gills very decurrent, broader than the thickness of the flesh of the pileus, lanceolate, crowded, dark-gray, at length reddish from the spores. Stem stuffed, 1–2 in. long, 2 lines thick, equal, often flexuous, naked, paler than the pileus. Spores subglobose, slightly angular, 4–5µ Massee.

Solitary or gregarious, smell pleasant like new meal, entirely gray. Fries.

Woods. Gansevoort. July. The whole plant is of a grayish color except the mature gills, which have a flesh-colored hue, and the base of the stem, which is clothed with a white tomentum. It has a farinaceous odor. Peck, 51st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November. McIlvaine.

Edible, pleasant.

C. carneo-al´bus Wither.—light flesh color. Pileus up to 1 in. 259across, convex then expanded, center becoming depressed and the margin drooping, even, polished, white, the disk becoming usually tinged with red. Flesh thin. Gills slightly decurrent, 1 line broad, crowded, salmon color. Stem 1–1½ in. long, 1 line thick, about equal, solid, white. Spores globose, nodulose, 7–8µ diameter.

Inodorous; gregarious.

In the section given in Cke. Illustr., the stem is represented as being distinctly hollow. Massee.

New York, shaded ground. June. Peck, 45th Rep.

C. al´bogri´seus Pk.—pale-gray. Pileus firm, convex or slightly depressed, glabrous, pale-gray, odor farinaceous. Gills moderately close, adnate or slightly decurrent, grayish then flesh-colored. Stem solid, colored like the pileus. Spores angular or irregular, 10–11×7.5µ.

Pileus 6–12 lines broad. Stem 1.5–2.5 in. long, 1–2 lines thick.

Woods. Adirondack mountains. August. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa., woods. August to October. McIlvaine.

Edible, pleasant.

C. mi´cropus Pk.—short-stemmed. Pileus thin, fragile, convex or centrally depressed, umbilicate, silky, gray, usually with one or two narrow zones on the margin, odor farinaceous. Gills narrow, close, adnate or slightly decurrent, gray, becoming flesh-colored. Stem short, solid, slightly thickened at the top, pruinose, gray with a white mycelium at the base. Spores angular or irregular, 10×6µ.

Pileus 6–12 lines broad. Stem 8–10 lines long, 1 line thick.

Thin woods. Essex and Rensselaer counties. August.

This species is closely allied to the preceding one, but may be separated from it by its short stem and silky umbilicate subzonate pileus. Both species are rare and have been observed only in wet, rainy weather. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Scattered markedly umbilicate. Mt. Gretna, Pa., woods. August, September. McIlvaine.

Edible, pleasant.

2602. Pileus hygrophanous.

C. subvi´lis Pk.—small value. Pileus thin, centrally depressed or umbilicate, with the margin decurved, hygrophanous, dark-brown and striatulate on the margin when moist, grayish-brown and silky shining when dry, taste farinaceous. Gills subdistant, adnate or slightly decurrent, whitish when young, then flesh-colored. Stem slender, brittle, rather long, stuffed or hollow, glabrous, colored like the pileus or a little paler. Spores angular, 7.5–10µ.

Pileus 8–15 lines broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 1–2 lines thick.

Damp soil in thin woods. Albany county. October.

The species is allied to C. vilis, from which it is separated by its silky-shining pileus, subdistant gills and farinaceous taste. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Scattered. Mt. Gretna, Pa. September to November. McIlvaine.

Edible, pleasant.

C. Wood´ianus Pk. Pileus thin, convex or nearly plane, umbilicate or centrally depressed, hygrophanous, striatulate on the margin when moist, whitish or yellowish-white and shining when dry, the margin often wavy or flexuous. Gills close, adnate or slightly decurrent, whitish, then flesh-colored. Stem equal, flexuous, shining, solid, colored like the pileus. Spores subglobose, angular, 6–7.5µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2 lines thick.

Ground and decayed prostrate trunks in woods. Lewis county. September.

This species is perhaps too closely allied to the preceding, but it may easily be separated by its paler color, closer gills and solid stem, though this is sometimes hollow from the erosion of insects. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

C. Un´derwoodii Pk.—in honor of L.M. Underwood. Pileus rather thin but fleshy, nearly plane or slightly depressed in the center, even, whitish. Gills narrow, close, slightly decurrent, pale flesh-colored. Stem rather short, equal or slightly tapering upward, solid, whitish. Spores subglobose, 4–5µ long.

Pileus 6–18 lines broad. Stem about 1 in. long and 2 lines thick.

261Syracuse and Jamesville. September and October. L.M. Underwood. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores Rosy-red.

C. erythro´sporus Pk. Gr—red-spored. Pileus thin, hemispherical or strongly convex, glabrous or merely pruinose, pinkish-gray. Flesh whitish tinged with pink, taste farinaceous. Gills narrow, crowded, arcuate, deeply decurrent, colored like the pileus. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, slightly pruinose at the top, colored like the pileus. Spores elliptical, 5×3–4µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–1.5 in. long, 2–3 lines thick.

Decayed wood and among fallen leaves in woods. Albany and Ulster counties. September and October.

The species is easily recognized by its peculiar uniform color, its narrow, crowded and generally very decurrent gills and by its bright rosy-red spores. Sometimes individuals occur in which the gills are less decurrent. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., among fallen leaves. Sparsely gregarious. September to November. McIlvaine.

Edible, good.

C. conis´sans Pk.—dusted. Pileus thin, convex, glabrous, pale alutaceous, often dusted by the copious spores. Gills close, adnate, reddish-brown. Stem slender, brittle, hollow, cespitose, white. Spores narrowly elliptical, 7.5×4µ.

Pileus 1–1.5 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick.

Base of an apple tree. Catskill mountains. September.

Remarkable for the bright rosy-red spores which are sometimes so thickly dusted over the lower pilei of a tuft as to conceal their real color. The species is very rare. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores Very Pale Flesh-Colored, Merely Tinted.

C. cæspito´sus Pk.—tufted. Pileus at first convex, firm, nearly regular, shining, white, then nearly plane, fragile, often irregular or eccentric, glabrous but with a slight silky luster, even, whitish. Flesh white, taste mild. Gills narrow, thin, crowded, often forked, adnate or slightly 262decurrent, whitish, becoming dingy or brownish-pink. Stems cespitose, solid, silky-fibrillose, slightly mealy at the top, white. Spores 5×4µ.

Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 2–4 lines thick.

Thin woods and pastures. Ulster county. September.

This is a large, fine species, very distinct by its cespitose habit, white color and very pale sordid-tinted spores. But for the color of these the plant might easily be taken for a species of Clitocybe. The tufts sometimes form long rows. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. October. McIlvaine.

Tender, not much flavor.

C. Noveboracen´sis Pk.—New York Clitopilus. Pileus thin, convex, then expanded or slightly depressed, dingy white, cracked in areas or concentrically rivulose, sometimes obscurely zonate, odor farinaceous, taste bitter. Gills narrow, close, deeply decurrent, some of them forked, white, becoming dingy, tinged with yellow or flesh-color. Stem equal, solid, colored like the pileus, the mycelium white, often forming white branching root-like fibers. Spores globose, 4–5µ broad.

Var. brevis. Margin of the pileus, in the moist plant, pure white. Gills adnate or slightly decurrent. Stem short.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–3 lines thick.

Woods and pastures. Adirondack mountains, Albany and Rensselaer counties. August to October.

The plant is gregarious or cespitose. Sometimes, especially in the variety, it grows in lines or arcs of circles. The margin is often undulated, and in the variety it is, when fresh and moist, clothed with a film of interwoven webby white fibrils which give it a peculiar appearance, and if the spore characters are neglected it might be mistaken for Clitocybe phyllophila. The disk is often tinged with reddish-yellow or rusty hues when moist, and its rivulose character is then more distinct. A farinaceous odor is generally present, especially in the broken or bruised plant, but its taste is bitter and unpleasant. Sometimes bruises of the fresh plant manifest a tendency to assume a smoky-brown or blackish color. The base of the stem is sometimes clothed with a white mycelioid tomentum. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

C. Sey´mourianus Pk.—Pileus fleshy, thin, broadly convex or slightly depressed, even, pruinose, whitish with a dark lilac tinge, sometimes 263lobed and eccentric. Gills narrow, crowded, decurrent, some of them forked at the base, whitish with a pale flesh-colored tint. Stem equal, silky-fibrillose, hollow. Spores minute, globose or nearly so, 3.5–4µ long.

Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad. Stem 1.5–2.5 in. long, 3–4 lines thick.

Woods. Lewis county. September. Peck, 42d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.


(Plate LXVI.)


Rosy-spored. Stem cartilaginous, tubular (the tube stuffed or hollow), polished, somewhat shining. Pileus thin, umbilicate or with a darker disk, cuticle fibrillose or separating into darker scales, margin at first incurved. Gills at first adnexed or adnate but readily separating. Fries.

The Leptoniæ are related to the Clitopili as the Collybiæ are to the Clitocybæ. The species are small, elegant, brightly colored, inodorous (except A. incanus), and abound in rainy weather. Gregarious or growing in troops; on the ground, commonly on dry mossy pastures, but also in marshy places. Stevenson.

Six American species reported. I have not seen any.

Nola, a little bell.

(Plate LXVII.)

Nolanea pascua.
About natural size.

Rosy-spored. Stem tubed, the tube more rarely stuffed with a pith, cartilaginous. Pileus somewhat membranaceous, bell-shaped, somewhat papillate, striate and sometimes even, sometimes also clothed with flocci, margin straight and at the first pressed to the stem, and not involute. Gills free or adfixed, and not decurrent. Fries.

Nolanea agrees with Leptonia and Eccilia among the pink-spored species. It corresponds with Mycena, Galera and Psathyra. Several Entolomata are nearly allied. The species are thin and slender, commonly inodorous and fragile, though some of them are tough. Growing on the ground in summer and autumn. Stevenson.

Seven American species reported. None seen by writer. Peck, Rep. 24, 26, 35, 39, 50.

Gr—I hollow out.
(Plate LXVIII.)

Eccilia atropuncta.
Two-thirds natural size.

Stem cartilaginous, tubular (the tube hollow or stuffed), expanded upward into the pileus, which is somewhat membranaceous and at the first turned inward at the margin. Gills attenuated behind, truly decurrent, becoming more so when the pileus is depressed, and not separating as those of Nolanea.

Corresponding in structure with Omphalia of the white-spored and Tubaria of the brown-spored series. Allied to Clitopilus in the decurrent gills, but separated by the cartilaginous, smooth stem.

(Plate LXIX.)

Eccilia carneo-grisea.
Natural size.
Eccilia atropuncta.

E. car´neo-gri´sea B. and Br.—caro, flesh; griseus, gray. Pileus about 1 in. broad, gray flesh-color, umbilicate, striate, delicately dotted, margin slightly glittering with dark particles. Stem about 1½ in. long, slender, fibrous-hollow upward, wavy, of the same color as the pileus, shining, smooth, white-downy at the base. Gills adnato-decurrent, somewhat undulated, distant, rosy, the irregular margin darker. Stevenson.

Spores irregularly oblong, rough, 7×5µ Massee.

Nova Scotia, Dr. Somers.

New Jersey, E.B. Sterling, August, 1897; Eagle’s Mere, Pa., common under pines, McIlvaine.

266This neat little species is sweet and pleasant raw, and when cooked makes an agreeable dish. European authorities give the taste as unpleasant, but there is nothing of the sort about the American representative.

Claudus—lame; pous—a foot.

(Plate LXX.)

Claudopus variabilis.
Natural size.

Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. Spores pinkish.

The species of this genus were formerly distributed among the Pleuroti and Crepidoti, which they resemble in all respects except the color of the spores. The genus at first was made to include species with lilac-colored as well as pink spores, but Professor Fries limited it to species with pink spores. In this sense we have taken it. The spores in some species are even, in others rough or angulated. The stem is either entirely wanting or is very short and inconspicuous, a character indicated by the generic name. The pileus often rests upon its back and is attached by a point when young, but it becomes turned backward with age. The species are few and infrequent. All inhabit decaying wood.

Pileus yellow C. nidulans
Pileus white or whitish 1
1. Spores even C. variabilis
1. Spores angulated. C. depluens
Pileus gray or brown 2
2. Pileus striatulate when moist C. Greigensis
2. Pileus not striatulate C. byssisedus
Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

267C. ni´dulans Pers.—nidus, a nest. Pileus 1–3 in. broad, stemless, attached by the pileus or rarely narrowed behind into a short stem-like base, caps often overlapping one another, suborbicular or kidney-shaped, downy, somewhat pointed-hairy or scaly-hairy toward the margin, yellow or buff color, the margin at first turned inward. Lamellæ rather broad, moderately close or subdistant, orange-yellow. Spores even, slightly curved, 6–8µ long, about half as broad, delicate pink.

Decaying wood. Sandlake. Catskill and Adirondack mountains. Autumn.

This fungus was placed by Fries among the Pleuroti, and in this he has been followed by most authors. But the spores have a delicate pink color closely resembling that of the young lamellæ of the common mushroom, Agaricus campestris. We have, therefore, placed it among the Claudopodes, where Fries himself has suggested it should be placed if removed at all from Pleurotus. Our plant has sometimes been referred to Panus dorsalis Bosc., but with the description of that species it does not well agree. The tawny-color, spoon-shaped pileus, pale floccose scales, short lateral stem and decurrent lamellæ ascribed to that species are not well shown by our plant. The substance of the pileus, though rather tenacious and persistent, can scarcely be called leathery. The flesh is white or pale yellow. The hairy down of the pileus is often matted in small tufts and intermingled with coarse hairs, especially toward the margin. This gives a scaly or pointed-hairy appearance. The color of the pileus is often paler toward the base than it is on the margin. Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Mt. Gretna, Pa., November, 1898, decaying stumps. McIlvaine.

An autumnal species growing upon wood. Not common.

The light yellow tomentosity of the cap arranges itself into shapes as fascinating as crystals of snow.

Taste pleasant, mild. Texture more solid than P. ostreatus, consequently tougher. It is edible but not desirable. Must be chopped fine and cooked well. 268

Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.         Plate LXXI.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Hebeloma glutinosum, 283 3. Pholiota squarrosa, 273
2. Pholiota caperata, 270 4. Pholiota subsquarrosa, 275

Plate LXXIa.
Chart of genera in brown-spored series—Ochrosporae.

Series III. OCHRO´SPORÆ (Dermini). Spores brown.

Ochrosporæ, third in color series, ranges in spore color from dull ochraceous, through bright ocher, to rusty orange and ferruginous or iron-rust. The various shades will tax even a color expert.

There are no species in the series corresponding to Amanitæ. In Acetabularia there is a cup-like volva; in Pholiota there is a distinct interwoven ring on the stem; in Cortinarius the secondary veil is like a cobweb, and may form an imperfect zone around the stem, or hang as fibers from the margin of the cap; Pluteolus exactly resembles Pluteus.

There are many edible species of good quality in the series. None are known to be poisonous. The substance, as a rule, is tougher than in most of the preceding genera, and in many instances has a strong woody flavor. Several species are late growers, and are among the best of fungi. Notably in Pholiota.

Acetabulum, a vinegar-cup. From the cup-like volva.

Universal veil distinct from the pileus; hymenophore distinct; gills free; spores pallid, tawny or brown.

Analogous to Volvaria and Chitonia.

No American species reported.

Gr—a scale.

Pileus more or less fleshy. Gills adnate, with or without a decurrent tooth, tawny or rust colored at maturity from the spores. Flesh of stem continuous with that of the pileus. Ring distinct, interwoven. Spores sepia-brown, bright yellowish-brown or light red.

Generally on wood, sometimes on the ground in damp moss, frequently densely cespitose. Some of the species are large and bright colored. Distinguished from all other genera of the brown-spored series by the possession of a distinct ring. In Cortinarius the veil and ring are web-like.

Stevenson notes in his description of the genus: “None are to be commended as edible.” My investigation shows that there are several delicious species, notably P. squarrosa and subsquarrosa. Their lateness and plentifulness make them valuable food fungi. I have nothing but praise for the entire genus.

A. Humigeni (humus, ground; gigno, to bear). Page 270.

On the ground, rarely cespitose.

* Eudermini. Gr—well; dermini, the brown-spored series.

Spores ferruginous.

** Phæoti. Gr—dusky.

Spores dusky rust-colored.

B. Truncigeni (truncus, a trunk; gigno, to bear). Page 273.

On wood; subcespitose.

* Ægeritini. P. ægerita, the type of the section.

Pileus naked, not scaly, sometimes cracked. Gills pallid, then reddish or dusky. None known to be edible.

** Squamosi—squama, a scale.

Pileus scaly, not hygrophanous. Gills becoming discolored.

* Gills not becoming purely rust-colored.

** Gills yellow, then rust-color or tawny.

*** Hygrophani. Gr—moist; to appear.

Gills cinnamon, not at first yellow.

270C. Muscigeni (muscus, moss; gigno, to bear).

Hygrophanous. Like Galera with a ring.

A. Humigeni. On ground.
* Eudermini. Spores ferruginous.

P. capera´ta Pers.—capero, to wrinkle. (Plate LXXI, fig. 2, page 268.) Pileus 3–5 in. broad, more or less intensely yellow, fleshy, but thin in proportion to its size and robust stem, ovate then expanded, obtuse, viscid only when moist and not truly so, even at the disk, wrinkled in pits at the sides, incrusted with white superficial flocci. Stem 4–6 in. long, more than 1 in. thick, solid, stout, cylindrical with exception of the base which is often tuberous, shining white, scaly above the ring, which is membranaceous, reflexo-pendulous, and broken into squamules at the apex. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, somewhat serrated, clay-cinnamon.

When young the pileus is incrusted with the veil or with white mealy-floccose soft, hairy down, which is crowded on the even disk and scaly towards the thin pitted-furrowed margin; and as this separates the pileus is naked. Veil universal, floccoso-mealy, at the first cohering in the form of a volva but not continuous; in rainy weather remaining in the form of a volva at the base. Spores dark ferruginous on a white ground, paler on a black ground. There is a smaller form (A. macropus Pers.) in pine woods, pileus even and paler. Stem 3 in. long, and without a tuberous base. Ring oblique and often incomplete. Stev.

Spores 10µ B. and Br.; 12×4µ W.P.; spheroid-ellipsoid, uniguttate, 11–12×8–9µ K.; 12×4.5µ Massee.

Not previously reported.

This fungus occurs sparingly in rich woods near Boston. It is much esteemed in Germany, and eagerly sought by the common people, who call it familiarly the “Zigeuner” (Gypsy). Boston Myc. Club Bull. 1896.

I have found this species in but one place—on the south hill of the great Chester valley, Pa., where it grows plentifully in woods. The taste raw was slightly acrid, but when cooked this disappeared. Many ate of the species and enjoyed it.

271P. togula´ris Bull.—togula, a little cloak. From the ample ring. Pileus 1½ in. broad, pallid ochraceous, fleshy, soft, bell-shaped then expanded, obtuse, orbicular, without striæ, smooth. Flesh thin, soft, becoming yellow. Stem 3–4 in. long, 2 lines thick, tubed, rigid, equal, cylindrical, rough with stiff fibers, naked and becoming yellow at the apex, becoming dingy brown downward. Ring medial, more than 1 in. distant, entire, spreading-reflexed. Gills adnato-separating, ventricose, crowded, narrowed in front, becoming yellow, at length pale rust-color, never becoming dingy brown.

Protean, slender, very variable in stature, growing in troops. b. More slender, but densely gregarious, with the wholly pallid smooth stem thinner, often flexuous. This form is exactly A. mesodactylus Berk. c. Very small. Pileus 1 in. Stem 1 in. or a little more, scarcely 1 line thick, very flexuous, becoming rust-color. Stevenson.

Spores elliptical, 8×3.5µ Massee.

New Jersey, on decayed chips mixed with dirt. May, 1898. E.B. Sterling.

Not previously reported.

The specimens sent were tested and found to be of good quality.

** Phæ´oti. Spores fuscous—ferruginous (dingy rust-color).

P. du´ra Bolt.—durus, hard. Pileus 3 in. and more broad, tawny, tan-color, becoming dingy brown, fleshy, somewhat compact, convexo-plane, obtuse, smooth, then cracked into patches, margin even. Stem commonly curt, 2 in. long, about ½ in. thick, stuffed, even solid, hard, becoming silky-even, then longitudinally cracked when dry, thickened at the apex, mealy and more than usually widened into the pileus, varying ventricose and irregularly-shaped. Ring torn. Gills adnate, striato-decurrent with a tooth, ventricose, ½ in. broad, livid then dingy rust-color.

The stem is abundantly furnished with fibrillose rootlets at the base. Although very closely allied to A. præcox, it is readily distinguished by its rust-color or brown-rust spores. Stevenson.

Spores 9×5µ W.G.S.; 8–9×5–6µ Massee.

Haddonfield, N.J. June to October. Florist’s garden, McIlvaine.

After rains P. dura appears, solitary, from spring to autumn. The 272cracked cap, in mature specimens, distinguishes it from other species found on its habitat. It varies in size from 1½ in. up to 4 in. across. The caps are excellent.

(Plate LXXII.)

Pholiota præcox.
After Peck.

P. præ´cox Pers.—præcox, early. Pileus 1–2 in. broad, convex or nearly plane, soft, nearly or quite glabrous, whitish, more or less tinged with yellow or tan-color. Gills close, adnexed, at first whitish, then brownish or rusty-brownish. Stem 1.5–3 in. long, 2–2.5 lines thick, rather slender, mealy or glabrous, stuffed or hollow, whitish. Spores elliptical, rusty-brown, 10–13×6–8µ.

The Early Pholiota is a small but variable species. From other similarly colored species that appear in grassy ground early in the season, the collar on the stem will generally distinguish it. Its cap is usually convex when young but nearly flat in the mature plant. It is rather pale in color but not a clear white, being tinted with yellow or pale tan-colored hues. The gills are whitish when the cap first opens, but they soon change to a rusty-brown hue in consequence of the ripening of the spores. They are excavated at the inner extremity and slightly attached to the stem. They are ventricose when the cap is fully expanded. The stem is rather slender, nearly or quite straight and soon smooth and hollow. It is pale or whitish, and usually furnished with a small collar. Sometimes the collar is slight and disappears with age and sometimes the fragments of the veil remain attached to the margin of the cap leaving nothing for a collar.

The plants usually grow in grassy ground, lawns and gardens, and appear from May to July.

Var. minor Batt. is a small form having the cap only about 1 in. broad and the remnants of the veil adherent to the margin of the cap. It is represented by figures 6 to 12.

Var. sylvestris Pk. has the center of the cap brownish or rusty-brown, and grows in thin woods. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

273Spores inclining to fuscous, spheroid-ellipsoid, 8–13×5–7µ K.; 8×6µ W.G.S.; 8–13×6–7µ Massee.

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, May to August. On rich ground, lawns, gardens, etc. McIlvaine.

Coming as it does in early spring, it is a prized species wherever found.

The caps only are good.

B. Truncigeni. On wood.
** Squamosi. Scaly.

(Plate LXXIII.)

Pholiota squarrosa.
One-half natural size.

P. squarro´sa Mull.—squarrosus, scurfy. (Plate LXXI, fig. 3, page 268.) Pileus 3–5 in. broad, saffron-rust-color, scaly with innate, crowded, revolute, darker (becoming dingy brown), persistent scales, fleshy, convex bell-shaped then flattened, commonly obtusely umbonate or gibbous, dry. Flesh light-yellow, compact when young, sometimes thin. Stems curt when young, as much as 8 in. long when full-grown, as much as 1 in. thick at the apex, remarkably attenuated downwards, stuffed, scaly as far as the ring with crowded, revolute, darker scales. Ring only slightly distant from the apex, rarely membranaceous, entire or often slashed, generally floccoso-radiate, of the same color as the scales. Gills adnate with a decurrent tooth, crowded, narrow, pallid-olivaceous then rust-color.

Spores ferruginous. Very cespitose, forming large heaps. Stems commonly cohering at the base, varying very much in stature in the 274same cluster; varying also much thinner, scarcely ever curved-ascending. Odor heavy, stinking; sometimes, however, obsolete. Stevenson.

Spores ellipsoid, 7–8x4–5µ K.; 4x5µ W.G.S.; 8x4µ Massee.

On trunks of trees, on and near stumps, etc. Common. August to December.

West Virginia, 1881–1885, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. On rotten wood and stumps. August to long after frost. McIlvaine.

Edible. Curtis.

The American species, as I have repeatedly found it, is not so large as given in the European description, and the habitat is more closely confined to the trunks of standing trees and stumps not much decayed. It is a showy species, to be seen from afar off, especially after the leaves fall. Taste when young, raw, is sweet, mealy; when mature, like stale lard.

Cooked, the caps are of good substance and flavor. One of the very best.

P. squarrosoi´des Pk.—squarrosus, scurfy; eidos, form. Pileus firm, convex, viscid when moist, at first densely covered by erect papillose or subspinose tawny scales, which soon separate from each other, revealing the whitish color and viscid character of the pileus. Lamellæ close, emarginate, at first whitish, then pallid or dull cinnamon color. Stem equal, firm, stuffed, rough with thick squarrose scales, white above the thick floccose ring, pallid or tawny below. Spores minute, elliptical, 5×4µ.

Densely cespitose, 3–6 in. high. Pileus 2–4 in. broad. Stem 3–5 lines thick.

Dead trunks and old stumps of maple. Adirondack and Catskill mountains. Autumn.

This is evidently closely related to A. squarrosus, with which it has, perhaps, been confused, but its different colors and viscid pileus appear to warrant its separation. Peck, 31st Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Occurred in large clusters on sugar maples at Eagle’s Mere in October, and on stumps at Mt. Gretna. It very closely resembles P. squarrosa. Its caps are of the very best.

275P. subsquarro´sa Fr.—sub, under; squarrosus, scurfy. (Plate LXXI, fig. 4, p. 268.) Pileus 2 in. and more broad, brown rust-color, with darker, adpressed, floccose scales, fleshy, convex, obtuse or gibbous, viscid. Stem 3 in. long, 4–5 lines thick, stuffed (often hollow when old), equal, yellow-rust-color, clothed with darker scales which are adpressed, or spreading only at the apex, not rough, furnished with an annular zone at the apex, becoming yellow-rust-color within. Gills deeply sinuate, emarginate, almost free, arcuate, crowded, at first pale then dingy yellow.

Spores rust-color. The pileus is viscid, but not glutinous like that of A. adiposus. It holds a doubtful place between A. aurivellus and A. squarrosus, departing from both, however, in the gills being at the first yellow; and from A. squarrosus, to which it is more like, in the gills being emarginato-free, not decurrent. Somewhat cespitose. Almost inodorous. Fries.

Spores ferruginous, size not stated.

West Philadelphia, Mt. Gretna, Pa., Haddonfield, N.J. September until after frosts. McIlvaine.

Not previously reported.

The maple trees in West Philadelphia frequently show large clusters of it up to twenty feet from ground; to be seen from afar after the leaves have fallen. Our American species differs somewhat from the European. American species:

Pileus 1–3 in. across, fleshy, convex, very viscid, rich brownish-yellow, covered with darker adpressed floccose scales. Flesh slightly yellow. Gills white when very young slightly emarginate, adnexed, crowded, ¼ in. broad, brown. Stem 2–3 in. long, ½ in. thick, equal or tapering toward base, stuffed, then hollow, covered with squamose scales as far up as the slight ring, smooth above ring. Ring membranaceous, slight.

Spores rust-color.

The species is variable and differs greatly in youth and maturity.

The caps, fried in hot buttered pan, are unexcelled.

Equally fine in croquettes and patties.

276** Gills yellow, then rust-color.

(Plate LXXIV.)

Pholiota adiposa.
About natural size.

P. adipo´sa Fr.—adeps, fat. Pileus fleshy, firm, at first hemispherical or subconical, then convex, very viscid or glutinous when moist, scaly, yellow. Flesh whitish. Gills close, adnate, yellowish becoming rust-color with age. Stem equal or slightly thickened at the base, scaly below the slight radiating floccose ring, solid or stuffed, yellow, generally rust-color at the base. Spores elliptical, 7.6×5µ.

The Fat pholiota is a showy species. Its tufted mode of growth, rather large size, yellow color and rusty-brown scales make it a noticeable object. The stem is somewhat and the cap very viscid when moist, and this viscidity when dry gives it a shining appearance. The scales of the cap become erect or reflexed and sometimes appear blackish at the tips. They sometimes disappear with age. The flesh is firm and white or whitish. The gills when young are yellow or pale-yellow, but when mature they assume a ferruginous or rusty color like that of the spores. The stem is similar in color to the cap, but paler or nearly white at the top and usually reddish-brown or rusty-brown at the base. The collar is slight and often scarcely noticeable in mature specimens.

The Cap is 2–4 in. broad, the Stem 2–4 in. long and 4–6 lines thick. The plants commonly grow in tufts on stumps or dead trunks of deciduous trees in or near woods. They may be found from September to November. It is well to peel the caps before cooking. This species is not classed as edible by European authors, but I find its flavor agreeable and its substance digestible and harmless. Peck, 49th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores 8×5µ W.G.S.; elliptical, ferruginous, 7×3µ Massee.

Mt. Gretna, Pa. October until after frost. About trees and stumps and on logs. McIlvaine.

P. adiposa yields a substantial substance of good flavor.

277P. flam´mans Fr.—flamma, flame. Pileus 2–4 in. broad, yellow-tawny, fleshy, convex then plane, somewhat umbonate, absolutely dry, sprinkled with superficial, pilose, somewhat concentric, paler or sulphur-yellow, rough or curly scales; margin at first inflexed, then spread when larger. Flesh thin, light yellow. Stem 3 in. long, 2–3 lines thick, stuffed then hollow, equal, most frequently flexuous, very light yellow as are also the crowded rough scales. Ring membranaceous, entire, not far removed from the pileus, of the same color. Gills adnate and without a tooth, somewhat thin, crowded, at the first bright sulphur-yellow, at length rust-color, edge quite entire.

Pileus by no means hygrophanous. It is distinguished from all others by the sulphur-yellow scales on the tawny pileus. Forming small clusters. Inodorous. The ring is sometimes only indicated by an annular zone. Fries.

Spores ellipsoid, 4×2µ K.; ellipsoid, 3–4×2–2.5µ C.B.P.; 4×2µ W.P.; 8×4µ Massee.

Quite plentiful in the New Jersey pines, from October until after heavy frosts. Caps seldom over 3 in. across. Solitary, and in clusters of not over half a dozen.

The caps fried are delicious.

P. luteofo´lia Pk.—luteus, yellow; folium, a leaf. Pileus firm, convex, dry, scaly, fibrillose on the margin, pale-red or yellowish. Lamellæ broad, subdistant, emarginate, serrate on the edge, yellow, becoming bright rust-color. Stem firm, fibrillose, solid, colored like the pileus, often curved from the place of growth. Ring obsolete. Spores bright rust-color, 7×4µ.

Plant subcespitose, 2–3 in. high. Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 3–5 lines thick.

Trunks of birch trees. Forestburgh. September.

The general appearance of this plant is like A. variegatus or reddish forms of A. multipunctus. The reddish color appears sometimes to fade with age. Peck, 27th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Eagle’s Mere, Pa. In clusters, on birch trees. August, 1898. McIlvaine.

Grows in quantity in the birch forests. The caps are delicious.

278P. ornel´la Pk. (Agaricus ornellus Pk., 34 Rep., p. 42.) Pileus convex or nearly plane, slightly squamose, reddish-brown tinged with purple, the margin paler, floccose-appendiculate. Gills moderately close, yellowish or pallid, becoming brown. Stem equal or slightly thickened upward, solid, squamulose, pale-yellow, sometimes expanded at the base into a brownish disk margined with yellowish filaments. Spores brown, elliptical, 6–7.5×4–5µ.

Plant 1–2 in. high. Pileus about 1 in. broad. Stem 1 line to 1.5 lines thick.

Decaying wood. South Ballston, Saratoga county. October.

The scales of the pileus are sometimes arranged in concentric circles. The purplish tint is not always uniform, but in some instances forms spots or patches. Peck, 34th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Specimens, clustered, found by me on railroad ties at Haddonfield, N.J., September, 1897, had caps 1–1½ in. broad, of a dull green without tinge of purple; skin minutely cracked, showing the white flesh in the interstices; stem 1–2 in. long, 3–4 lines thick, slightly thickened upward, pale orange, solid, squamulose; ring floccose; taste when raw, slightly bitter. These were sent to Professor Peck who wrote: “Appears to be a form of P. ornella Pk., but it differs some in color, being more of a green hue than of purple or olivaceous. It is pretty and I would like to know more about it before deciding on it fully.”

I have not since found it. Very palatable when cooked.

*** Hygrophani. Gills cinnamon, etc.

P. muta´bilis Schaeff.—changeable. Pileus about 2 in. broad, cinnamon when moist, becoming pale when dry, hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, convex then flattened, commonly obtusely umbonate, sometimes depressed, even and smooth, but when young occasionally scaly throughout. Stem about 2–3 in. long, 2 lines and more thick, rigid, stuffed then hollow, equal or attenuated downward, scaly-rough as far as the ring, rust-color, blackish or umber downward, often ascending or twisted. Ring membranaceous, externally scaly. Gills adnato-decurrent, crowded, rather broad, pallid then cinnamon. Stevenson.

Densely cespitose, variable in stature.

Spores ellipsoid-obovate, 6×11µ W.G.S.; 7×4µ W.P; 9–11×5–6µ Massee; 11×7µ Morgan.

Edible. Curtis. Considered excellent in Europe.

279P. margina´ta Batsch.—marginatus, margined. Pileus 1 in. and more broad, honey-colored when moist, tan when dry, hygrophanous, slightly fleshy, convex then expanded, obtuse, even, smooth, margin striate. Stem about 2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, tubed, equal, fibrillose or slightly striate, not scaly, of the same color as the pileus, but becoming dingy-brown, and commonly white velvety at the base. Ring 1–2 lines distant from the apex, often in the form of a cortina and fugacious. Gills adnate, crowded, thin, narrow, at first pallid, then darker cinnamon.

It varies much, and is deceptive on account of the vanishing veil. In hedges there is a very small cespitose form with the pileus only ½ in. broad, and the stem tough and smooth, with exception of the remains of the fugacious cortina. There also occur on the ground among mosses smaller and paler forms, which must be carefully distinguished from A. unicolor, etc. Stevenson.

Spores 7–8×4µ Massee.

Haddonfield, N.J., November, December, 1896. In pine woods. McIlvaine.

The caps of this small Pholiota, seldom over 1 ½ in. across, can be gathered in goodly numbers where it frequents. They are of excellent quality.

P. dis´color Pk.—changing color. Pileus thin, convex, then expanded or slightly depressed, smooth, viscid, hygrophanous, watery-cinnamon and striatulate on the margin when moist; bright ochraceous-yellow when dry. Lamellæ close, narrow, pallid then pale rust-color. Stem equal, hollow, fibrillose-striate, pallid. Ring distinct, persistent. Spores elliptical, 7×5µ.

Plant subcespitose, 2–3 in. high. Pileus 8–16 lines broad. Stem 1 line thick.

Old logs in woods. Greig. September.

The change of color from the moist to the dry state is very marked. This species resembles Agaricus autumnalis, in which the annulus is fugacious and the spores are longer. The edge of the gills in both is white-flocculose. Peck, 25th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Two forms of this species are found. One has a scattered form of growth, the other found on decaying wood of birch is cespitose. The 280species is allied to P. marginata, from which it is readily distinguished by its viscid pileus. Peck, Rep. 44.

Var. discolor minor Pk. Small. Pileus 6–10 lines broad, chestnut color when young or moist. Stem about 1 line thick, at first clothed with whitish fibrils.

Among mosses about or on the base of stumps. September. Peck, Rep. 46.

West Virginia. Eagle’s Mere, Mt. Gretna, Pa. August to frost. On decaying wood. McIlvaine.

This little Pholiota is abundant where it does grow. In the West Virginia forests I have seen logs with many tufts of it upon each. The caps are fairly good.

Gr—fiber; Gr—head.

(Plate LXXV.)

Inocybe lanuginosa.
One-fourth natural size.

Universal veil somewhat fibrillose, concrete with the cuticle of the pileus, often free at the margin, in the form of a cortina. Gills somewhat sinuate (but they occur also adnate and in two species decurrent), changing color, but not powdered with cinnamon. Spores often rough, but in others even, more or less brownish-rust color.

Inocybe (with Hebeloma) corresponds with Tricholoma. Inocybe and Hebeloma have some common features, but they are really very distinct. Inocybe is readily distinguished by the fibrillose covering of the pileus, which never has a distinct pellicle, by the veil which is continuous and homogeneous with the fibrils of the pileus, and by the rusty-brown spores. All grow on the ground. They are (mostly) strong-smelling (commonly nauseous). None are edible. Stevenson.

None reported as either edible or poisonous. Those I have tested are not pleasant.

Dim. of pluteus, a shed.

Pileus conical or bell-shaped, then expanded, rather fleshy, viscid, margin at first straight and pressed to the stem. Gills free, rounded behind. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, its substance different from that of the pileus.

Growing on wood.

Spores rust or saffron color. Pluteus, the only genus having the same structure, is separated by its salmon-colored spores.

(Plate LXXVI.)

Pluteolus reticulatus.
About natural size.

P. reticula´tus Pers.—rete, a net. From the net-work of veins on the pileus. Pileus slightly fleshy, bell-shaped, then expanded, sticky, reticulate with anastomosing veins, pale violaceous, striate on the margin. Lamellæ free, ventricose, crowded, rusty-saffron. Stem hollow, fragile, fibrillose, mealy at the top, white. Spores elliptical, ferruginous, 10–13×5–6.5µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–2 in. long, 1–2 lines thick.

Decaying wood. Cattaraugus county. September.

The specimens which I have referred to this species appear to be a small form with the pileus scarcely more than an inch broad and merely wrinkled on the disk, not distinctly reticulate as in the type. In the dried specimens the pileus has assumed a dark violaceous color. The dimensions of the spores have been taken from the American plant. I do not find them given by any European author. Peck, 46th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

In October, 1897, P. reticulatus grew in large quantities on a fallow lot close by the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. The lot was thickly covered with tall heavy-stemmed weeds, a mat of which, from the year before was present. The reticulations upon the cap are intricate and distinct. I have not seen it since.

The whole plant is tender and of fine flavor.

Hebe, youth; loma, fringe.

Partial veil fibrillose or absent. Pileus smooth, continuous, somewhat viscid, margin at first incurved. Flesh of stem continuous with that of the pileus; fleshy, fibrous, clothed, top rather mealy. Gills attached, notched at the stem, edge inclined to be pale. Spores clay-colored.

On the ground.

Closely allied to Inocybe, formerly included in Hebeloma, but differing in the character of the cuticle of the pileus which in Inocybe is scaly or fibrillose. Many of the species are strong in smell and taste. None have hitherto been considered edible and some have been regarded as poisonous.

Indusiati (indusium, a garment). Page 283.

Furnished with a ring from the manifest veil, which often makes the margin of the pileus superficially silky.

Denudati (denudo, to lay bare). Page 286.

Pileus smooth. Veil absent. None known to be edible.

Pusillus (pusus, a little boy).

Pileus scarcely an inch broad. None known to be edible.

The writer has not as yet investigated the edible qualities of this genus to his satisfaction. Much work remains to be done. But two species of Hebeloma are given as edible. They are good, but do not rank above second-class. Several others have been tested, but not in sufficient quantity to report upon their quality with perfect safety. So far as tested the species have been harmless.

Indusia´ti. With a ring, etc.

H. mus´sivum Fr.—mussivus, undecided. (Uncertain in generic place.) Pileus 2–4 in. broad, either of one color, yellow or darker at the disk which is like a smooth sugar-cake, fleshy, compact, firm, convex 284then plane, unequal, very obtuse, viscid, at first smooth and even, margin bent inward, even, then commonly turning upward and broken up into scales. Flesh thick, becoming yellow. Stem 4 in. long, commonly 1 in. thick, very fleshy, sometimes stuffed, sometimes hollow at the top, equal or broad in the middle, wholly fibrillose and powdered at the top, light yellow. Veil fibrillose, very evanescent. Gills emarginate, somewhat crowded, 3 lines broad, dry (not distilling drops), at first light yellow, then together with the spores somewhat rust-colored.

Odor weak, not unpleasant. Very distinct. It departs widely from all the following species in its habit and bright colors. The habit is that of a Flammula or Cortinarius, but the gills are emarginate and not powdered; from the turned up pileus and from the stem being powdered at the top, and from other marks it is to be referred to Hebeloma. Fries.

Spores elliptical, 12×6µ Massee.

New Jersey, Haddonfield. Under pine trees. Solitary. Frequent. September, 1896. McIlvaine.

Not previously reported.

Taste, even raw, is pleasant. It is meaty and the meat is good. It requires slow cooking and is best chopped fine and served in patties or croquettes.

(Plate LXXVIa.)

Hebeloma fastibile.
One-fourth natural size.

H. fasti´bile Fr.—fastidibilis, loathsome. From the smell. Pileus 2 in. and more broad, pale yellowish, tan or becoming pale, compactly fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse, somewhat wavy, even, smooth, the turned-in margin downy. Stem 2–3 in. long, ½ in. thick, solid, wholly fleshy-fibrous, stout, somewhat bulbous, often twisted, everywhere white-silky and fibrillose, white, but varying pallid, white-scaly upward. Cortina remarkable, white, occasionally in the form of a ring. Gills remarkably emarginate, somewhat distant, rather broad, at first becoming pale-white, then dingy clay-color, edge whitish, distilling drops in rainy weather.

Somewhat cespitose. Odor and taste of radish, bitterish. Like A. 285crustiliniformis; the odor is the same except that it is stronger, but it differs conspicuously in the manifest veil and somewhat distant gills.

Var. al´ba, stem longer, equal, somewhat hollow, fibrous-scaly at the apex, gills distant. A. spiloleucus Krombh., A. sulcatus Lindgr. is an elegant form with the margin of the pileus sulcate or rugoso-plicate.

In mixed woods. Common. July to October. Stevenson.

Spores 11×8µ W.G.S.; elliptical, pointed, 10×8µ Morgan.

Var. elegans. Pileus purple-brown.

This sometimes appears on disused mushroom beds in large quantities, but the method by which the spores gain access is involved in darkness.

“A very suspicious species and has the reputation of being noxious.” Cooke.

“There is considerable external resemblance between this and A. campestris. No fungus is so often mistaken for A. campestris as this dangerous plant.” W.G. Smith.

This species is considered noxious abroad. No test is reported of its qualities here.

I have not seen it.

H. glutino´sum Lind.—gluten, glue. (Plate LXXI, fig. 1, p. 268.) Pileus about 3 in. broad, yellow-white, the disk darker, fleshy, convex then plane, regular, obtuse, with a tenacious viscous gluten, and slimy in wet weather, sprinkled with white superficial scales. Flesh whitish, becoming light-yellow. Stem 3 in. long, stuffed, firm, somewhat bulbous, white-scaly and fibrillose, and white-mealy at the top, often rough with bundles of hairs at the base, at length rust-color within. Partial thread-like veil manifest, in the form of a cortina. Gills sinuato-adnate, somewhat decurrent, crowded, broad, pallid then light-yellowish, at length clay-cinnamon. Odor peculiar, mild.

On branches and among leaves, oak and beech. Frequent. September to December. Stevenson.

Spores 5×4µ W.P.; plum-shaped, 7µ Q.; elliptical, 10–12×5µ Massee; ellipsoid, 6–7×3–4µ K.

New York. Among fallen leaves and half-buried decaying wood, in thin woods. Conklingville. September. In wet weather the gluten is sufficiently copious to drop from the pileus. Peck, Rep. 40.

Haddonfield, N.J., among leaves in mixed woods. Frequent. 1896. 286Mt. Gretna, Pa., among leaves under oaks. Frequent. September to November. McIlvaine.

Caps 1½-3 in. across. Remarkably glutinous, shining as if varnished when wet. Partial veil not always noticeable.

The odor and taste are pleasant. The caps when well cooked are meaty, good, but of second quality.

Denuda´ti. Pileus smooth, etc.

H. crustulinifor´me Bull.—crustulum, a small pie; forma, form. Pileus pale-whitish tan, most frequently pale-yellowish or brick-color at the disk, fleshy, convexo-plane, obtuse or slightly gibbous with an obtuse umbo, somewhat spreading with an uneven margin, even, smooth, at first slightly viscid, not zoned. Flesh transparent when moist. Stem stuffed then hollow, stout, somewhat bulbous, white, naked, white-scaly at the top. Gills rounded-adnexed, crowded, narrowed, 1 line broad and linear, thin, whitish then clay-color, at length date-brown, the unequal edge distilling watery drops in wet weather, spotted when dry.

Veil quite wanting. Odor strong, fetid, of radish. Very variable in stature; the stem, however, is never elongated as in A. elatus, etc.; in smaller specimens equal, pileus regular, gills almost adnate.

In mixed woods. Common. August to November. Stevenson.

Spores ellipsoid, 10–12×5–7µ K.; 9×5µ W.G.S.

Var. mi´nor Cke. Smaller than the type.

Minnesota, common in woods, Johnson; California, H. and M.; Wisconsin, Bundy; New Jersey, Ellis; Vermont, Burt (Lloyd); New York, Peck, 41st Rep.; Mt. Gretna, Pa., November, 1898. In woods. McIlvaine.

But one specimen found and that was sent to Professor Peck. Taste bitter.

Regarded as poisonous by European writers. It is not reported as tested in America.

Flamma, a flame.
(In reference to the bright colors of many of the species.)

Pileus fleshy, margin at first turned inward. Veil fibrillose or none. Stem fleshy-fibrous, not mealy at the top. Gills decurrent or attached without a tooth. Spores mostly pure rust color; some brownish-rust, others tawny-ochraceous.

A few species grow on the ground, the majority on wood.

Gymnoti (naked). Page 288.

Pileus dry, generally scaly. Spores not yellowish.

Lubrici (lubricus, slimy). Page 289.

Pileus covered with a continuous, viscid, smooth, partly separable cuticle. Veil fibrillose. Spores not yellowish. Gregarious, on the ground, rarely on wood. Distinguished from Hebeloma by the gills not being sinuate and the top of the stem not mealy.

Udi (udus, moist). Page 290.

Veil slight, generally hanging in fragments. Cuticle of the pileus continuous, not separable, smooth, in places superficially downy, moist or slightly viscid in rainy weather. Spores not yellowish. Cespitose, growing on wood.

Sapinei (sapinus, pine). Page 291.

Veil silky, very slight, adpressed to the stem or forming a silky ring on it. Cuticle of pileus thin, the flesh splitting at the surface into scales, not viscid. Distinguished by the gills and spores being light yellow or tawny. Somewhat cespitose; always on pine or on the ground among pine branches.

Sericelli (sericeus, silky).

Cuticle of the pileus slightly silky, dry or at the first viscid.

None known to be edible.

288The genus Flammula is not represented in our territory by a large number of species. It is, nevertheless, not very sharply distinct from the allied genera, Pholiota, Hebeloma and Naucoria. From Pholiota it is especially separated by the slight development of the veil which is merely fibrillose or entirely wanting. It never forms a persistent membranous collar on the stem. From Hebeloma it may be distinguished by the absence of a sinus at or near the inner extremity of the gills, by the absence of white particles or mealiness from the upper part of the stem and by the brighter or more distinctly rusty or ochraceous color of the spores. From Naucoria the fleshy or fibrously fleshy stem affords the most available distinguishing character. The genus belongs to the Ochrosporæ or ochraceous-spored series, but the spores of its species vary in color from ochraceous or tawny-ochraceous to rust-color or brownish-rust color. The three things to be especially kept in mind in order to recognize the species are the color of the spores, the adnate or decurrent but not clearly sinuate gills and the fleshy or fibrously fleshy stem without a membranous ring.

Our species are mostly of medium size, none being very small and one only meriting the appellation large. They appear chiefly in late summer or in autumn and grow in woods or in wooded regions either on the ground or more often on decaying wood. Many are gregarious or cespitose in their mode of growth. Some have a bitterish or unpleasant flavor and none of our species has yet been classed as edible. Fries arranged the species in five groups, of which the names and more prominent characters are here given. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

The few species which the writer has found to be edible, and the two new species found by him, were tested after the publication of the above. Several of the species found are not mentioned herein for the reason that a sufficient quantity was not obtained to make certain their quality as a food. The bitterness, as far as observed, with which most of the species are tainted disappears in cooking.

Gymno´ti. Veil absent, pileus dry, etc.

F. alie´na Pk. Pileus thin, flexible, broadly convex, umbilicate, dry, bare, slightly striate on the margin when old, grayish or pale grayish-brown. Flesh white, fibrous. Gills thin, subdistant, bow-shaped, decurrent, ochraceous-brown. Stem firm, fibrous-striate, solid, 289slightly tapering upward, colored like the pileus, covered at the base with a dense white tomentum. Spores rusty-brown, globose, 5µ broad.

Pileus 3–5 cm. broad. Stem 5 cm. long, 4–6 mm. thick.

Gregarious on partly burned anthracite coal, Mt. Gretna, Pa. September. C. McIlvaine.

The species is peculiar in its color and habitat. In the dried specimen the gills have assumed a brown color with no ochraceous tint. Mr. McIlvaine remarks that it is an edible species, dries well, and is excellent when cooked. Its relationship is with F. anomala Pk., but it is a larger plant with darker color and a different habitat. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 26, F. 1899.

It grows on partly burned anthracite coal, not buried, as printed in the Torrey Bulletin. The mycelium completely involves the pieces of coal, holding them tightly in its meshes. Patches of it were strictly limited to the size of the ash-pile containing the partly burned coal. Quite fifty were found.

As stated, it is edible, and it is of remarkably fine substance for a Flammula.

Lu´brici. Pileus viscid, etc.

F. edu´lis Pk.—eatable. Pileus fleshy, convex, obtuse, glabrous, moist, brown, grayish-brown or yellowish-brown, sometimes rimose. Flesh whitish. Lamellæ rather broad, close, decurrent, bright tan color, becoming brownish-rusty. Stems cespitose, equal, stuffed or hollow, brown. Spores subelliptical, 13×5–6µ.

Pileus 2–3 in. broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Grassy ground, along pavements, in gutters and by the side of wooden frames of hotbeds. Haddonfield, N.J. October. C. McIlvaine.

The collector of this species informs me that the flavor of the fresh plant is slightly bitter, but that this disappears in cooking and the fungus furnishes a very good and tender article of food. Successive crops continued to appear for a month. In the dried specimens the stem is striate. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 24, No. 3.

This new species appears annually in the same place. I have not found it elsewhere. It is meaty and excellent.

290Udi. Pileus smooth, not viscid; veil fragmentary, etc.
(Plate LXXVIb.

Flammula alnicola.
Two-thirds natural size.

F. alni´cola Fr.—alnus, alder; colo, to inhabit. Pileus 2–3 in. broad, yellow, at length becoming rust-color and sometimes green, fleshy, convex then flattened, obtuse, slimy when moist, but not truly viscous, at the first superficially fibrillose toward the margin. Flesh not very compact, of the same color as the pileus. Stem 2–3 in. and more long, ½ in. thick, stuffed then hollow, attenuato-rooted, commonly curved-flexuous, fibrillose, at first yellow, then becoming rust-color. Veil manifest, sometimes fibrillose, sometimes woven into a spider-web veil. Gills somewhat adnate, broad, plane, at first dingy-pallid or yellowish-pallid, at length together with the plentiful spores rust-colored.

The gills vary decurrent and rounded according to situation. Odor and taste bitter. There are two forms: a. Pileus irregular, fibrillose round the margin; gills at first dingy-pallid. b. Salicicola, pileus somewhat convex, smooth, rarely at the first downy-scaly; gills at first yellowish-pallid. Fries.

Spores subelliptical, 8×5µ K.; 8–10×5–6µ Peck.

New York, swampy woods about base of alders, October, Peck, Rep. 35; at base of alders, with adnate gills, and on birch stumps, with the gills rounded behind, Rep. 39. Mt. Gretna, Pa., New Jersey, mixed woods, August to November, 1898, McIlvaine.

Gregarious and in loose tufts, not plentiful. It is a pretty plant, usually of a bright yellow, sometimes darker at the center of cap. Traces of an evanescent fibrillose ring are occasionally found or the fibrils adorn the margin of the cap. The gills next to the stem are either rounded, attached or slightly decurrent.

Raw the taste is slightly bitter. This disappears in long cooking.

291F. fla´vida Schaeff. (Pers.)—flavidus, light yellow. Pileus fleshy, thin, broadly convex or nearly plane, glabrous, moist, pale yellow. Flesh whitish or pale yellow, taste bitter. Lamellæ moderately close, adnate, pale or yellowish becoming rust-color. Stem equal, often more or less curved, hollow, fibrillose, whitish or pale yellow, with a white mycelium at the base. Spores 8×5µ.

Pileus 1–2 in. broad. Stem 1–3 in. long, 1–3 lines thick.

Decaying wood of various trees. Commonly in wooded or mountainous districts. Summer and autumn.

Our specimens were found on wood of both coniferous and deciduous trees. The plants are sometimes cespitose. The pileus becomes more highly colored in drying. The spores are pale rust-colored approaching ochraceous. In Sylloge the spores of this species are described as pale yellowish. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Spores broadly elliptical, 6–8×5µ Massee.

New York, decaying wood, Peck, Rep. 32, 50; Mrs. E.C. Anthony, August. West Virginia, 1881–1885; Mt. Gretna, Pa. August to October. McIlvaine.

F. flavida is a frequent species, gregarious and tufted on decaying wood, either standing, fallen, or as roots in the ground. The texture and substance are good. The slight bitter when raw disappears in cooking. The caps, only, are tender.

Sapin´ei. Gills and spores yellowish, etc.

F. hy´brida Fr.—hybrida, a hybrid. Pileus about 2 in. broad, at first tawny-cinnamon, then tawny-orange, fleshy, hemispherical with the margin involute, then expanded, obtuse, regular and well formed, even, smooth, moist. Flesh moderately compact, pallid. Stem 2–3 in. long, 4–5 lines thick, at first stuffed with a soft pith, then hollow, attenuated (almost conico-attenuated) upward, whitish with adpressed silky-hairy down (becoming tawny when the down is rubbed off) slightly striate, with white hairs at the base, and somewhat mealy at the apex. Veil manifest in the form of an annular zone at the apex of the stem, white or at length colored with the spores. Gills adnate, somewhat crowded, light yellow then tawny, not spotted. Fries.

Spores elliptical, tawny-ochraceous, 7–8×4–5µ Massee; 6×4µ W.P.

292Mt. Gretna, Pa., August, September, 1898. On ground under pine trees. Gregarious. W.H. Rorer. Not elsewhere reported.

This is a handsome plant, quite prolific in the large pine groves at Mt. Gretna, Pa. The caps are of good flavor.

F. mag´na Pk.—magnus, large. Pileus fleshy, broadly convex, soft, dry, fibrillose and somewhat streaked, pale yellow or buff, the margin commonly becoming revolute with age. Flesh whitish or yellowish. Gills close, adnate or slightly decurrent, often crisped or wavy toward the stem, about three lines wide, ochraceous. Stem equal or thickened toward the base, fleshy-fibrous, solid, elastic, fibrillose, colored like the pileus, brighter yellow within. Spores subelliptical, ochraceous, 10×6µ.

Cespitose. Pileus 4–6 in. broad. Stem 3–4 in. long, 8–12 lines thick.

About the base of trees. Westchester county. October.

This is a large and showy species. The stems are sometimes united at the base into a solid mass. The young gills are probably yellow, but I have seen only mature specimens. Peck, 50th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

New Jersey, Trenton, ground in clearing, in pairs and singly. November, E.B. Sterling; Mt. Gretna, Pa. Mixed thin woods. October to November. Near trees. Cespitose, McIlvaine.

Individuals of all ages were found and eaten. The young gills are very light yellow, darkening to a deep, rich yellow.

The caps are of good substance and flavor. When very young the stems are edible.

Tuba, a trumpet.

(Plate LXXVII.)

Tubaria furfuracea.
Natural size.

Stem somewhat cartilaginous, fistulose. Pileus somewhat membranaceous, often clothed with the universal floccose veil. Gills somewhat decurrent. Spores rust-color or (in Phæoti) brownish-rust color.

The species referred to this subgenus were taken from Naucoria and Galera because they correspond with Omphalia and Eccilia. The pileus is, however, distinctly umbilicate or depressed in only a few of them; the others are placed here on account of their somewhat decurrent gills, which are broadest behind and triangular. Fries.

Small and unimportant.

Naucum, a nut-shell.

(Plate LXXVIII.)

Naucoria semi-orbicularis.
Natural size.

Pileus more or less fleshy, conical or convex, then expanded, margin at first incurved. Gills free or adnate, not decurrent. Veil fugacious or absent, sometimes attached in minute flakes to the edge of the young pileus. Stem cartilaginous, hollow or with a spongy stuffing. Growing on wood or on the ground, sometimes rooted. Spores various shades of brown, dull or bright.

Naucoria corresponds with Collybia, Leptonia and Psilocybe; from the latter it is distinguished by the spore colors and from Galera in the brown-spored series by the margin of the pileus being at first incurved.

“The spores are rust-color, or brownish rust-color. The color of the pileus is some shade of yellow. The stem is not distinctly ringed, but sometimes a slight spore-stained band marks the place of the obsolete ring.” Peck, 23d Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

The members of this genus are with two or three exceptions very common, and common over the land. The greater number grow on the ground among grass; a few grow upon decaying wood. The stems are not of the same texture as the cap and frequently will not cook tender. The caps, however, are, of all species tested, tender and of good flavor. Species of the genus are among the first to appear in spring, and well reward the enterprising mycophagist for his early tramps.

Gymnoti (Gr—naked). Page 295.

Pileus smooth. Veil absent. Spores rust-color, not becoming dusky-rust-color.

295Phæoti (Gr—dusky). Page 296.

Pileus smooth. Gills and spores dusky rust-color. Veil rarely manifest.

Lepidoti (lepis, a scale).

Pileus flocculose or squamulose. Veil manifest.

None known to be edible.


N. hama´dryas Fr.—Gr, a nymph attached to her tree. Pileus 1½-2 in. broad, bay-brown-ferruginous when young and moist, pale yellowish when old and becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex then expanded, gibbous, even, smooth. Stem 2–3 in. long, 3 lines thick, somewhat fragile, hollow, equal, naked, smooth, pallid. Gills attenuato-adnexed, somewhat free, slightly ventricose, almost 2 lines broad, crowded, rust-color, opaque. Veil none. Widely removed from neighboring species. Pileus somewhat separate as in Plutei. Fries.

Spores elliptical, rust-color, 13–14×7µ Massee.

Haddonfield, N.J. Frequent. Solitary. On ground along pavements, under trees, in woods. Spring to autumn. McIlvaine.

Massee gives it as hygrophanous. I have not found it so. It is moist after rain and dew.

The caps and upper part of the stem are tender, easily cooked and of good flavor.

N. cero´des Fr. Gr—wax. Pileus ½-1 in. broad, watery cinnamon when moist, tan-color when dry, somewhat membranaceous, convex bell-shape and flattened, at length depressed, obtuse, when moist smooth, pellucid-striate at the circumference, when dry even, slightly silky-atomate. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, slightly firm, tubed, equal, somewhat flexuous, fibrilloso-striate under a lens, becoming dingy bay-brown sometimes for the most part, sometimes only at the base, pallid upward, mealy at the apex. Gills adnate, separating, very broad behind, hence almost triangular, somewhat distant, broad, plane, soft, distinct, pallid then cinnamon very finely fimbriated at the edge under a lens. Fries.

The typical form, growing among damp mosses, is quite early, gregarious, with the colors almost those of Galera hypnorum, but otherwise 296very different. b. Another form occurs on naked, commonly burnt soil, in late autumn, with almost the habit of N. pediades, but with a different color of gills and spores; this form is firmer. Stem 1 in. long, tense and straight, and color more ochraceous. Stevenson.

SporesB. and Br.; smooth, 6×3µ Massee.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in grass and moss, along damp wood margins. August to October. McIlvaine.

N. cerodes is not plentiful where I have found it. Enough has been collected at a time to prove it esculent. It is tender, but has not much flavor.

(Plate LXXVIIIa.)

Naucoria striapes.

N. stri´apes Cke.—stria, a line; pes, a foot. Pileus 1–1½ in. broad, ochraceous, bell-shaped, obtuse, then expanded, smooth, even. Stem 2–3 in. long, 2 lines thick, hollow, equal, erect or flexuous, white, longitudinally striate. Gills slightly adnate behind, rather distant, tawny rust-color.

Cespitose or gregarious. Among grass on lawn. Stevenson.

Spores narrowly elliptical, 10–12×4µ Massee.

New Jersey, Trenton. Growing among leaves near dump. May to November. E.B. Sterling.

The few specimens tested were delicate and of slight flavor.


N. pedi´ades Fr.—Gr, a plain. Pileus 1–2 in. broad, yellow or pale yellowish-ochraceous then becoming pale, slightly fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, even, dry, smooth, at length crookedly cracked, but always without striæ. Flesh white. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1–2 lines thick, stuffed with a pith, somewhat flexuous, tough, equal, but with a small bulb at the base, slightly silky becoming even, yellowish. Gills adnexed, 2 lines broad, at first crowded, at length somewhat distant, somewhat dingy-brown, then dingy cinnamon.

297Spores brownish-rust-color. The small bulb at the base is formed by the mycelium being rolled together. Stature variable. Fries.

Spores dingy rust-color, elliptical, 10–12×4–5µ Massee.

West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, in grassy places, pastures and along pavements. Common. May to November. McIlvaine.

In 1897 Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, abounded with N. pediades, which were collected and eaten by many. The caps are tender and of a mushroom flavor.

N. semi-orbicula´ris Bull.—semi, half; orbicularis, round. (Plate LXXVIII, p. 294.) Pileus 1–2 in. broad, tawny rust-color then ochraceous, slightly fleshy, convexo-expanded, obtuse, dry, even, smooth, corrugated when dry. Stem 3–4 in. long, scarcely beyond 1 line thick, cartilaginous, tough, slender, tense and straight, equal, even, smooth, becoming pallid rust-color, shining, often darker at the base, internally containing a separate narrow tube which is easily broken up into fibrils. Gills adnate, rarely sinuate behind, almost 3 lines broad, and many times broader than the flesh of the pileus, crowded, pallid then rust-color.

The pileus is slightly viscid when fresh and moist. Easily distinguished from S. semi-globatus, with which it has been confounded, by the stem. Stevenson.

Spores 14×8µ W.G.S.; 10×5–6µ Massee.

Allied to N. pediades, distinguished by its viscid cap when moist, and dark stem.

Common over the states. Washington, D.C., Mrs. Mary Fuller.

West Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, New Jersey. Solitary, sometimes cespitose, very common on lawns, rich pastures, etc. April until frost. McIlvaine.

This is one of our first appearing toadstools, coming up when the grass shows its full spring hue. It is found after rains until the coming of frost. Its hemispherical caps, precise, neat, dark gills and brown spores readily distinguish it. While usually small, patience and picking will soon gather quarts. The caps cook easily and are of excellent flavor.

N. platysper´ma Pk.—platys, broad; sperma, seed. Pileus convex, becoming nearly plane, glabrous, slightly tinged with ochraceous or reddish-yellow when young, soon whitish, the margin at first adorned with 298vestiges of a white flocculent veil. Flesh white. Lamellæ moderately close, slightly rounded behind, pallid, becoming brownish. Stem equal, stuffed with a white pith, slightly flocculent or furfuraceous above when young, whitish, the mycelium sometimes forming white thread-like strands. Spores broadly elliptical, 15µ long, 12.5µ broad.

Pileus 1–1.5 in. broad. Stem 3–5.5 in. long, 1.5–2 in. thick.

On the ground. Compton, Cal. Prof. A.J. McClatchie.

This species differs from N. pediades and N. semi-orbicularis, to which it is related, by its larger, broader spores and paler color. Peck, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, Vol. 25, No. 6.

This new species reported from California is so closely allied to N. semi-orbicularis and N. pediades, both of which are edible, that it is here given, that it may be recognized by students on the Pacific coast or wherever it occurs.

299GALE´RA Fr.
Galerus, a cap.

Pileus more or less membranaceous, conical or oval, then expanded, striate, margin at the first straight, then adpressed to the stem. Gills not decurrent. Stem somewhat cartilaginous, continuous with the pileus, but differing in texture, tubular. Veil none or fibrillose. Spores tawny-ochraceous.

Slender, fragile, generally growing on the ground.

Galera corresponds with Mycena, Nolanea, Psathyra and Psathyrella, which are distinguished by their spore colors. In the brown-spored series Naucoria is separated by the margin of the pileus being at first incurved, and Tubaria by the decurrent gills.

The genus is composed of small species, but many grow in clusters, and are of a consistency which decreases but little in quick cooking. Those tested are delicate in texture and flavor.

G. lateri´tia Fr.—later, a brick. Pileus 1 in. high, pale yellowish when moist, ochraceous when dry, hygrophanous, membranaceous, acorn-shaped then bell-shaped, obtuse, even, smooth, slightly and densely striate at the margin when moist. Stem 3 in. and more long, 1 line thick, tubular, attenuated upward, tense and straight, even, but white-pruinose, whitish. Gills adnexed in the top of the cone, hence appearing as if free, ascending, very narrow, crowded, cinnamon.

Gills almost adpressed to the stem, almost pendulous. Remarkably analogous with A. ovalis, but easily distinguished by the linear gills and the absence of a veil; very fragile. Fries.

Spores 11×5µ W.P.; 11–12×5–6µ Massee.

West Virginia, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania. On dung and rich pastures. June to frost. McIlvaine.

The narrow conical cap, distinctly striate, distinguishes this species from G. tenera. In quality there is no difference. It is a well-flavored, delicate species.


(Plate LXXIX.)

Galera tenera.
Two-thirds natural size.

G. te´nera Schaeff.—tener, tender. Pileus ½ in. and more high, of one color, pallid rust-color when damp, becoming pale when dry, hygrophanous, somewhat membranaceous, conico-bell-shaped, commonly smooth, slightly striate when moist, wholly even when dry, opaque, somewhat atomate. Stem commonly 3–4 in. long, 1 line thick, tubular, fragile, equal or when larger thickened downward, tense and straight, somewhat shining, striate upward, of the same color as the pileus when moist, and like it becoming pale when dry. Gills adnate in the top of the cone, appearing as if free, ascending, somewhat crowded, linear, cinnamon.

Pastures and grassy places in woods. Common. May to November. Stevenson.

Spores ellipsoid, 14–21×8–12µ K.; 14–8µ W.G.S.; 14×7µ W.P.; 12–13×7µ Massee; elliptical, dark rust-color, almost rubiginous, 13–16.5×8–10µ Peck.

Var. pilosella (Agaricus pilosellus Pers.), has both pileus and stem clothed with a minute erect pubescence when moist. A form is sometimes found in which the center of the pileus is brown or blackish-brown. Peck, 46th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Var. obscu´rior Pk. A notable form of this species was found growing in an old stable of an abandoned lumber camp. The plants were large, the pileus in some being more than an inch broad, the stems were 3–6 in. long and the color was rust-colored as in G. ovalis, to which the plants might be referred but for the large spores. Essex county. July. I have labeled the specimens variety obscurior. Peck, 50th Rep.

Haddonfield, N.J.; Chester county; West Philadelphia, Pa.; West Virginia. In rich pastures, on lawns, dung in woods. Common. June to October. McIlvaine.

Very variable in size and in color when wet and dry. The color of gills and spores readily distinguishes it in its habitats. From spring to 301frost it can usually be gathered in quantity. It is small, tender, shrivels in cooking, but makes a savory, excellent dish.

Var. obscurior found cespitose on very old manure at a ruined stable, Mt. Gretna, Pa., August. McIlvaine.

G. fla´va Pk.—flavus, yellow. Pileus membranous, ovate or bell shaped, moist or subhygrophanous, obtuse, plicate striate on the margin, yellow. Lamellæ thin, narrow, crowded, adnate, at first whitish, then yellowish-cinnamon. Stem equal or slightly tapering upward, hollow, slightly striate at the top, sprinkled with white mealy particles, white or yellowish. Spores ovate or subelliptical, brownish-rust-color, 13×8µ.

Pileus 6–12 lines broad. Stem 2–3 in. long, 1–1.5 lines thick.

Damp vegetable mold in woods. Tompkins county. July.

This species is well marked by the pale-yellow color of the pileus and its plicate striations which are very distinct even in the dried specimens. They extend half way to the disk or more. When dry the pileus is seen to be sprinkled with shining atoms as in some other species of the same genus. Occasionally the yellow cuticle cracks into squamules or small scales. Peck, 46th Rep.

Trenton, N.J., Sterling; Haddonfield, N.J.; Pennsylvania. Among chips in woods and on woods ground. McIlvaine.

This species is frequent, and when plentiful well worth gathering. It has a more woody flavor than other Galera, but is tasty.

G. vittæfor´mis Fr.—vitta, a chaplet; forma, form. Pileus ½-1 in. broad, date-brown when moist, membranaceous, conical then hemispherical, obtuse, even at the disk, striate toward the margin, smooth. Stem 1½-3 in. long, ½-1 line thick, tubular, equal, somewhat straight, but not tense and straight, smooth or sometimes pubescent, slightly striate under a lens, opaque, rust-color. Veil scarcely conspicuous. Gills adnate, broader at the middle, in the form of a segment when larger, somewhat ascending, somewhat distant, at first watery-cinnamon, at length rust-color. Fries.

Spores elliptical, 12×6µ Massee.

Haddonfield, N.J.; Mt. Gretna, Pa. On pastures, lawns, etc. June to September. McIlvaine.

Not previously reported.

302Though small it makes up in quantity when found. The stems are not as tender as the caps. Quality good.

Gr—cow’s dung.

Pileus membranaceous. Gills adnexed or free, membranaceous, soft, salmon-color or rusty, dissolving (not dripping as in Coprinus), powdered with the rusty spores. Stem central; universal veil absent, partial veil often obsolete.

Very delicate and fragile, remarkable among the Ochrosporæ for the gills dissolving into mucus, and in this respect analogous with Coprinus among the Melanosporæ, and Hiatula amongst the Leucosporæ. Growing on dung or amongst grass where dung abounds.

A small but very natural genus, with the vegetative portion like Coprinus and the fructification resembling Cortinarius, hence occupying an intermediate position between these two genera. Fries.

B. Bol´toni Fr.—after Bolton. Pileus rather fleshy, viscid, at first even, then with the membranaceous margin sulcate, disk darker, subdepressed. Stem attenuated, yellowish, at first floccose from the remains of the fugacious veil. Gills subadnate, yellow then livid-brown. Fries.

Haddonfield, N.J., cespitose among manure on sawdust.

Of small substance but good consistency and flavor.


(Plate LXXX.)

Bolbitius fragilis.
Two-thirds natural size.

B. fra´gilis Fr. Pileus 2 in. broad, light yellow, then becoming pale, somewhat membranaceous, almost pellucid, conical then expanded, somewhat umbonate, smooth, viscous, striate round the margin (which is often crenulated). Stem 3 in. long, 1 line or little more thick, fistulose, attenuated upward, naked, smooth (and without a manifest veil), yellow. Gills attenuato-adnexed, almost free, ventricose, yellow then pale cinnamon. Spores rust-colored. Fries.

Thinner than B. Boltoni, etc., very fragile, rapidly withering.

On dung. Common. June to October. Stevenson.

Spores subspheroid-ellipsoid, elliptical, 7×3–5µ Massee.

West Virginia; Pennsylvania. June to frost. On rich grass and dung.

Pileus usually not over 1.5 in. across. Often in plenty. Its substance does not cook away as with C. micaceus. It amply repays gathering, being highly flavored.

(Plate LXXXa.)

Bolbitius nobilis.
About two-thirds natural size.

B. no´bilis Pk.—noble. Pileus thin, fleshy on the disk, ovate then bell-shaped, smooth, plicate-striate, pale-yellow, the disk tinged with red, the margin at length recurved and splitting. Gills subdistant, tapering outwardly, attached, the alternate ones 304more narrow, pale-yellow with a darker edge. Stem long, equal, smooth, striate at the top, hollow, white.

Plant cespitose, 3–5 in. high. Pileus 1 in. broad. Stem 1 line thick. Ground in woods. Greig. September.

A fine large species, but probably rare. Peck, 24th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

I have not seen this species. Figure after Professor Peck.

Gr—a slipper.

(Plate LXXXI.)

Crepidotus mollis.
Natural size.

Veil wanting or not manifest. Pileus eccentric, lateral or resupinate. Spores rust-color.

The Crepidoti correspond in shape and habit to the smaller Pleuroti and the Claudopodes, but they are distinguished from both by the rust-color of their spores. These are globose in several species, in others they are elliptical. In some there is a depression on one side which gives them a naviculoid character and causes the spore to appear slightly curved when viewed in a certain position. In consequence of the similarity of several of our species, the character of the spores is of much importance in their identification, and it is unfortunate that European mycologists have so generally neglected to give the spore characters in their descriptions of these fungi. In most of the species the pileus is at first resupinate, but it generally becomes reflexed as it enlarges. It is generally sessile or attached by a mass of white fibrils or tomentum. For this reason it is usually somewhat tomentose or villose about the point of attachment, even in species that are otherwise glabrous. In several species the pileus is moist or hygrophanous and then the thin margin is commonly striatulate. This character is attributed to but one of the 305dozen or more European species. Their mode of growth is usually gregarious or somewhat loosely imbricated, in consequence of which the pileus, which in most species is white or yellowish, is often stained by the spores, and then it has a rusty, stained or squalid appearance. The species occur especially on old stumps, prostrate trunks and soft much decayed wood in damp, shaded places. Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

C. ful´vo-tomento´sus Pk.—tawny-tomentose. Pileus ¾-2 in. broad, scattered or gregarious, suborbicular, kidney-shaped or dimidiate, sessile or attached by a short, white-villose tubercle or rudimentary stem, hygrophanous, watery-brown and sometimes striatulate on the margin when moist, whitish, yellowish or pale ochraceous when dry, adorned with small, tawny, hairy or tomentose scales. Lamellæ broad, subventricose, moderately close, rounded behind, radiating from a lateral or eccentric white villose spot, whitish becoming brownish-ferruginous. Spores elliptical often uninucleate, 8–10×5–6µ.

Decaying wood of poplar, maple, etc. Common. June to October.

A pretty species, corresponding in some respects to the European C. calolepis, but much larger and with tawny, instead of reddish scales. The cuticle is separable and is tenacious, though it has a hyaline gelatinous appearance. The pileus is subpersistent, and specimens dried in their place of growth are not rare. Peck, 39th Rep. N.Y. State Bot.

Haddonfield, N.J.; Angora, West Philadelphia. On decaying hickory. McIlvaine.

Substance fair. Taste strong but pleasant.


Grouped by F.D. Briscoe—Studies by C. McIlvaine.            Plate LXXXII.

Fig. Page. Fig. Page.
1. Cortinarius squamulosus, 318 4. Cortinarius turmalis, 309
2. Cortinarius violaceus, 314 5. Cortinarius armillatus, 323
3. Cortinarius ochraceus, 319
Cortina, a veil or curtain.

Veil resembling the consistency of a cob-web, superficial, distinct from the cuticle of the pileus. Flesh of pileus and stem continuous. Gills persistent, dry, changing color, powdered with the spores. Trama fibrillose. Spores globose or oblong, somewhat ochraceous on white paper. Fries.

This genus is not easily confounded with any other, the cob-webby veil stretched from stem to pileus in the young plant not being found in other fungi. This must be looked for only in youth, as from its tender character it soon breaks and often appears only as a very indistinct collar on the stem, colored from catching the falling spores. The colors are generally pronounced and often extremely bright, there being very few prettier toadstools than those inclined to the blue or purple shades, which are not uncommon in the immature form. The color of the spores is also a marked feature, being rusty or brownish-ochraceous, turning the gills to the same color at maturity. On account of this change it is generally necessary to have specimens at both stages of growth to accurately determine the species. The gills are thin, attached to the stem in various manners, rarely slightly decurrent.

Cortinarius is distinguished from Flammula by growing on the ground and by the bright ferruginous color of its spores.

Cortinarius is a sturdy, hardy genus preferring northern latitudes and autumnal months, though several of its species grow as far south as Alabama, and one, a new species described by Professor Peck, is found on the Helderberg mountains in May. The genus contains many species, most of which produce in great numbers, yet being woods-growing, and coming as they do when leaves are falling, they are often missed because of their similarity to their surroundings.

Heretofore, less than a dozen species have been reported as eaten. This number is now doubled. While several species are bitter and others equally unpleasant, not one has been accused of harm. It is highly probable that other varieties than those herein given will prove equally acceptable as food. I have tested all I have found in sufficient quantity to warrant passing judgment upon them.

The genus does not contain as many species of superior excellence as other fleshy genera of like numbers. The flesh is frequently dry and of 307a strong woody or musky flavor, which it does not lose in cooking. The stems are seldom cookable. All can be fried in butter, but cut in small pieces and well stewed, or stewed and served in patties, or made into croquettes are certain ways of keeping them in palate memory.

Phlegmacium (Gr—shiny or clammy moisture). Page 308.

Pileus viscid. Stem firm, dry. Veil partial, cobweb-like.

A. Cliduchii (Gr—holding the keys—the typical subdivision). Page 308.

Partial veil as a ring on the upper part of the stem which is equal or slightly expanded above. Not distinctly bulbous.

* Gills pallid then clay-colored.

** Gills purplish then clay-colored.

B. Scauri (Gr—club-footed). Page 310.

Bulbous. Bulb depressed or top-shaped, with a distinct margin caused by the pressure of the pileus before expansion. Veil generally ascending from the margin of the bulb. Gills somewhat sinuate.

* Gills whitish then cinnamon.

** Gills blue then cinnamon.

*** Gills brownish-white then cinnamon.

Myxacium (Gr—mucus). Page 313.

Universal veil glutinous. Pileus and stem viscid. Stem slightly bulbous. Gills adnate.

Inoloma (Gr—a fibrous fringe). Page 314.

Pileus dry, not hygrophanous or viscid, covered at first with innate silky scales or fibrils, becoming smooth. Veil simple. Pileus and stem fleshy, rather bulbous.

* Gills violaceous, then cinnamon.

** Gills pinkish-brown, then cinnamon.

*** Gills yellow, then cinnamon.

308Dermocybe. Page 320.

Pileus thin, equally fleshy, at first silky with a fine down, becoming smooth when adult. Not hygrophanous, but flesh watery when moist or colored. Stem equal or larger above, externally rigid, elastic or brittle, internally stuffed or hollow. Veil single, thread-like.

Telamonia. Page 323.

Pileus moist, hygrophanous, at first smooth or sprinkled with the whitish superficial evanescent fibrils of the veil. Flesh thin, or when thick it becomes abruptly thin toward the margin, scissile. Stem ringed below or coated from the universal veil, slightly veiled at the apex, hence with almost a double veil.

Hygrocybe. Page 325.

Pileus hygrophanous, smooth or covered with superficial white fibrils, not viscid, moist when fresh, becoming discolored when dry. Flesh very thin or scissile, rarely more compact at the center. Stem rather rigid, bare. Veil thin, rarely collapsing and forming an irregular ring on the stem.

Phlegma´cium. (Gr—clammy moisture.)
A. Cliduchii.
* Gills pallid, then clay-colored.

C. seba´ceus Fr.—sebum, tallow. Pileus 2½-5 in. broad, unicolorous, pale, of the color of tallow, equally fleshy, convex then rather plane, commonly very repand, viscid, smooth, but at the first covered over with a whitish pruinose luster. Flesh white. Stem 3–4 in. long, ½-1 in. thick, solid, stout, compact, never bulbous, often twisted and compressed, slightly fibrillose, pale white. Cortina delicate, fugacious, adhering only to the margin of the pileus. Gills emarginate, not crowded, connected by veins, 4 lines broad, clay-color or pallid-cinnamon, paler at the sides. Fries.

The flesh of the pileus is not compact at the disk and abruptly thin at the circumference, but equally attenuated toward the margin. The flesh of the stem is white. The gills never turn bluish-gray. Taste mild. Stevenson.

309Spores pip-shaped, 9×7µ Cooke.

A very common and prolific species in West Virginia, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina. McIlvaine.

Pushing from the earth in great clusters it raises the mat of leaves above it into hut-like mounds through which it seldom bursts. Yet side openings to its huts show its coziness, and reveal the ground thickly dusted with its spores. Detecting these mounds is part of the woodcraft of a toad-stool hunter.

Where clusters are not dense, or the fungus is solitary, the stem is frequently swollen at the base, even bulbous.

Both caps and stems are edible, but the stems are not equal to the caps. It is a valuable food species, because of its lateness and quantity. It is not of best quality.

C. tur´malis Fr.—turma, a troop. (Plate LXXXII, fig. 4, p. 306.) Pileus yellow-tan, most frequently darker at the disk, not changeable, compact, convex then plane, very obtuse, even, smooth (sometimes obsoletely piloso-virgate), when young veiled with pruinate but very fugacious villous down, soon naked, viscid. Flesh white. Stem sometimes 3 in., sometimes 6 in. long, 1 in. thick, solid, very hard, rigid, cylindrical, here and there attenuated at the base, shining white when dry, when young sheathed with a white woolly veil, naked when full grown. Cortina entirely fibrillose, superior and persistent in the form of a ring, at length ferruginous with the spores. Gills variously adnexed, rounded or emarginate, even decurrent with a tooth, crowded, serrated, white then clay-color. Fries.

I find it edible and of great value, being plentiful in pine woods, Maryland. I have collected a bushel in less than an hour in October. Under pine needles forming mounds. Taylor.

The localities and the habit of C. turmalis are very like that of C. sebaceus. The leaf mat broods the clusters.

C. turmalis is on a par with C. sebaceus. Personally I prefer the latter.

** Gills purplish, then clay-colored.

C. va´rius (Schaeff.) Fr.—varius, changeable. Pileus 2 in. and more broad, bright ferruginous-tawny, compact, hemispherico-flattened, very 310obtuse, regular, slightly viscid, even, smooth, the thin margin at first incurved, appendiculate with the cortina. Flesh firm, white. Stem curt, 1½-2½ in. long, 1 in. and more thick, bulbous, absolutely immarginate, compact, shining white, adpressedly flocculose, the superior veil pendulous. Gills emarginate, thin, somewhat crowded, at first narrow, violaceous-purplish, then broader and ochraceous-cinnamon, always quite entire.

Variable in stature, but the habit and colors are always unchangeable. It varies with the stem taller and somewhat equal, the pileus yellow-tawny, and the gills dark blue. Fries.

In woods. Uncommon. September to November. Stevenson.

Minnesota; Ohio.

Edible. Cooke, 1891.

B. Scau´ri.
* Gills whitish then cinnamon.

C. intru´sus Pk. Pileus fleshy, rather thin, convex, then expanded, glabrous, somewhat viscid when moist, even or radiately wrinkled on the margin, yellowish or buff, sometimes with a reddish tint. Flesh white. Lamellæ thin, close, rounded behind, at first whitish or creamy-white, then cinnamon, often uneven on the edge. Stem equal or slightly tapering either upward or downward, stuffed or hollow, sometimes beautifully striate at the top only or nearly to the base, minutely floccose when young, soon glabrous, white. Spores broadly elliptical, brownish-cinnamon, 6–8×4–5µ.

Pileus 1–2.5 in. broad. Stem 1–3 in. long, 3–6 lines thick.

Mushroom beds, manured soil in conservatories or in plant pots. Boston, Mass. R.K. Macadam. Haddonfield, N.J. C. McIlvaine.

This interesting species is closely allied to Cortinarius multiformis and belongs to the Section Phlegmacium. It has a slight odor of radishes and is pronounced edible by Mr. McIlvaine. Its habitat is peculiar, but it possibly finds its way into conservatories and mushroom beds through the introduction of manure or soil, or leaf mold from the woods. It seems strange, however, that it has not yet been detected growing in the woods or fields. Hebeloma fastibile is said sometimes to invade mushroom beds, and our plant resembles it in so many particulars that it is with some hesitation I separate it. The chief differences are in the stem and spores. The former, in Hebeloma fastibile, is described 311as solid and fibrous-squamose and the latter as 10×6 micromillimeters in size. The brighter color of the smaller spores and the stuffed or hollow smooth stem of our plant will separate it from this species. Peck, Bull. of the Torrey Bot. Club, October, 1896.

Cortinarius intrusus was a happy find. Several pints of it were collected by the author in February—usually a famine month for the mycophagist. They grew on the ground, in beds among plants, and with potted plants in a hot-house in Haddonfield, N.J. The crop continued well into the spring. The species is delicate, savory, and a most accommodating renegade from its kind. I have never found it elsewhere.

** Gills blue, then cinnamon.

C. cærules´cens Fr. Pileus 2–3 in. across, equally fleshy, convex then plane, obtuse, regular, even, almost glabrous, but often fibrilloso-streaked; viscid, when dry shining or opaque, dingy yellow, almost tan-colored, varying to yellowish-brown, etc. Gills slightly rounded behind, adnexed, thin, closely crowded, 2 lines broad, at first clear intense blue then becoming purplish, at length dingy cinnamon. Stem about 2 in. long, ½ in. thick (bulb more than an inch), firm, equally attenuated upward, at first fibrillose