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Title: De Canibus Britannicis
       Of Englishe Dogges

Author: John Caius

Translator: Abraham Fleming

Release Date: October 26, 2008 [EBook #27050]

Language: Latin

Character set encoding: UTF-8

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The e-text consists of two titles: Caius’s original De Canibus Britannicis and Fleming’s translation Of English Dogges, both from the 1912 Cambridge edition of Caius’s Complete Works. The separate texts are followed by a combined text, giving the Latin original and the English translation in interlocking segments. Note that the single large table of the Caius original was broken into five smaller “Dialls” in the translation.

Numbers in the right margin show the pagination of the 1912 edition. Numbers in the left margin were printed in the gutter, parenthesized as shown; they represent pages (translation) or leaves (Latin) of the original editions, as used in their respective Indexes.

Contents

De Canibus Britannicis
Of English Dogges
Combined Texts

Transcriber’s Notes

IOANNIS CAII

BRITANNI

DE CANIBVS BRITANNICIS, LIBER
VNVS.

DE RARIORVM ANIMALIVM ET
STIRPIVM HISTORIA, LIBER
VNVS.

DE LIBRIS PROPRIIS, LIBER VNVS.

 

Iam primum excusi,

 

Londini per Gulielmum
Seresium typogra-
phum.

Anno. 1570.

Contents

De Canibus Britannicis

Introduction

Venatici
Aucupatorii
Delicati
Rustici
Degeneres

Table

Nomina

Index

Of English Dogges

Dedication (Latin)

To the Reader

Introduction

Hunting Dogs
Fowling Dogs
Gentle Dogs
Working Dogs
Mongrels

Names

Index

 

Parallel Texts

Introduction

Venatici
Aucupatorii
Delicati
Rustici
Degeneres

Names

IOANNIS CAII

BRITANNI

DE

Canibus Britannicis libellus.

Ad Gesnerum.

Scripsimus ad te (charissime Gesnere) superioribus annis variam historiam de variis quadrupedum, avium, atque piscium formis, variis herbarum atque fruticum speciebus & figuris. Scripsimus & de canibus quædam ad te seorsum, quæ in libro tuo de iconibus animalium ordine secundo mansuetorum quadrupedum, ubi de Canibus Scoticis scribis, & in fine epistolæ tuæ ad Gulielmum Turnerum de libris a te editis, inter libros nondum excusos, te editurum polliceris. Sed quia de Canibus nostris quædam in eo libello mihi videbantur desiderari, editionem prohibui, & alium promisi. Quamobrem, ut promissis meis starem, & expectationi tuæ satisfacerem, homini omnis cognitionis cupido, universitatem generis, differentiam atque usum, mores & ingenium, veluti 1b methodo quadam conabor explicare. Dispertiar in tres species, Generosam, Rusticam, & Degenerem; sic ut de illa primò, de hac postremò, de rustica, medio loco tibi dicam. Omnes Britannicos vocabo; tum quòd una Insula Britannia, 4 ut Anglicos omnes, sic quoque Scoticos omnes complectatur: tum quòd venatibus magis indulgemus, quia voluptati ex feris & venatione, propter animalium copiam, atque hominum otium, magis Britanni sumus dediti, quàm eorum animalium indigi & negotiosi Scoti. Ex generosis venaticis. Ergo cum omnis ratio generosæ venationis, vel in persequendis feris, vel in capiendis avibus finiatur, canum, quibus hæc aguntur, duo genera sunt: alterum quod feras investiget, alterum quod aves persequatur. Utraque Latinis uno & communi nomine dici possunt venatica. Sed Anglis cum aliud esse videatur feras sectari, aliud aves capere, ut primum venationem, secundum aucupium nominant, ita canum nomina volunt esse diversa: ut qui feras lacessunt, venatici; qui aves, aucupatorii dicerentur. Venaticos rursum divido in quinque genera. Aut enim odoratu, aut visu fatigant feras, aut pernicitate vincunt, aut odoratu & pernicitate superant, aut dolo capiunt.

Sagax. Qui odoratu fatigat, & prompta alacritate in venando utitur, & incredibili ad investigandum sagacitate narium valet: a qua re nos sagacem hunc appellamus, quem Græci ab investigando ἰχνευτὴν, à nare ῥινηλάτην dicunt. Huic labra propensa sunt, & aures ad os usque pendulæ, corporisque 2 media magnitudo. Leverarius. Hunc Leverarium vocitabimus, ut universum genus in certas species atque nomina reducamus: cum alioqui usus aut officii nomine, in unitatem speciei adigi nullo modo queant. Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi, alius platycerotis, alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius cuniculi (quem tamen non venamur nisi casse & viverra) tantum odore gaudet: & in suo quisque genere & desiderio egregius est. Sunt ex his qui duos, ut vulpem atque leporem, variatis vicibus sequi student, sed non ea felicitate, qua id quod natura sequi docuit: errant enim sæpius. Terrarius. Sunt qui vulpem atque taxum solum, quos Terrarios vocamus; quod subeant terræ cuniculos, more viverrarum in venatu cuniculorum, & ita terrent mordentque vulpem atque taxum, ut vel in terra morsu lacerent, vel è specu in fugam aut casses cuniculorum ostiis inductas compellant. Sed hi in sagacium genere minimi sunt. Sanguinarius. Qui insequuntur, majores: propenso & hi labro atque aure, nec vivas tantum uti memorati omnes, sed & 5 mortuas quoque conspersi sanguinis odore persequuntur. Sive enim vivæ sauciantur feræ, atque è manibus venatorum elabuntur, sive mortuæ ex vivario sublatæ sunt (sed profusione sanguinis utræque) isti canes odore facilè persentiscunt, & subsequuntur. Eam ob causam ex argumento sanguinarii appellantur. Cum tamen fieri solet ut furum astutia nullo consperso sanguine abripiatur fera, etiam sicca hominis vestigia 2b per extentissima spatia nullo errore sequi nôrunt, in quantalibet multitudine secernere, per abditissima & densissima loca appetere, & si flumina tranent etiam persequi, cumque ad ulteriorem ripam perventum est, circuitu quodam qua fugitum est investigare, si primo statim odore in vestigium furis non inciderint. Sic enim arte inveniunt, quod fortuna nequeunt, ut rectè videatur ab Æliano scriptum lib. 6. cap. 59. de animalibus, τὸ ἐνθυμητικὸν καὶ διαλεκτικὸν, καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὸ αἱρετὸν, hoc est, considerationem, ratiocinationem, atque etiam participationem seu arbitrium canibus hisce venaticis inesse; nec ante cessant persequi, quàm sunt fures comprehensi. Eos luce in tenebris habent heri, nocte producunt, quo alacriores in persequendo sint assueti tenebris, quibus prædones delectantur maximè. Iidem, cum fures insequuntur, non ea donantur libertate qua cum feras, nisi in magna celeritate fugientium furum, sed loro retenti herum ducunt qua velit ille celeritate, sive pedes sit, sive eques. In confiniis Angliæ atque Scotiæ propter frequentia pecorum & jumentorum spolia, multus usus hujus generis canum est, & principio discit pecudem & armentum persequi, postea furem relicto armento. In hoc genere nullus est aquaticus naturaliter, nisi eos ita nominare placeat, qui Lutram insequuntur, qui subinde ripas, subinde aquas frequentant. Non recusant tamen omnes, aviditate prædæ tranantis flumina, etiam aquis se committere. Sed hoc desiderii potius est, quàm naturæ. Quod autem ex 3 his aliquas Brachas nostri, Rachas Scoti sua lingua nominant, in causa sexus est, non genus. Sic enim canes fœminas in venatico genere vocare solent nostri. Ad postremum, in natura sagacium est, ut alii pervestigando taceant ante excitatam feram, alii statim ad primum odorem voce prodant animal, etsi remotum adhuc, & in cubili; & quo juniores, eo 6 petulantioris oris & mendacioris sunt. Ætas enim & venandi assiduitas experientiam in his facit & certitudinem, ut in aliis omnibus, maximè, cum norint obtemperare domino vel inhibenti vel animanti. Agasæus. Quod visu lacessit, nare nihil agit, sed oculo; oculo vulpem leporemque persequitur, oculo seligit medio de grege feram, & eam non nisi bene saginatam & opimam oculo insequitur, oculo perditam requirit, oculo, si quando in gregem redeat, secernit, cæteris relictis omnibus, secretamque cursu denuo fatigat ad mortem. Agasæum nostri abs re, quòd intento sit in feram oculo, vocant. Usus ejus est, in septentrionalibus Angliæ partibus magis quam meridionalibus; locis planis & campestribus, quàm dumosis & sylvestribus; equitibus magis quàm peditibus, quo ad cursum equos incitent (quibus delectantur magis quàm ipsa præda) assuescantque sepes fossasque inoffensè & intrepidè transilire & aufugere, quò insessores per necessitates & pericula salutem fuga sibi quærant, aut hostem insequendo cum velint cædant. At si quando canis aberraverit, dato signo quàm mox accurrit, & feram de integro subsequens, clara voce, cursuque celeri ut ante lacessit. Leporarius. Quod pernicitate vincit, 3b leporarius dicitur, quòd præcipua ejus cura, præcipuusque usus est in persequendo lepore. Quanquam & in capiendo platycerote, cervo, dorcade, vulpe, & hoc genus aliis feris, & viribus & memorata velocitate valent: sed plus minus pro suo quisque desiderio, & corporis firmitudine aut exilitate. Est enim strigosum genus: in quo alii majores sunt, alii minores: alii pilo sessili, alii hirto. Majores majoribus, minores minoribus feris destinamus. Cujus naturam in venatione, magnam; in hoc, miram deprehendi: quòd (referente Joanne Froisarto historico lib. hist. suæ 4.) leporarius Richardi secundi Anglorum regis, qui ante neminem præter regem agnoverat, venientem Henricum Lancastriæ ducem ad castellum Flinti ut Richardum comprehenderet, relicto Richardo, Henricum solitis in Richardum favoribus exceperit; quasi adversitates Richardi futuras intellexerat & præsentiscerat. Id quod Richardus probe animadvertit, atque ut præsagium futuri interitus verbis non dissimulavit. Levinarius seu lorarius. Quod sagacitate simul & pernicitate potest, & genere, & compositione corporis medium 7 est inter sagacem illum & leporarium, & à levitate appellatur levinarius, à loro (quo ducitur) lorarius. Hic propter velocitatem & gravius feram urget, & citius capit. Vertagus. Quod dolo agit, vertagum nostri dicunt, quòd se, dum prædatur, vertat, & 4 circumacto corpore, impetu quodam in ipso specus ostio feram opprimit & intercipit. Is hoc utitur astu. Cum in vivarium cuniculorum venit, eos non lacessit cursu, non latratu terret, nec ullas inimicitias ostentat, sed velut amicus aliud agens, taciturna solertia prætergreditur, observatis diligenter eorum cuniculis. Eò cum pervenerit, ita se humi componit, ut & adversum ventum semper habeat, & cuniculum lateat. Sic enim ille revertentis aut exeuntis cuniculi odorem facilè sentit, & suus cuniculo omnino tollitur, & prospectu fera fallitur. Ad hunc modum compositus canis, & prostratus, aut exeuntem cuniculum & imprudentem in ipso specus ingressu versutè opprimit, aut revertentem excipit, atque ad latentem herum ore perducit. Minor hic est sagaci illo, strigosior, & erectiore aure. Corporis figura leporarium spurium diceres, si major esset. Et quamvis eo minor multò sit, uno tamen die tot potest capere, quot justum equi onus esse possunt. Dolus enim illi pro virtute est, & corporis agilitas. Canis furax. Huic similis canis furax est, qui jubente hero noctu progreditur, & sine latratu odore adverse persequens cuniculos, cursu prehendit quot herus permiserit, & ad heri stationem reportat. Vocant incolæ canem nocturnum, quòd venetur noctu. Sed hæc de iis qui feras insequuntur.

Ex generosis aucupatoriis. Qui aves, proximum locum habent. Eos Aucupatorios dici ante proposuimus. Hi ex generosorum numero etiam sunt, & duûm generum. Alii enim per sicca tantum venantur: 4b Alii per aquas tantum aves persequuntur. Qui per sicca tantum, aut libero vestigio & latratu avem investigant & excitant, aut tacito indicio eandem commonstrant. Primum genus Accipitri servit; secundum reti. Hispaniolus. Peculiaria nomina primum genus non habet, nisi ab ave ad quam venandam natura est propensius. Qua de causa falconarii hos phasianarios, hos perdiciarios, vocare solent. Vulgus tamen nostrum communi nomine Hispaniolos nominat, quasi ex Hispania productum istud genus primo esset. Omnes maxima ex parte 8 candidi sunt: & si quas maculas habeant, rubræ sunt, raræ, & majores. Sunt & ruffi atque nigri, sed perpauci. Est & hodie novum genus ex Gallia advectum (ut novitatis omnes sumus studiosi) sed ex toto in albo obfuscatum maculosè, quem Gallicanum vocitamus. Index. Secundum genus est, quod tacito pede atque ore avem quærit, & nutum juvantis heri sequitur, vel promovendo se, vel reducendo, vel in alterutram partem dextram aut sinistram declinando. Cum avem dico, Perdicem & Coturnicem intelligo. Cum invenerit, cauto silentio, suspenso vestigio, & occulto speculatu, humiliando se prorepit, & cum propè est, procumbit, & pedis indicio locum stationis avium prodit: unde canem indicem vocare placuit. Loco commonstrato, auceps exporrectum rete avi inducit. Quo facto, canis ad consuetum heri indicium seu vocabulum quam mox assurgit, & propinquiori præsentia aves perturbat, atque ut inexplicabilius irretiantur, facit. Lepus tympanum pulsat. Quod artificium in 5 cane, animali domestico, mirum videri non debet, cum & lepus agreste animal, & saltare, & tympanum anterioribus pedibus numero pulsare tympanistarum more, & canem dente atque ungue petere, pedibusque crudeliter cædere, in Anglia visus est omnium admiratione, anno salutis nostræ 1564. Nec est vanum istud, eoque relatum lubentius, quòd operæ pretium putarem, nihil prætereundum esse, in quo naturæ spectanda sit providentia. Aquaticus seu inquisitor. Qui per aquas aucupatur propensione naturali accedente mediocri documento, major his est, & promisso naturaliter hirtus pilo. Ego tamen ab armis ad posteriores suffragines, caudamque extremam, ad te (Gesnere) detonsum pinxi, ut usus noster postulat, quo pilis nudus expeditior sit, & minus per natationes retardetur. Aquaticus à nostris appellatur, ab aquis quas frequentat sumpta appellatione. Eo aut aves in aquis aucupamur (& præcipue anates; unde etiam anatarius dicitur, quod id excellenter facit) aut Scorpione occisas educimus, aut spicula sagittasve fallente ictu recuperamus, aut amissa requirimus: quo nomine & canes inquisitores eosdem appellamus. Anatum fallaciæ. Quanquam Anas & canem & aucupem quoque egregiè subinde fallat, tum urinando, tum etiam dolo naturali. Etenim si quis hominum, ubi incubant aut excludunt, propinquabit, egressæ matres venientibus se 9 sponte offerunt, & simulata debilitate vel pedum vel alarum, 5b quasi statim capi possint, egressus fingunt tardiores. Hoc mendacio sollicitant obvios, & eludunt, quoad profecti longius, à nidis avocentur; caventque diligenter revertendo, ne indicium loci conversatio frequens faciat. Anaticularum providentia. Nec anaticularum studium segnius ad cavendum. Cum enim visas se persentiscunt, sub cespitem confugiunt aut carectum, quorum obtectu tam callidè proteguntur, ut lateant etiam deprehensæ, nisi fraudem canis odore detegat. Canis piscator. Canem piscatorem (de quo scribit Hector Boethus) qui inter saxa pisces odore perquirit, nullum planè novi inter nostros, neque ex relatione aliquando audivi, etsi in ea re perscrutanda perdiscendaque diligentior fuerim inter piscatores & venatores: Lutra. nisi Lutram piscem dicas, ut à multis creditur: Pupinus. quo modo & Pupinus avis piscis esse dicitur & habetur. Sed qui perquirit piscem (si quis perquirat) venationisne causa, an famis faciat, more cæterorum canum, qui per inediam cadaverum morticinam carnem appetere solent, tum demum ad te scribam, cum de ea re certior fiam. Interim id scio, Ælianum & Aetium Lutram κύνα ποτάμιον solere appellare. Intelligo etiam Lutram hoc habere cum cane commune, quòd per inopiam piscium excursiones in terram faciat, atque agnos laniet, rursusque ad aquam satur redeat. Sed inter nostros canes is non est. Phoca. Phoca etiam inter scopulos atque saxa prædatur piscem, sed in numero canum nostratium habitus non est, etsi canis marinus à nostris 6 appelletur. Ex generosis delicatis, Melitæus seu fotor. Est & aliud genus canum generosorum apud nos, sed extra horum ordinem, quos Melitæos Callimachus vocat, à Melita insula in freto Siculo (quæ hodie usu derivante Malta vulgo dicitur, & christiano milite nobilis existit) unde ortum id genus habuit maximè: atque à Melita Siculi Pachyni, ut author Strabo est. Perexiguum id est planè, & fœminarum lusibus ac deliciis tantum expetitum, quibus, quo minus est, eo gratius est, ut sinu gestent in cubiculis, & manu in pilentis, genus sanè ad omnia inutile, nisi quòd stomachi dolorem sedat, applicatum sæpius, aut in sinu ægri gestatum frequentius, caloris moderatione. Quin & transire quoque morbos ægritudine eorum intelligitur, plerumque & morte: quasi malo in eos transeunte caloris similitudine.

10 Ex rusticis. Generosorum canum genus jam explicui: Nunc rusticum adjicio. In eo memorabilia duo tantum genera sunt: pecuarium seu pastorale, & villaticum seu Molossum: alterum ad propellendas injurias ferarum, alterum adversus insidias hominum utile. Pastoralis. Pastorale nostrum mediocre est, quòd illi cum Lupo, naturali pecori inimico, res non est, cum apud nos nullus est, beneficio optimi principis Edgari, qui, quò genus universum deleretur, Cambris (apud quos in magna copia erant) vectigalis nomine in annos imperavit trecentos lupos. Lupi nulli in Britannia. Sunt qui scribunt Ludwallum Cambriæ principem pendisse annuatim Edgaro regi 3000 luporum tributi nomine, atque ita annis quatuor omnem Cambriam atque adeo omnem Angliam orbasse lupis. Edgarus. Regnavit autem Edgarus circiter annum 6b Domini 959. A quo tempore non legimus nativum in Anglia visum lupum: advectum tamen quæstus faciundi causa ex alienis regionibus, ut spectetur tantum, tanquam animal rarum & incognitum, sæpius vidimus. Sed ad canem pastoralem. Is ad certam heri jubentis vocem, aut ex pugno concluso & inflato clariorem sibilum, errantes oves in eum locum redigit, in quem pastor maximè desiderat; sic ut levi negotio, & immoto ferè pede, pastor quo velit modo ovibus moderetur, vel ut se promoveant, vel gradum sistant, pedem referant, vel in hanc illamve partem se inclinent. Etenim non ut in Gallia & Germania, non ut in Syria & Tartaria, sic in Anglia quoque oves pastorem sequuntur, sed contra, pastor oves. Quandoque etiam nullo procurrente aut circumeunte cane, ad solum ex pugno sibilum sese congregant palantes oves, metu canis credo, memores unà cum sibilo prodire quoque & canem solere. Id quod in itinere diligenter sæpius observavimus, ad pastoris sibilum refrænantes equos, quo videremus rei experimentum. Eodem etiam cane ovem vel mactandum prehendit, vel sanandum pastor capit, nulla prorsus læsione.

Villaticus seu Catenarius. Villaticum vastum genus est & robustum, corpore quidem grave & parum velox, sed aspectu truculentum, voce terrificum, & quovis Arcadico (qui tamen ex leonibus creditur provenire) potentius atque acrius. Quòd villis fideliter custodiendis 7 destinamus, cum metus est à furibus, villaticum appellamus. His quoque utile id est contra vulpem atque taxum, qui rem 11 pecuariam faciunt. Valet etiam ad sues agrestes persequendos, domesticos è frugibus aut arvis abigendos, taurosque capiendos atque retinendos, cum usus aut venatio postulat, singuli singulos, aut summum duo singulos, quamvis intractabiles. Est enim acerrimum genus & violentum, formidabile etiam homini, quem non reformidat. Neque enim ad arma expavescit; quóque acrius fiat, assuescunt nostri naturam arte & consuetudine juvare. Etenim ursos, tauros, arctylos, aliaque fera animalia, præfectis certaminum arctophylacibus, nullo millo, nullo corio defenses exagitare: sæpe etiam cum homine sude, clava, enseve armato concertare decent, atque ita ferociores acrioresque reddunt, & imperterritos faciunt. Vis illis supra fidem, & pertinax mordacitas, usque adeo ut tres ursum, quatuor vel leonem comprehendant. Henricus septimus. Quod videns aliquando (ut fama est) Henricus septimus, Angliæ rex prudentissimus, quotquot erant suspendi jussit, indignatus ut infimi & ignobilis generis canes, generoso leoni, & animalium regi violentiam inferant: memorabili exemplo subditorum, ne quid contra regem gens rebellis audeat. Haud absimilis etiam historia de eo fertur, quod falconem quendam suum, à falconariis vehementer laudatum, quòd in aquilam quid 7b auderet, quam mox occidi jussit, ob eandem rationem. Hoc genus canis, etiam catenarium, à catena ligamento, qua ad januas interdiu detinetur, ne solutum lædat, & tamen latratu terreat, appellatur. Cicero. Et quanquam CiceroA pro S. Ross. opinetur, si canes luce latrent, iis crura suffringantur, nostri tamen homines propter securitatem vitæ atque rei longe aliter sentiunt. Fures. Nam furum apud nos plena sunt omnia, etiam luce, neque infamem mortem suspendia metuunt. In causa est non curta res solum, sed vestis vitæque luxus atque fastus etiam, sed petulantia, sed otium & superbia Salaconum μεγαλοῤῥούντων, qui nihil aliud quàm ut equi insultare solo & gressus glomerare superbos, quàm gyro breviori flecti, qui nihil aliud quàm cevere, quàm otiosè mendicando accusata non merente corporis infirmitate spoliare. Valentinianus. Sed his Valentinianus imperator benè prospexit, legibus latis, ut qui nullo corporis morbo laborantes, corporis infirmitatem desidiosi ignavique prætexentes, 12 mendicarent, perpetui colono ei inservirent, qui eorum ignaviam proderet atque accusaret, ne eorum desidia onerosa populo, odiosave sit exemplo. Alfredi vigilantia. Alfredus quoque regno administrando tanta vigilantia justitiaque usus est, ut si quis per vias publicas incedens, marsupium auro plenum vesperi perdidisset, manè, atque adeo post mensem unum, integrum & intactum inveniret, uti Ingulphus Croylandensis in historia refert. Nostra autem ætate, nihil ferè securum, ne in ædibus quidem, quamvis accuratè conclusis. Canis custos. Custos quoque (Græcis οἰκουρὸς) a  8 custodiendis non solum villis, sed & mercatorum ædibus, & quibus ampla res est domi, canis iste nominatur. Eam ob rem canes publicæ alebantur Romæ in Capitolio, ut significent si fures venerint. Canis laniarius. Dicitur & Laniarium, quòd eorum usus multus sit laniis agendis & capiendis bestiis. Molossicus. Sed & Molossicum quoque & Molossum latinis dicitur, à Molossia Epiri regione, ubi hoc genus canes boni & acres erant. Mandatarius. Est ex hoc genere quem Mandatarium ex argumento appellamus: quòd domini mandato literas aliasve res de loco in locum transferat, vel mellio inclusas, vel eidem alligatas. Quæ ne intercipiantur, vel pugna, vel fuga si impar sit, diligenter cavet. Lunarius. Est & Lunarium, quòd nihil aliud quàm excubias agit, quàm insomnes noctes totas protrahit baubando ad lunam, ut Nonii verbo utar. Aquarius. Ex quibus grandiores atque graviores, etiam rotæ amplioris circumactu, aquam ex altis puteis ad usus rusticos hauriunt, quos Aquarios appellamus ex officio: Sarcinarius. & sarctores ærarios vagos manticis ferendis memorabili patientia levant; à qua re sarcinarios nuncupamus. Præter has villaticorum qualitates atque usus, hanc unam habent præcipuam, quòd amantes dominorum sunt, & odium gerant in externos. Defensor. Quo fit ut per itinera dominis in præsidio sunt, quos à furibus defendunt, vivos salvosque conservant: a qua re etiam canes defensores jure dici possunt. Canum amor & fides. At si quando vel multitudine, vel majori vi opprimatur dominus atque concidat, usu compertum 8b est, herum non deserere ne mortuum quidem, sed eum ad multos dies per famis & cœli injuriæ patientiam peramanter observare, & homicidam, si occasio dabitur, interficere, aut saltem prodere vel latratu, vel ira, vel hostili insultu, quasi 13 mortem heri ulturum. Kingestoune. Hujus rei exemplo fuit nostra memoria canis cujusdam viatoris, qui Londino recta Kingestonum, octo regum coronatione percelebre oppidum, profecturus, cum bonam itineris partem confecisset, latronum insidiis in Comparco, valli amplo & spatioso, nemoribus obsito, & latrociniis infami loco, occubuit. Canis item ille Britannus genere, quem Blondus sua memoria scribit, non longe Parisiis hero à rivali interempto, & homicidam prodidisse, & ni canis ultionem homicida deprecatus esset, jugulaturum fuisse. In incendiis quoque in conticinio seu intempesta nocte incidentibus, eo usque latrant annosi canes, etiam prohibiti, dum à domesticis excitatis percipiatur focus; & tum sua sponte cessant à latratu, quod usu compertum est in Britannia. Nec minor erat fides in eo cane qui domino profundam foveam per venatum incidenti nunquam abfuit, dum sui unius indicio sublatus is per funem fuit: in quem, cum oris cavernæ proximus esset, insiliebat canis, tanquam ulnis amplexurus revertentem herum, impatiens longioris moræ. Canum ingenia. Sunt qui focum non patiuntur dissipari, sed prunas in focum pede removent, prius cogitabundi 9 aspicientes qua ratione id possit à se fieri. Quod si pruna ardentior fuerit, cinere obruunt, ac dein nare in locum promovent. Sunt quoque qui noctu villici officium præstant. Cum enim lectum petit herus, & omnia centum ærei claudunt vectes, æternaque ferri robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus (ut scribit Virgilius) tum si prodire jubeat herus canem, is per fundos omnes oberrat, quovis villico diligentior, & si alienum quid invenerit sive hominem, sive bestiam, abigit, domesticis relictis animalibus atque servis. Sed quanta in his fidelitas, tanta varietas in ingeniis. Nam sunt qui ore infræno latrent tantum nullo morsu; verum hi minus tremendi, quòd timidiores sunt. Canes enim timidi vehementius latrant, ut est in proverbio. Sunt qui latrent atque mordeant. Ab his cavendum quidem, quia admonent futuræ injuriæ, sed non lacessendum, quoniam ira concitantur ad dentem, ipsi etiam natura acerbiores. Sunt qui sine voce prosiliunt, impetu involant, jugulum petunt, & crudelius lacerant. Hos formidato, quia ammosiores sunt, & incautos opprimunt. Notæ ignaviæ aut audaciæ. Istis notis 14 ignavum genus a strenuo, audax a timido discernunt nostri. Etenim ex malo genere, ne catulum quidem habendum existimant, quòd nullum necessariis usibus humanis commodiorem canem isto putent. Nam si quis commemoratos eorum usus ad summas velit revocare, quis hominum clarius aut tanta vociferatione bestiam vel furem prædicat, quam iste latratu? quis domitor ferarum potentior? quis famulus 9b amantior domini? quis fidelior comes? quis custos incorruptior? quis excubitor vigilantior? quis ultor aut vindex constantior? quis nuncius expeditior? quis aquarius laboriosior? quis denique sarctor ærarius gestandis sarcinis tolerantior? Atque hæc quidem de canibus Britannicis generosis atque rusticis, qui genus suum servant, diximus. Ex degeneribus. De degeneribus, & ex horum diverso genere mixtis, quòd nullam insignem veri generis qualitatem formamque referant, non est quod velim plura scribere, sed ut inutiles ablegare, nisi quòd vel advenas latratu excipiant, etiam luce, & eorum adventus domesticos commonefaciant, Admonitor. unde canes admonitores appellamus: vel quòd in officio culinario, cum assandum est, inserviant, & rota minore gradiendo, verua circumagant, pondereque suo æquabiliter versent, ut ne calo aut lixa quidem artificiosius; Versator. quos hinc canes versatores, seu veruversatores nostrum vulgus nominat: postremos omnium generum, quæ primo memoravimus. Tympanista. Sunt etiam canes nostri degeneres & ad tympanum saltare, & ad lyræ modos se movere docti, multaque alia erecti pronique facere, quæ à vagis quæstuosisque heris exequi didicerunt. Lyciscus. LyciscumB nullum istic in Anglia habemus nativum, ut ne lupum quidem ut est ante comprehensum, nec aliud genus ullum præter Lacænam & Urcanum: Lacæna. illam ex cane & vulpe (quam multam habet Anglia, & domi inter canes vel animi vel morbi causa sæpè alit) Urcanus. hunc ex urso & cane catenario; quos licet inimicos, pruriens tamen libido sæpè ita hic conjungit, ut alibi solet. Nam cum tigride Hircanos, cum leone Arcadicos, cum lupo Gallicos commiscuisse 10 legimus. In hominibus quoque quibus ratio est, inimicos animos conciliat stulta illa res & naturalis, ut Moria loquitur. Est hic urcanus, sæva bestia, & intractabilis iræ (ut 15 Gratii poetæ verbis utar) cæteros canes nostros omnes feroci crudelitate superans, vel aspectus torvitate terribilis, in pugna acris & vehemens, tantaque mordacitate, ut citius discerpas quàm dissolvas; nec lupum nec taurum, ursum aut leonem reformidat: vel cum cane illo Alexandri Indico certe conferendus. Sed de his hactenus ut de Britannicis verba fecimus. Externi canes. Externos aliquos & eos majusculos, Islandicos dico & Littuanicos, usus dudum recepit: quibus toto corpore hirtis, ob promissum longumque pilum, nec vultus est, nec figura corporis. Externa prælata. Multis tamen quòd peregrini sunt, & grati sunt, & in Melitæorum locum assumpti sunt: usque adeo deditum est humanum genus etiam sine ratione novitatibus. ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτρίων, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς, miramur aliena, nostra non diligimus. Neque hoc in canibus solum, sed in artificibus quoque usu venit. Nostros enim licet doctos & peritos fastidimus, belluam è longinqua barbarie alienoque solo profectam 10b tanquam asinum Cumani, aut hominem Thalem, nostri suspiciunt. Id quod Hippocrates sub initio libri sui περὶ ἀγμῶν recte sua ætate observavit, & nos libello nostro seu consilio de Ephemera Britannica ad populum Britannicum copiosius explicuimus. Atque in hoc genere quo quisque indoctior, audacior, incogitantior, hoc pluris fit apud nostros, atque etiam apud torquatos istos principes atque proceres. Cæterum de externis canibus nihil dico, quòd de Britannicis tantum voto tuo satisfacere studeo, Conrade vir doctissime. Canis Getulus. Inter ea tamen quæ aliàs ad te dedi, de cane Getulo seorsum scripsi, quòd rara species ejus videbatur. De cætero genere, ipse plenissimè scribis. Verum cum longius jam produximus hunc libellum quàm priorem ad te, brevius tamen quam pro natura rei, quòd habuimus rationem studiorum tuorum, memoriæ causa quæ de canibus Britannicis diximus, in diagramma reducemus. Et quia vulgaribus nominibus delectaris, ut ex literis tuis didici, ea quoque Latinis apponemus, & singulorum rationes exponemus, quo nihil tibi sit incognitum aut desideratum.

16  
Nomina
Latina Anglica
Venatici.   Sagax. Terrarius.
Leverarius.
Sanguinarius.
Hunde Terrare.
Harier.
Blud-hunde.
 
 
  Agasæus.
Leporarius.

Levinarius seu
Lorarius.

Vertagus.
  Gasehunde.
Grehunde.

Leviner, or
Lyemmer.

Tumbler.
   
  Generosi. Aucupatorii.   Hispaniolus.
Index.

Aquaticus, seu
Inquisitor.

  Spainel.
Setter.

Water-spainel, or Fynder.

Canes ergo Britannici,
aut sunt
  Delicati.  

Melitæus,
seu Fotor.

 

Spainel-gentle, or Comforter.

Rustici.  

Pastoralis.

Villaticus, seu Catenarius.

 

Shepherd’s Dog.

Mastive, or Bandedog.

  Degeneres.   Admonitor.
Versator.
Saltator.
  Wappe.
Turn-spit.
Dancer.

Ista vocabula nostratia cum nihil apud te, hominem 11 peregrinum, loquantur sine interpretatione, ut Latinorum vocabulorum rationem prius reddidimus, ita Anglicorum jam reddemus, quo tibi pateant universa, eo etiam quo prius observato ordine.

Sagax. Hunde igitur (quem inter venaticos sagacem diximus) a verbo nostro hunte, quod apud nostros venari significat, unica tantum immutata litera derivata appellatione, nomen habet. Quod si a vocabulo vestrati hunde, (quod canem in universum apud vos significat) propter vocum similitudinem appellari credas (mi Gesnere) ut non magnopere repugnabo, cum adhuc retinemus multa Germanica vocabula, a Saxonibus cum Angliam occuparunt nobis relicta, ita illud admonebo, commune quidem nomen canis apud nos dogge esse, venatici vero canis hunde.

Agasæus. Similiter à verbo nostrati, Gase, (quòd fixius rem aliquam & attentius contueri est) Gasehunde appellatur nostris, quem 17 ante Agasæum nominari diximus. Neque enim odoratu, sed prospectu attento & diligenti feram persequitur iste canis, ut jam ante memoravimus; etsi non sum nescius etiam apud Latinos Agasæi vocabulum inter canum nomina reperiri.

Leporarius. A Gre quoque, Grehunde apud nostros invenit nomen, quod præcipui gradus inter canes sit, & primæ generositatis. 11b Gre enim apud nostros gradum denotat. Hunc latinè Leporarium dicebamus.

Levinarius. A levitate Leviner, à loro Lyemmer, appellatur is quem Levinarium & Lorarium latinè nominavimus. Nam Lyemme nostra lingua, Lorum significat. Quod autem a levitate Leviner, hoc est a latina voce Britannicam, diducimus: cur in libris nostris sparsim a Græcis dictionibus & Latinis Italicis & Germanicis, Gallicis & Hispanicis nostratia multa derivamus, unde ortum eadem multa habuerunt: Lib. de symphonia. & quemadmodum ab origine sua etiam multa per corruptionem jam declinarunt, libello nostro de symphonia seu consonantia vocum Britannicarum fusius explicabimus.

Vertagus. Postremus inter venaticos Vertagus est, quem Tumbler vocitamus; quòd tumble apud nos vertere est Latinis, & tumbiere Gallis, unde ortum habet id nomen Tumbler, mutata vocali in liquidam nostro more: contra quàm in lingua Gallica & Italica, in quibus liquida ante vocalem, magna ex parte in aliam vocalem vertitur, ut impiere & piano, pro implere & plano, quæ exempli gratia adduce, cum infinita sint.

Aucupatorii. Post Venaticos sequuntur Aucupatorii; inter quos primus est Hispaniolus, quem ab Hispania voce nomen accepisse prius diximus. Nostri omissa aspiratione & prima vocali, Spainel & Spaniel expediti sermonis causa proferunt.

Index. Secundus Index, quem nostri a Setter nominare solent, a verbo sette, quod locum designare nostris Britannis significat.

12

Aquaticus. Post hunc subsequitur aquaticus, hoc est a Waterspainel, a vocibus Water & Spaine (hoc est aqua & Hispania) deducto nomine. Nam aqua, in qua se exercet canis iste, Water; & Hispania (unde primum genus hoc tractum ex nomine creditur) Spaine apud nostros vocitatur. Non quòd isti canes 18 non sint etiam nativi in Britannia, sed quòd generale & commune nomen canum, qui ex Hispania primò profecti putantur, istæ canum species (ut & cæteri Aucupatorii) adhuc vulgo referunt, etsi in Britannia oriantur, & peculiari aliqua vocis nota, aut qualitatis indicio secernantur apud nos; ut est ista species vocis Water, hoc est aquæ, appositione. Inquisitor. Alio etiam nomine a Finder canis iste appellatur, quòd quærendo invenit res deperditas, quæ res nostris, fynde, hoc est invenire, dicitur. Nos tamen ab inquirendo latinum nomen huic fecimus, quòd præcipua pars inventionis in inquirendo est.

A venaticis & aucupatoriis transitus est ad Delicatos, Rusticos, & Degeneres. Delicati. Delicatum, Melitæum & Spainel gentle, hoc est Hispaniolum generosum, nominavimus, à generositatis nomine data appellatione, quòd inter nobiles viros atque fœminas versari, & iis in deliciis atque ad lusus esse consuevit: ut erat illud Gorgonis κυνίδιον apud Theocritum in Syracusiis, quod discedens servæ diligentiæ pari cura cum infante commiserat, ut catellum quidem illa intro revocaret, puerum verò vagientem placaret. Ad alia omnia 12b inutilis canis iste est, nisi ad ea quæ jam ante diximus, nisi ad fovendum stomachum debilitatum frigore, nisi ad prodendum adulterium, quod fecisse hujus generis catellum quendam Siculum refert Ælianus, libro septimo, capite vicesimo quinto animalium.

Rustici. Rusticos, Shepeherdes dogges, Mastives, & Bandedogges nominavimus: illorum quidem deducto nomine a pastore, qui Shepeherde apud nos dicitur, quòd custodit oves, quæ nostris, Shepe, appellantur: istorum a ligamento, quod Bande, & Sagina, quod maste, villicis nostris hominibus dicitur. Est enim crassum genus canum, & bene saginatum catenarium hoc. Etsi non sum nescius Augustinum Niphum, Mastinum (mastivum nostri dicunt) pecuarium existimare: & Albertum Lyciscum ex cane & lupo genitum esse scribere: quamvis idem pro Molosso magna ex parte vertat.

Versator. Ad postremum, degeneres Wappe & Turnespete nominari dicebamus: hunc a verbo nostrati turne, quòd est verto & spete, seu spede ad imitationem Italorum, quod veru dicitur; 19 illum a naturali canis voce Wau, quam in latratu edit admonendo. Unde, originaliter Waupe dicendum fuit. Sed euphoniæ bonæque consonantiæ gratia, vocali in consonantem mutata, Wappe a nostris vocitatur. Etsi non me fugit Nonium, a voce naturali Bau, formare suum baubari, non a Wau, quemadmodum & Græci à suo βαύζειν.

Saltator. 13 Jam verò quod dansare nostris, saltare sit Latinis, si didiceris, non est de canis saltatoris nostrati nomine amplius quod ipse expetas.

Ita habes (mi Gesnere) non solum canum nostratium genera, sed & nomina quoque Latina atque Anglica, officia atque usus, differentias atque mores, naturas & ingenia, ut non sit quod desideres in hoc argumento amplius. Et quanquam forsan omni ex parte non satisfecerim tibi in edendo (cui in desideriis omnis festinatio in mora esse videatur) quòd inhibuerim editionem rudioris illius libelli, quem ad te tanquam ad privatum amicum, non ad editionem publicam ante annos quinque dederim; tamen in hoc spero me satisfecisse tibi, quòd mora fecit aliquanto meliorem, & δεύτεραι φροντίδες lectu commodiorem.

Joannis Caii Britanni de Canibus Britannicis libelli finis.

Iste liber scriptus fuit ante mortem Gesneri, etsi non ante publicatus, ut est ille de rariorum animalium atque stirpium historia.

20

In lib. Ioannis Caij Bri-
tanni de canibus Britan-
nicis, index.

A
A dmonitor. Fol. 9.a
Agasæus. 3.a. 11.a

Alfredi iustitia in fures.

7.b
Anatis providentia. 5.a
Anaticularum fallatiæ. 5.b
Aquaticus canis. 5.a. 12.a
Aquarius. 8.a
Aucupatorij. 11.b
B
B londus. 8.b
Bracha. 2.b
C
C anis cathenarius. 6.b
Canis tympanista. 9.b
Canis custos. 7.b
Canes externi. 10.a
Canis defensor. 8.a
Canis Lucernarius. 8.a
Canis mandatarius. 8.a
Canis piscator. 5.b
Canis pastoralis. 6.a
Canis Getulus. 10.a
Canis sarcinarius. 8.a

Canis timidus quo modo à strenuo discernendus.

9.a
Canis ultor. 8.b
Canis index. 4.b
Canis excubitor. 8.a
Canis furax. 4.a
Comparcum. 8.b
D
D egeneres canes. 9.a
Delicatus canis. 6.a. 12.a
Defensor. 8.a
E
E

dgarus rex lupos sustulit.

6.b
Excubitor canis. 8.a
Externi canes. 10.a
Externa prælata. 10.a
F
F otor. 6.a
Furum plena omnia. 7.b
G
G enerosi venatici. 1.b
Generosi aucupatorij. 4.a
Generosi delicati. 6.a
Getulus canis. 10.a
H
H

enrici septimi exemplum castigatæ rebellionis.

7.a
Hispaniolus. 4.b
I
I ndex canis. 4.b. 11.b
Ingulphus Croylandensis historicus. 7.b
Inquisitor. 5.a. & 12.a
Islandicus canis. 10.a
K
K

yngeston, seu Kingestoune, octo regum (Edwardi primi, Athelstani, Edmundi, Aldredi, Edwini, Edgari, Edeldredi, Edwardi cognomento ferrei lateris) coronatione percelebre oppidum.

8.b
21 L
L aniarius. 8.a
Lacæna. 9.b
Leverarius. 2.a
Leporarius. 3.b. 11.a
Henrici secundi. 3.b
Levinarius. 3.b. 11.b
Lepus tympanista. 5.a

Liber de symphonia vocum Britannicarum.

11.b
Littuanicus canis. 10.a
Lorarius. 3.b

Lupos ex Anglia sustulit Edgarus rex.

6.a

Lupi nulli in Britannia.

6.a
Lutra an piscis? an canis piscator? 5.b
Lucernarius. 8.a
Lunarius. 8.a
Lyciscus. 9.a
M
M andatarius. 8.a
Melitæus. 6.a
Mendici valentes. 7.b
Molossus. 6.a. &. b. &. 8.a
O
οἰκουρός. 8.a
Oves pastorem sequentes. 6.b
P
P astoralis canis. 6.a
Phoca. 5.b
Pupinus piscis & avis. 5.b
Pervigil canis. 8.a
R
R ustici canes. 6.a. 11.b
Rebellionis exemplum castigatum. 7.a
S
S agax. 1.b. 11.a
Saltator. 9.a. 12.b
Salacones. 7.b
Sanguinarius. 2.a
Sarcinarius. 8.a
T
T errarius. 2.a
Tympanista. 9.a
V
V

alentiniani imperatoris in validos mendicos lex.

7.b
Venatici canes. 1.b
Vertagus. 3.b. 11.b
Versator. 9.b. 12.b
Villaticus. 6.b
Vrcanus. 9.b
Indicis finis.





 
see end of text

Title Page Text

¶ A Prosopopoicall speache
of the Booke.

Some tell of starres th’influence straunge,

Some tell of byrdes which flie in th’ayre,

Some tell of beastes on land which raunge,

Some tell of fishe in riuers fayre,

Some tell of serpentes sundry sortes,

Some tell of plantes the full effect,

Of English dogges I sound reportes,

Their names and natures I detect,

My forhed is but baulde and bare:

But yet my body’s beutifull,

For pleasaunt flowres in me there are,

And not so fyne as plentifull:

And though my garden plot so greene,

Of dogges receaue the trampling feete,

Yet is it swept and kept full cleene,

So that it yeelds a sauour sweete.

Ab. Fle.

DOCTISSIMO VIRO, ET

Patrono suo singulari D. Perne, E-

liensis ecclesiæ Cathedralis dignissi-

mo Decano, Abrahamus Flemingus,
ευδαιμονιαν.

Scripsit non multis abhinc annis (optime Patrone) et non impolitè scripsit, vir omnibus optimarum literarum remis instructissimus, de doctorum grege non malè meritus, tuæ dignitati familiaritatis nexu coniunctissimus, clarissimum Cantabrigiensis academiæ lumen, gẽma, et gloria, Johannes Caius, ad Conradum Gesnerum summum suum, hominem peritissimum, indagatorem rerum reconditarum sagacissimum, pulcherrimaq. historiarum naturalium panoplia exornatũ, epitomen de canibus Britannicis non tam breuem quàm elegantem, et vtilem, epitomen inquam variis variorum experimentorum argumentis concinnatam; in cuius titulum cũ forte incidissem, et nouitate rei nonnihil delectarer, interpretationem Anglicam aggressus sum. Postquam vero finem penso imposuissem, repentina quædam de opusculi dedicatione cogitatio oboriebatur tãdemque post multas multarum rerum iactationes, beneficiorum tuorum (Ornatissime vir) vnica recordatio, instar rutilantis stellæ, quæ radiorum splendore quaslibet caliginosas teterrimæ obliuionis nebulas dissipat, et memoriæ serenitatem, plusquã solarem, inducit, mihi illuxit; nec nõ officii ratio quæ funestissimis insensæ fortunæ fulminibus conquassata, lacerata, et convulsa, penè perierat, fractas vires multumq. debilitatas colligebat, pristinum robur recuperauit, tandemque aliquando ex Lethea illa palude neruose emergebat, atque eluctata est. Quã voraginẽ simulatque euaserat, sic effloruit, adeoque increuit, vt vnamquamque animi mei cellulã in sui ditionem atque imperii amplitudinem raperet. Nunc vero in contemplatione meritorum tuorum versari non desino, quorum magnitudinem nescio an tam tenui et leuidensi orationis filo possim circumscribere: Hoc, Ædepol, me non mediocriter mouet, non leuiter torquet, non languide pungit. Est præterea alia causa quæ mihi scrupulum injicit, et quodammodo exulcerat, ingrati nempe animi suspicio a qua, tanquam ab aliqua Lernæa Hydra, pedibus (vt aiunt) Achilleis semper fugi, et tamẽ valde pertimesco ne officij mora et procrastinatio (vt ita dicam) obscænam securitatis labem nomini meo inurat, eoque magis expauesco quod peruulgatum illud atque decantatum poetæ carmen memoriæ occurrebat.

Dedecus est semper sumere nilque dare.

Sed (Ornatissime vir) quemadmodũ metus illius mali me magnopere affligebat atque fodicabat, ita spes alterius boni, nempe humanitatis tuæ, qua cæteris multis interuallis præluxeris, erigit suffulcitque: Ea etiam spes alma et opima iubet et hortatur aliquod quale quale sit, officij specimen cum allacritate animi prodere. Hisce itaque persuasionibus victus me morigerum præbui, absolutamque de canibus Britannicis interpretationẽ Anglicam, tibi potissimum vtpote patrono singulari, et vnico Mæcenati dedicandũ proposui: non quod tam ieiuno et exili munere immensum meritorum tuorum mare metiri machiner, non quod religiosas aures sacratasque, prophanæ paginæ explicatione obtundere cupiam, nec quod nugatoriis friuolisque narrationibus te delectari arbitrer, cum in diuinioribus excercitationibus totus sis: sed potius (cedat fides dicto) quod insignis ille egregiusque liber alium artium, et præcipuè medicæ facultatis princeps (qui hoc opusculum contexuit) ita viguit dum vixerat adeoque inclaruit, vt haud scio (vt ingenué fatear quod sentio) an post funera parem sibi superstitem reliquerit. Deinde quod hunc libellum summo studio et industria elaboratum in transmarinas regiones miserat, ad hominem omni literarum genere, et præsertim occultarũ rerum cognitione, quæ intimis naturæ visceribus et medullis insederat (O ingeniũ niueo lapillo dignũ) cuius difficultates Laberyntheis anfractibus flexuosisque recessibus impeditas perscrutari et iuuestigare (deus bone, quam ingẽs labor, quam infinitum opus,) excultum, Conradum Gesnerum scriberet, qui tantam gratiam conciliauit vt non solum amicissimo osculo exciperet, sed etiam stud lose lectitaret, accuratè vteretur, inexhaustis denique viribus, tanquam perspicacissimus draco vellus aureum, et oculis plusquam aquilinis custodiret, Postremo quemadmodum hanc epitomen a viro verè docto ad virum summa nominis celebritate decoratum scriptam fuisse accepimus, ita eandem ipsam (pro titulo Britannico) Britãnico sermone, licet ineleganti, vsitata et populari, ab esuriente Rhetore donatam, tuis (eruditissime vir) manibus commendo vt tuo sub patrocino in has atque illas regionis nostræ partes intrepide proficiscatur: obtestorque vt hunc libellum, humilem et obscuram inscriptionem gerentem, argumentum nouum et antehæc non auditum complectientem, ab omni tamen Sybaritica obscœnitate remotissimum, æqui bonique consulas.

Tuæ dignitati deditissimus

Abrahamus

Flemingus.

To the well disposed Reader.

As euery manifest effect proceedeth frõ som certain cause, so the penning of this present abridgement (gentle and courteous reader) issued from a speciall occasion. For Conradus Gesnerus, a man whiles he liued, of incomparable knowledge, and manyfold experience, being neuer satisfied with the sweete sappe of vnderstanding, requested Iohannes Caius a profound clarke and a rauennous deuourer of learning (to his praise be it spoke though the language be somewhat homely) to write a breuiary or short treatise of such dogges as were ingendred within the borders of England: To the contentation of whose minde and the vtter accomplishement of whose desire, Caius spared no study, (for the acquaintance which was betweene them, as it was confirmed by continuaunce, and established vpon vnfainednes, so was it sealed with vertue and honesty) withdrew himself from no labour, repined at no paines, forsooke no trauaile, refused no indeuour, finally pretermitted no opportunity or circumstaunce which seemed pertinent and requisite to the performance of this litle libell. In the whole discourse wherof, the booke, to consider the substaunce, being but a pamphlet or skantling, the argument not so fyne and affected, and yet the doctrine very profitable and necessarye, he vseth such a smoothe and comely style, and tyeth his inuention to such methodicall and orderly proceedings, as the elegantnes and neatnesse of his Latine phrase, (being pure, perfect, and vn mingled) maketh the matter which of it selfe is very base and clubbishe, to appeare (shall I say tollerable) nay rather commendable and effectuall. The sundry sortes of Englishe dogges he discouereth so euidently, their natures he rippeth vp so apparantly, their manners he openeth so manifestly, their qualities he declareth so skilfully, their proportions he painteth out so perfectly, their colours he describeth so artificially, and knytteth all these in such shortnesse and breuity, that the mouth of th’aduersary must needes confesse & giue sentence that commendation ought to bee his rewarde, and praise his deserued pension. An ignoraunt man woulde neuer have beene drawne into this opinion, to thincke that there had bene in England such variety & choice of dogges, in all respectes (not onely for name but also for qualitie) so diuerse and vnlike: But what cannot learning attaine? what cannot the kay of knowledge open? what cannot the lampe of vnderstanding lighten? what secretes cannot discretion detect? finally what cannot experience comprehend? what huge heapes of histories hath Gesnerus hourded vp in volumes of a large syze? Fishes in floudes, Cattell on lande, Byrdes in the ayre, how hath he sifted them by their naturall differences? how closely and in how narrow a compasse hath he couched mighty and monstruous beasts, in bygnesse lyke mountaines, the bookes themselues being lesser then Molehilles. The lyfe of this man was not so great a restority of comfort, as his death was an vlcer or wound of sorrow: the losse of whom Caius lamented, not so much as he was his faithfull friende, as for that he was a famous Philosopher, and yet the former reason (being, in very deede, vehement and forceable) did stinge him with more griefe, then he peraduenture was willing to disclose. And though death be counted terrible for the time, and consequently vnhappy, yet Caius aduoucheth the death of Gesner most blessed, luckie, and fortunate, as in his Booke intituled De libris proprijs appeareth. But of these two Eagles sufficient is spoken as I suppose, and yet litle enough in consideration of their dignitie and worthines. Neurthelesse litle or mickle, something or nothing, substaunce or shadow take all in good part, my meaning is by a fewe wordes to wynne credit to this worke, not so much for mine owne Englishe Translation as for the singuler commendation of them, challenged of dutie and desart. Wherefore gentle Reader I commit them to thy memorie, and their bookes to thy courteous censure. They were both learned men, and painefull practitioners in their professions, so much the more therfore are their workes worthy estimation, I would it were in me to aduaunce them as I wishe, the worst (and yet both, no doubt, excellent) hath deserued a monument of immortality. Well there is no more to be added but this, that as the translatiõ of this booke was attempted, finished, and published of goodwill (not onely to minister pleasure, as to affoord profit) so it is my desire and request that my labour therin employed may be acceptable, as I hope it shalbe to men of indifferent Judgement. As for such as shall snarr and snatch at the Englishe abridgement, and teare the Translatour, being absent, with the teeth of spightfull enuye, I conclude in breuity there eloquence is but currishe, if I serue in their meate with wrong sawce, ascribe it not to vnskilfulnesse in coquery, but to ignoraunce in their diet, for as the Poet sayeth

Non satis est ars sola coquo, seruire palato:

Nanque coquus dontini debet habere gulam:

It is not enough that a cooke vnderstand,

Except his Lordes stomack he holde in his hand.

To winde vp all in a watcheworde I saye no more, But doe well, and Farewell,

His and his Friendes,

Abraham

Fleming.

1 1

The first Section of this
discourse.

¶ The Preamble or entraunce, into
this treatise.

I wrote vnto you (well beloued friende Gesner) not many yeares past, a manifolde historie, contayning the diuers formes and figures of Beastes, Byrdes, and Fyshes, the sundry shapes of plantes, and the fashions of Hearbes, &c.

I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of Dogges, which in your discourse vpon the fourmes of Beastes in the seconde order of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion of Scottishe Dogges, and in the wynding vp of your Letter written and directed to Doctour Turner, comprehending a Catalogue or rehersall of your bookes not yet extant, you promised to set forth in print, and openly to publishe in the face of the worlde among such your workes as are not yet come abroade to lyght and sight. But, because certaine circumstaunces were wanting in my breuiary of Englishe Dogges (as seemed vnto mee) I stayed the publication of the same, making promise to sende another abroade, which myght be commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares, the mindes, and the iudgements of the Readers. Wherefore that I myght perfourme that preciselye, which I promised solempnly, accomplishe my determination, and satisfy your expectacion: which art a man desirous and 2 capeable of all kinde of knowledge, and very earnest to be acquaincted with all experimentes: I wyll expresse and declare in due order, the grand and generall kinde of Englishe Dogges, the difference of them, the vse, the propertyes, and the diuerse 2 natures of the same, making a tripartite diuision in this sort and maner.

All Englishe Dogges be eyther of,

A gentle kinde, seruing the game.

A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary vses.

A currishe kinde, meete for many toyes.

Of these three sortes or kindes so meane I to entreate, that the first in the first place, the last in the last roome, and the myddle sort in the middle seate be handled. I cal thẽ vniuersally all by the name of English dogges, as well because England only, as it hath in it English dogs, so it is not without Scottishe, as also for that wee are more inclined and delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen are adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure, as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we obtaine, both which, the Scottes want. Wherfore seeing that the whole estate of kindly hunting consisteth principally,

In these two pointes,

In chasing the beast

In taking the byrde

that is in hunting
fowleing

It is necessary and requisite to vnderstand, that there are two sortes of Dogges by whose meanes, the feates within specifyed are wrought, and these practyses of actiuitie cunningly and curiously compassed,

Two kindes of Dogges

One which rouseth the beast and continueth the chase,

Another which springeth the byrde and bewrayeth flight by pursuite,

Both which kyndes are tearmed of the Latines by one common name that is, Canes Venatici, hunting dogges. But 3 because we Englishe men make a difference betweene hunting and fowleling, for that they are called by these seuerall wordes, Venatio & Aucupium, so they tearme the Dogges whom they vse in these sundry games by diuers names, as those which 3 serue for the beast, are called Venatici, the other which are vsed for the fowle are called Aucupatorij

The first kind
called Venatici
I deuide into
fiue sortes.

The first in perfect smelling

The second in quicke spying

The thirde in swiftnesse and quicknesse

The fourth in smelling & nymblenesse

The fifte in subtiltie and deceitfulnesse,

excelleth.

Of the Dogge called a Harier, in Latine Leuerarius.

That kinde of Dogge whom nature hath indued with the vertue of smelling, whose property it is to vse a lustines, a readines, and a couragiousnes in hunting, and draweth into his nostrells the ayre or sent of the beast pursued and followed, we call by this word Sagax, the Græcians by thys word ιχνευτήν of tracing or chasing by ye foote, or ῥινηλάτην, of the nostrells, which be the instrumentes of smelling. Wee may knowe these kinde of Dogges by their long, large, and bagging lippes, by their hanging eares, reachyng downe both sydes of their chappes, and by the indifferent and measurable proportion of their making. This sort of Dogges we call Leuerarios Hariers, that I may comprise the whole nũber of them in certaine specialties, and apply to them their proper and peculier names, for so much as they cannot all be reduced 4 and brought vnder one sorte, considering both the sundrye uses of them, and the difference of their seruice wherto they be appointed.

  The Hare
The Foxe
 
Some for The Wolfe
The Harte
The Bucke
The Badger
The Otter
The Polcat
The LobsterC
Some for one thing and some for another.
  The Weasell
The Conny, &c.
 
4

As for the Conny, whom we haue lastly set downe, wee use not to hunt, but rather to take it, somtime with the nette sometime with a ferret, and thus euery seuerall sort is notable and excellent in his naturall qualitie and appointed practise. Among these sundry sortes, there be some which are apt to hunt two diuers beasts, as the Foxe otherwhiles, and other whiles the Hare, but they hunt not with such towardnes and good lucke after them, as they doe that whereunto nature hath formed and framed them, not onely in externall composition & making, but also in inward faculties and conditions, for they swarue oftentimes, and doo otherwise then they should.

Of the Dogge called a Terrar, in Latine Terrarius.

Another sorte there is which hunteth the Foxe and the Badger or Greye onely, whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in searching for Connyes) creepe into the grounde, and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe, and byte the Foxe and the Badger in such 5 sort, that eyther they teare them in peeces with theyr teeth beyng in the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out of their lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues, or at the least through cõceaued feare, driue them out of their hollow harbours, in so much that they are compelled to prepare speedy flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and intrapped with snares and nettes layde ouer holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that kynde called Sagax.

Of the Dogge called a Bloudhounde in Latine Sanguinarius.

The greater sort which serue to hunt, hauing lippes of a large syze, & eares of no small lenght, doo, not onely chase the beast whiles it liueth, (as the other doo of whom mencion aboue is made) but beyng dead also by any maner of casualtie, 5 make recourse to the place where it lyeth, hauing in this poynt an assured and infallible guyde, namely, the sent and sauour of the bloud sprinckled heere and there vpon the ground. For whether the beast beyng wounded, doth notwithstanding enioye life, and escapeth the handes of the huntesman, or whether the said beast beyng slayne is conuayed clenly out of the parcke (so that there be some signification of bloud shed) these Dogges with no lesse facilitie and easinesse, then auiditie and greedinesse can disclose and bewray the same by smelling, applying to their pursute, agilitie and nimblenesse, without tediousnesse, for which consideration, of a singuler specialtie they deserued to bee called Sanguinarij bloudhounds. And albeit peraduenture it may chaunce, (As whether it chaunceth sealdome or sometime I am ignorant) that a peece of fleshe be subtily stolne and cunningly conuayed away with such prouisos and precaueats as thereby all apparaunce 6 of bloud is eyther preuented, excluded, or concealed, yet these kinde of dogges by a certaine direction of an inwarde assured notyce and priuy marcke, pursue the deede dooers, through long lanes, crooked reaches, and weary wayes, without wandring awry out of the limites of the land whereon these desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage. Yea, the natures of these Dogges is such, and so effectuall is their foresight, that they cã bewray, seperate, and pycke them out from among an infinite multitude and an innumerable company, creepe they neuer so farre into the thickest thronge, they will finde him out notwithstandying he lye hidden in wylde woods, in close and ouergrowen groues, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such vngracious guestes. Moreouer, although they should passe ouer the water, thinking thereby to auoyde the pursute of the houndes, yet will not these Dogges giue ouer their attempt, but presuming to swym through the streame, perseuer in their pursute, and when they be arriued and gotten the further bancke, they hunt vp and downe, to and fro runne they, from place to place shift they, vntill they haue attained to that plot of grounde where they passed ouer. And this is their practise, if perdie they cãnot at ye first time smelling, finde out the way which the deede 6 dooers tooke to escape. So at length get they that by arte, cunning, and diligent indeuour, which by fortune and lucke they cannot otherwyse ouercome. In so much as it seemeth worthely and wisely written by Ælianus in his sixte Booke, and xxxix. Chapter. Τὸ ἐνθυμητικον καὶ διαλεκτικὸν. to bee as it were naturally instilled and powred into these kinde of Dogges. For they wyll not pause or breath from their pursute vntill such tyme as they bee apprehended and taken which committed the facte. The owners of such houndes vse to keepe them in close and darke channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night season, to th’intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed 7 to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes. These houndes (vpon whom this present portion of our treatise runneth) when they are to follow such fellowes as we haue before rehersed, vse not that liberty to raunge at wil, which they have otherwise when they are in game, (except upon necessary occasion, wheron dependeth an urgent and effectuall perswasion) when such purloyners make speedy way in flight, but beyng restrained and drawne backe from running at randon with the leasse, the ende whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote, or whether he ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe for the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots. In the borders of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed stealing of cattell so procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very much vsed and they are taught and trayned up first of all to hunt cattell as well of the smaller as of the greater grouth, and afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and lefte) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we have already declared. Of this kinde there is none that taketh the water naturally, except it please you so to suppose of them whych follow the Otter, whych sometimes haunte the lande, and sometime vseth the water. And yet neuerthelesse all the kind of them 7 boyling and broyling with greedy desire of the pray which by swymming passeth through ryuer and flood, plung amyds the water, and passe the streame with their pawes. But this propertie proceedeth from an earnest desire wherwith they be inflamed, rather then from any inclination issuyng from the ordinance and appoyntment of nature. And albeit some of this sort in English be called Brache, in Scottishe Rache, the cause hereof resteth in the shee sex and not in the generall kinde. For we English men call bytches, belonging to the 8 hunting kinde of Dogges, by the tearme aboue mencioned. To bee short it is proper to the nature of houndes, some to keepe silence in hunting untill such tyme as there is game offered. Othersome so soone as they smell out the place where the beast lurcketh, to bewray it immediatly by their importunate barcking, notwithstanding it be farre of many furlongs cowchyng close in his cabbyn. And these Dogges the younger they be, the more wantonly barcke they, and the more liberally, yet, oftimes without necessitie, so that in them, by reason of theyr young yeares and want of practise, small certaintie is to be reposed. For continuance of tyme, and experience in game, ministreth to these houndes not onely cunning in running, but also (as in the rest) an assured foresight what is to bee done, principally, being acquainted with their masters watchwordes, eyther in reuoking or imboldening them to serue the game.

Of the Dogge called the Gasehounde, in Latine Agaseus.

This kinde of Dogge which pursueth by the eye, preuayleth little, or neuer a whit, by any benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpenesse of sight altogether, by the vertue whereof, being singuler and notable, it hunteth the Foxe and the Hare. Thys Dogge will choose and seperate any beast from among a great flocke or hearde, and such a one will it take by election as is not lancke, leane and hollow, but well spred, smoothe, full, fatte, and round, it 8 followes by the direction of the eyesight, which in deede is cleere, constant, and not uncertaine, if a beast be wounded and gone astray this Dogge seeketh after it by the stedfastnes of the eye, if it chaunce peraduenture to returne & bee mingled with the residue of the flocke, this Dogge spyeth it out by the vertue of his eye, leauing the rest of the cattell vntouched, and after he hath set sure sight upõ it he seperateth it from among the company and hauing so done neuer ceaseth 9 untill he haue wearyed the Beast to death. Our countrey men call this dogge Agasæum. A gasehounde because the beames of his sight are so stedfastly setled and vnmoueably fastened. These Dogges are much and vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of England more then in the Southern parts, & in fealdy landes rather then in bushy and wooddy places, horsemen vse them more then footemen to th’intent that they might prouoke their horses to a swift galloppe (wherwith they are more delighted then with the pray it selfe) and that they myght accustome theyr horse to leape ouer hedges & ditches, without stoppe or stumble, without harme or hassard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape with safegard of lyfe. And to the ende that the ryders themselues when necessitie so constrained, and the feare of further mischiefe inforced, myght saue themselues vndamnifyed, and preuent each perilous tempest by preparing speedy flight, or else by swift pursute made vpon theyr enimyes, myght both ouertake them, encounter with them, and make a slaughter of them accordingly. But if it fortune so at any time that this Dogge take a wrong way, the master making some vsuall signe and familiar token, he returneth forthwith, and taketh the right and ready trace, beginning his chase a fresh, & with a cleare voyce, and a swift foote followeth the game with as much courage and nimblenesse as he did at the first.

Of the Dogge called the Grehounde, in Latine Leporarius.

There is another kinde of Dogge which for his incredible swiftnesse is called Leporarius a Grehounde, because the 9 principall seruice of them dependeth and consisteth in starting and hunting the hare, which Dogges likewyse are indued with no lesse strength then lightnes in maintenance of the 10 game, in seruing the chase, in taking the Bucke, the Harte, the Dowe, the Foxe, and other beastes of semblable kinde ordained for the game of hunting. But more or lesse, each one according to the measure and proportion of theyr desire, and as might and habilitie of theyr bodyes will permit and suffer. For it is a spare and bare kinde of Dogge, (of fleshe but not of bone) some are of a greater sorte, and some of a lesser, some are smooth skynned, & some are curled, the bigger therefore are appoynted to hunt the bigger beasts, & the smaller serue to hunt the smaller accordingly. The nature of these dogges I finde to be wonderful by ye testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the Historyographer in his 4. lib. reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard, the second yt wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of England, neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whẽ Henry Duke of Lancaster came to the castle of Flinte to take King Richarde. The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to Duke Henry, fawned upon him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and conceaued affection, as he fauoured King Richarde before: he followed the Duke, and vtterly left the King. So that by these manifest circumstances a man myght iudge this Dogge to haue bene lightened wyth the lampe of foreknowledge & vnderstãding, touchyng his olde masters miseryes to come, and vnhappinesse nye at hand, which King Richarde himselfe euidently perceaued, accounting this deede of his Dogge a Prophecy of his ouerthrowe.

Of the Dogge called the Leuiner, or Lyemmer in Latine Lorarius.

Another sort of dogges be there, in smelling singuler, and in swiftnesse incomparable. This is (as it were) a myddle kinde betwixt the Harier and the Grehounde, as well for his kinde, as for the frame of his body. And it is called in latine Leuinarius, a Leuitate, of lyghtnesse, and therefore may well 10 be called a lyghthounde, it is also called by this worde Lorarius, a Loro, wherwith it is led. This Dogge for the 11 excellency of his conditions, namely smelling and swift running, doth followe the game with more eagernes, and taketh the pray with a iolly quicknes.

Of the Dogge called a Tumbler, in Latine Vertagus.

This sorte of Dogges, which compasseth all by craftes, fraudes, subtelties and deceiptes, we Englishe men call Tumblers, because in hunting they turne and tumble, winding their bodyes about in circle wise, and then fearcely and violently venturing upõ the beast, doth soddenly gripe it, at the very entrance and mouth of their receptacles, or closets before they can recouer meanes, to saue and succour themselues. This dogge vseth another craft and subteltie, namely, when he runneth into a warren, or setteth a course about a connyburrough, he huntes not after them, he frayes them not by barcking, he makes no countenance or shadow of hatred against them, but dissembling friendship, and pretending fauour, passeth by with silence and quietnesse, marking and noting their holes diligently, wherin (I warrant you) he will not be ouershot nor deceaued. When he commeth to the place where Connyes be, of a certaintie, he cowcheth downe close with his belly to the groũd, Prouided alwayes by his skill and polisie, that ye winde bee neuer with him but against him in such an enterprise. And that the Connyes spie him not where he lurcketh. By which meanes he obtaineth the sent and sauour of the Connyes, carryed towardes him with the wind & the ayre, either going to their holes, or cõming out, eyther passing this way, or running that way, and so prouideth by his circumspection, that the selly simple Conny is debarred quite from his hole (which is the hauen of their hope and the harbour of their health) and fraudulently circumuented and taken, before they can get the aduantage 12 of their hole. Thus hauing caught his pray he carryeth it speedily to his Master, wayting his Dogges returne in some conuenient lurcking corner. These Dogges are somewhat 11 lesser than the houndes, and they be lancker & leaner, beside that they be somwhat prick eared. A man that shall marke the forme and fashion of their bodyes, may well call them mungrell Grehoundes if they were somwhat bigger. But notwithstanding they counteruaile not the Grehound in greatnes, yet will he take in one dayes space as many Connyes as shall arise to as bigge a burthen, and as heauy a loade as a horse can carry, for deceipt and guile is the instrument wherby he maketh this spoyle, which pernicious properties supply the places of more commendable qualities.

Of the Dogge called the theeuishe Dogge in Latine Canis furax.

The like to that whom we have rehearsed, is the theeuishe Dogge, which at the mandate and bydding of his master steereth and leereth abroade in the night, hunting Connyes by the ayre, which is leuened with their sauour and conueyed to the sense of smelling by the meanes of the winde blowing towardes him. During all which space of his hunting he will not barcke, least he shoulde bee preiudiciall to his owne aduantage. And thus watcheth and snatcheth up in course as many Connyes as his Master will suffer him, and beareth them to his Masters standing. The farmers of the countrey and uplandishe dwellers, call this kinde of Dogge a nyght curre, because he hunteth in the darke. But let thus much seeme sufficient for Dogges which serue the game and disport of hunting.

13

¶ A Diall pertaining to the
first Section.

    Hariers
Terrars
 
Dogges seruing
ye pastime
of hunting
beastes.
are
diuided
into
Bloudhounds
Gasehounds
Grehounds

Leuiners or
Lyemmers

  In Latine
called
Venatici.
    Tumblers
Stealers
 
12 14

The seconde Section of
this discourse.

Of gentle Dogges seruing the hauke, and first
of the Spaniell, called in Latine
Hispaniolus.

Svch Dogges as serue for fowling, I thinke conuenient and requisite to place in this seconde Section of this treatise. These are also to bee reckoned and accounted in the number of the dogges which come of a gentle kind, and of those which serue for fowling.

There be two sortes

The first findeth game on the land.

The other findeth game on the water.

Such as delight on the land, play their partes, eyther by swiftnesse of foote, or by often questing, to search out and to spring the byrde for further hope of aduauntage, or else by some secrete signe and priuy token bewray the place where they fall.

The first kinde
of such serue

  The Hauke,
The seconde, { The net, or, traine,

The first kinde haue no peculier names assigned vnto them, saue onely that they be denominated after the byrde which by naturall appointment he is alotted to take, for the which consideration. 15

Some be called Dogges, For the Falcon
The Phesant
The Partridge
and such like,

The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely Spaniells. As though these kinde of Dogges 13 came originally and first of all out of Spaine, The most part of their skynnes are white, and if they be marcked with any spottes, they are commonly red, and somewhat great therewithall, the heares not growing in such thicknesse but that the mixture of them maye easely bee perceaued. Othersome of them be reddishe and blackishe, but of that sorte there be but a very few. There is also at this day among vs a newe kinde of dogge brought out of Fraunce (for we Englishe men are maruailous greedy gaping gluttons after nouelties, and couetous coruorauntes of things that be seldom, rare, straunge, and hard to get.) And they bee speckled all ouer with white and black, which mingled colours incline to a marble blewe, which bewtifyeth their skinnes and affordeth a seemely show of comlynesse. These are called French dogges as is aboue declared already.

The Dogge called the Setter, in Latine Index.

Another sort of Dogges be there, seruiceable for fowling, making no noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles they followe the game. These attend diligently vpon theyr Master and frame their conditions to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please him to exhibite and make, either going forward, drawing backeward, inclining to the right hand, or yealding toward the left, (In making mencion of fowles, my meaning is of the Partridge & the Quaile) when he hath founde the byrde, he keepeth sure and fast silence, he stayeth his steppes and wil proceede no further, and with a 16 close, couert, watching eye, layeth his belly to the grounde and so creepeth forward like a worme. When he approcheth neere to the place where the birde is, he layes him downe, and with a marcke of his pawes betrayeth the place of the byrdes last abode, whereby it is supposed that this kinde of dogge is called Index, Setter, being in deede a name most consonant and agreable to his quality. The place being knowne by the meanes of the dogge, the fowler immediatly 14 openeth and spreedeth his net, intending to take them, which being done the dogge at the accustomed becke or vsuall signe of his Master ryseth vp by and by, and draweth neerer to the fowle that by his presence they might be the authors of their owne insnaring, and be ready intangled in the prepared net, which conning and artificiall indeuour in a dogge (being a creature domesticall or householde seruaunt brought vp at home with offalls of the trencher & fragments of victualls,) is not much to be maruailed at, seing that a Hare (being a wilde and skippishe beast) was seene in England to the astonishment of the beholders, in the yeare of our Lorde God, 1564, not onely dauncing in measure, but playing with his former feete vppon a tabberet, and obseruing iust number of strokes (as a practicioner in that arte) besides that nipping & pinching a dogge with his teeth and clawes, & cruelly thumping him with ye force of his feete. This is no trumpery tale, nor trifling toye (as I imagine) and therefore not vnworthy to bee reported, for I recken it a requitall of my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas of silence any speciall thing, wherin the prouidence and effectuall working of nature is to be pondered.

Of the Dogge called the water Spaniell, or finder, in Latine Aquaticus seu Inquisitor.

That kinde of Dogge whose seruice is required in fowling vpon the water, partly through a naturall towardnesse, and partly by diligent teaching, is indued with that property. 17 This sort is somewhat bigge, and of a measurable greatnesse, hauing long, rough, and curled heare, not obtayned by extraordinary trades, but giuen by natures appointment, yet neuerthelesse (friend Gesner) I have described and set him out in this maner, namely powlde and netted from the shoulders to the hindermost legges, and to the end of his tayle, which I did for vse and customs cause, that beyng as it were made somewhat bare and naked, by shearing of 15 such superfluitie of heare, they might atchiue the more lightnesse, and swiftnesse, and be lesse hindered in swymming, so troublesome and needelesse a burthen being shaken of. This kinde of dogge is properly called, Aquaticus, a water spaniel because he frequenteth and hath vsual recourse to the water where all his game & exercise lyeth, namely, waterfowles, which are taken by the helpe & seruice of them, in their kind. And principally duckes and drakes, wherupon he is lykewise named a dogge for the ducke, because in that quallitie he is excellent. With these dogges also we fetche out of the water such fowle as be stounge to death by any venemous worme, we vse them also to bring vs our boultes & arrowes out of the water, (missing our marcke) whereat we directed our leuell, which otherwise we should hardly recouer, and oftentimes they restore to vs our shaftes which we thought neuer to see, touche or handle againe, after they were lost, for which circumstaunces they are called Inquisitores, searchers, and finders. Although the ducke otherwhiles notably deceaueth both the dogge and the master, by dyuing vnder the water, and also by naturall subtilty, for if any man shall approche to the place where they builde, breede, and syt, the hennes go out of their neastes, offering themselues voluntarily to the hãds, as it were, of such as draw nie their neasts. And a certaine weaknesse of their winges pretended, and infirmitie of their feete dissembled, they go so slowely and so leasurely, that to a mans thinking it were no masteryes to take them. By which deceiptfull tricke they doe as it were 18 entyse and allure men to follow them, till they be drawne a long distaunce from theyr neastes, which being compassed by their prouident conning, or conning prouidence, they cut of all inconueniences which might growe of their returne, by using many carefull and curious caueates, least theyr often haunting bewray ye place where the young ducklings be hatched. Great therfore is theyr desire, & earnest is theyr study to take heede, not only to theyr broode but also to themselues. For when they haue an ynckling that they are espied they hide themselues vnder turfes or sedges, wherwith they couer and shrowde themselues so closely and so craftely, 16 that (notwithstanding the place where they lurcke be found and perfectly perceaued) there they will harbour without harme, except the water spaniell by quicke smelling discouer theyr deceiptes.

Of the Dogge called the Fisher, in Latine Canis Piscator.

The Dogge called the fisher, wherof Hector Boethus writeth, which seeketh for fishe by smelling among rockes & stones, assuredly I knowe none of that kinde in Englande, neither haue I receaued by reporte that there is any suche, albeit I haue bene diligent & busie in demaunding the question as well of fishermen, as also of huntesmen in that behalfe being carefull and earnest to learne and vnderstand of them if any such were, except you holde opinion that the beauer or Otter is a fishe (as many haue beleeued) & according to their beliefe affirmed, and as the birde Pupine, is thought to be a fishe and so accounted. But that kinde of dogge which followeth the fishe to apprehend and take it (if there bee any of that disposition and property) whether they do this for the game of hunting, or for the heate of hunger, as other Dogges do which rather then they wil be famished for want of foode, couet the carckases of carrion and putrifyed fleshe. When I am fully resolued and disburthened of this doubt I wil send you certificate in writing. In the meane season I am not ignorant of that both Ælianus, and Ælius, call the Beauer 19 κύνα ποτάμιον a water dogge, or a dogge fishe, I know likewise thus much more, that the Beauer doth participate this propertie with the dogge, namely, that when fishes be scarse they leaue the water and raunge vp and downe the lande, making an insatiable slaughter of young lambes vntil theyr paunches be replenished, and whẽ they haue fed themselues full of fleshe, then returne they to the water, from whence they came. But albeit so much be graunted that this Beauer is a dogge, yet it is to be noted that we recken it not in the beadrowe of Englishe dogges as we haue done the rest. The sea Calfe, in 17 like maner, which our country mẽ for breuitie sake call a Seele, other more largely name a Sea Vele, maketh a spoyle of fishes betweene rockes and banckes, but it is not accounted in the catalogue or nũber of our Englishe dogges, notwithstanding we call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe. And thus much for our dogges of the second sort called in Latine Aucupatorij, seruing to take fowle either by land or water.

¶ A Diall pertaining to the
second Section.

Dogges
seruing the
disport of
fowling.
are
diuided
into
Land spaniels
Setters

Water spaniels
or finders.

called
in latine
Canes
Aucupatorij
The fisher
is not of
their number,
but seuerall.
18 20

The thirde Section of this
abridgement.

Nowe followeth in due order and conuenient place our Englishe Dogges of the thirde gentle kinde, what they are called to what vse they serue, and what sort of people plant their pleasure in thẽ, which because they neede no curious canuassing and nye syfting, wee meane to bee so much the briefer.

Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges
called the Spaniel gentle, or the comforter,
in Latine Melitæus
or Fotor
.

There is, besides those which wee haue already deliuered, another sort of gentle dogges in this our Englishe soyle but exempted from the order of the residue, the Dogges of this kinde doth Callimachus call Melitæos, of the Iseland Melita, in the sea of Sicily, (what at this day is named Malta, an Iseland in deede, famous and renoumed, with couragious and puisaunt souldiours valliauntly fighting vnder the banner of Christ their vnconquerable captaine) where this kind of dogges had their principall beginning.

These dogges are litle, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames, and wanton womens wills, instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from more commendable exercises, and to content 21 their corrupted concupiscences with vaine disport (A selly shift to shunne yrcksome ydlnesse.) These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they prouoke, as more 19 meete play fellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their bosoms, to keepe company withal in their chambers, to succour with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at bourde, to lay in their lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good reason it should be so, for coursnesse with fynenesse hath no fellowship, but featnesse with neatenesse hath neighbourhood enough. That plausible prouerbe verified vpon a Tyraunt, namely that he loued his sowe better then his sonne, may well be applyed to these kinde of people who delight more in dogges that are depriued of all possibility of reason, then they doe in children that be capeable of wisedome and iudgement. But this abuse peraduenture raigneth where there hath bene long lacke of issue, or else where barrennes is the best blossome of bewty.

The vertue which remaineth in the Spainell gentle otherwise called the comforter.

Notwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called Spaniels gentle, yet if the question were demaunded what propertie in them they spye, which shoulde make them so acceptable and precious in their sight, I doubt their aunswere would be long a coyning. But seeing it was our intent to trauaile in this treatise, so that ye reader might reape some benefite by his reading, we will communicate vnto you such coniectures as are grounded upon reason. And though some suppose that such dogges are fyt for no seruice, I dare say, by their leaues, they be in a wrong boxe. Among all other qualities therfore of nature, which be knowne (for some conditions are couered with continuall and thicke clouds, that the eye of our capacities can not pearse through thẽ) we 22 find that these litle dogs are good to asswage the sicknesse of the stomacke being oftentimes thervnto applyed as a plaster preseruatiue, or borne in the bosom of the diseased and weake person, which effect is performed by theyr moderate heate. Moreouer the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his place and entreth (though it be not precisely marcked) into 20 the dogge, which to be no vntruth, experience can testify, for these kinde of dogges sometimes fall sicke, and sometime die, without any harme outwardly inforced, which is an argument that the disease of the gentleman, or gentle woman or owner whatsoeuer, entreth into the dogge by the operation of heate intermingled and infected. And thus haue I hetherto handled dogges of a gentle kinde whom I haue comprehended in a triple diuisiõ. Now it remaineth that I annex in due order such dogges as be of a more homely kinde.

A Diall pertaining to the
thirde Section.

In the third
section is
cõtained
one kind of
dog which is
called the
Spaniell
gentle
or the
cõforter,
It is
also
called

A chamber cõpanion,

A pleasaunt playfellow,

A pretty worme,

generally
called
Canis
delicatus
.
21 23

The fourth Section of this
discourse.

Dogges of a course kind seruing for many necessary
vses called in Latine Canes rustici, and first of
the shepherds dogge called in Latine
Canis Pastoralis.

Dogges of
the courser
sort are

The shepherds dogge

The mastiue or Bandogge.

These two are
the principall.

The first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very necessarye and profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may come to men by the meanes of beastes. The second sort serue to succour against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men. Our shepherdes dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with the bloudthyrsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefite is to be ascribed to the puisaunt Prince Edgar, who to thintent yt the whole countrey myght be euacuated and quite cleered from wolfes, charged & commaunded the welshemẽ (who were pestered with these butcherly beastes aboue measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was (note the wisedome of the King) three hundred Wolfes. Some there be which write that Ludwall Prince of Wales paide yeerely to King Edgar three hundred wolfes in the name of an exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And that by the meanes hereof, within the compasse and tearme of 24 foure yeares, none of those noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the coastes of England and Wales. This Edgar 22 wore the Crowne royall, and bare the Scepter imperiall of this kingdome, about the yeere of our Lorde, nyne hundred fifty, nyne. Synce which time we reede that no Wolfe hath bene seene in England, bred within the bounds and borders of this countrey, mary there have bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the seas, for greedynesse of gaine and to make money, for gasing and gaping, staring, and standing to see them, being a straunge beast, rare, and seldom seene in England. But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This dogge either at the hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and whisteling in his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the wandring weathers and straying sheepe, into the selfe same place where his masters will and wishe is to haue thẽ, wherby the shepherd reapeth this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing of his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to drawe backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way. For it is not in Englande, as it is in Fraunce, as it is in Flaunders, as it is in Syria, as it in Tartaria, where the sheepe follow the shepherd, for heere in our country the sheepherd followeth the sheepe. And somtimes the straying sheepe, when no dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about & beside them, gather themselues together in a flocke, when they heere the sheepherd whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine) remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant which is his whistle. This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our journey from towne to towne, when wee haue hard a sheepherd whistle we haue rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the sheepherd take sheepe for ye slaughter, and to be 25 healed if they be sicke, no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.

23

Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine Villaticus or Cathenarius.

This kinde of Dogge called a mastyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and burthenous body, and therfore but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to beholde, and more fearce and fell then any Arcadian curre (notwithstãding they are sayd to hane their generation of the violent Lyon.) They are called Villatici, because they are appoynted to watche and keepe farme places and coũtry cotages sequestred from commõ recourse, and not abutting vpon other houses by reason of distaunce, when there is any feare conceaued of theefes, robbers, spoylers, and night wanderers. They are seruiceable against the Foxe and the Badger, to drive wilde and tame swyne out of Medowes, pastures, glebelandes and places planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or two at the vttermost, sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so monsterous, neuer so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so stearne, neuer so vntameable. For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent and valiaunt, striking could feare into the harts of men, but standing in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him shrincke, nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to th’ intent that theyr dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature with arte, vse, and custome, for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite the Bull and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes, and oftentimes they traine them vp in fighting and wrestling with a man hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe, a 26 clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to such exercises as these, theyr dogges become more sturdy and strong. The force which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde which they take with their teeth exceedeth all credit, three of them against a Beare, fowre against a Lyon are sufficient, both to try masteryes with them and vtterly to ouermatch 24 them. Which thing Henry the seuenth of that name, King of England (a Prince both politique & warlike) perceauing on a certaine time (as the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer they were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and conceauing great disdaine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre should with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all beastes. An example for all subiectes worthy remembraunce, to admonishe them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against ye regiment of their ruler, but to keepe them within the limits of Loyaltie. I reede an history aunswerable to this of the selfe same Henry, who hauing a notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that the kings Falconers, in the presence and hearing of his grace, highly commended his Maiesties Falcon, saying that it feared not to intermeddle with an Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty, which when the King harde, he charged that the Falcon should be killed without delay, for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme) which was rehersed in the cõclusion of the former history concerning the same king. This dogge is called, in like maner, Cathenarius, a Cathena, of the chaine wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in ye day time, least beyng lose he should doe much mischiefe and yet might giue occasion of feare and terror by his bigge barcking. And albeit CiceroA in his oration had Pro. S. Ross. be of this opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the broade day light shoulde haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen, on this side the seas for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at cinque and sice, are of a contrary iudgement. For theefes roge vp & down in euery corner, no place is free from them, no not ye princes pallace, 27 nor the country mans cotage. In the day time they practise pilfering, picking, open robbing, and priuy stealing, and what legerdemaine lacke they? not fearing the shamefull and horrible death of hanging. The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely issue from nipping neede & wringing want, for all yt steale, are not pinched with pouerty, but som steale to maintaine their excessiue and prodigall expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart, theyr wantonnes 25 of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy Salacones’ μεγαλορρούντων vaine glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth wholly to mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely, spring and praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in compasse, and so forthe, liuing all together vpon the fatnesse of the spoyle. Othersom therbe which steale, being thereto prouoked by penury & neede, like masterlesse mẽ applying themselues to no honest trade, but raunging vp and downe impudently begging, and complayning of bodily weakenesse where is no want of abilitie. But valiaunt Valentine th’emperour, by holsome lawes prouided that suche as hauing no corporall sicknesse, solde themselues to begging, pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, & cloaked their ydle and slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossening, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their impudent ydlenes was bewrayed, and layde against them in publique place, least the insufferable slouthfullnes of such vagabondes should be burthenous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should growe into an example. Alfredus likewise in the gouernment of his common wealth, procured such increase of credite to Justice and vpright dealing by his prudent actes and statutes, that if a mã trauailing by the hygh way of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full of gold, or his capcase farsed with things of great value, late in the euening, he should finde it where 28 he lost it, safe, sound, and vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for a whole monethes space if he sought for it, as Ingulphus Croyladensis in his History recordeth. But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our deuelishe dayes nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it be kept neuer so sure within the house, albe it the doores bee lockt and boulted round about. This dogge in like maner of Græcians is called οἰκουρος

26

Of the latinists Canis Custos, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.

Borrowing his name of his seruire, for he doth not onely keepe farmers houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth, riches, substaunce, and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were certaine dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and charges of the Citizens of Rome in the place called Capitolium, to giue warning of theefes comming. This kind of dogge, is also called,

In latine Canis Laniarius in Englishe the Butchers Dogge.

So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth great benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his cattell when neede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth. This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Molossicus or Molossus.

After the name of a countrey in Epirus called Molossia, which harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for the dogges of that countrey are good in deede, or else their is no trust to be had in the testimonie of writers. This dogge is also called,

In latine Canis Mandatarius a Dogge messinger or Carrier.

Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped vp cunningly in his lether collar, fastened therto, or sowed close therin, who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these helpes very skilfully, namely resistaunce 29 in fighting if he be not ouermatched, or else swiftnesse 27 & readinesse in running away, if he be vnable to buckle with the dogge that would faine haue a snatch at his skinne. This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Canis Lunarius, in Englishe the Mooner.

Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche, wasting the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping, bawing & wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of Nonius) a qualitie in mine opinion straunge to consider. This kinde of dogge is also called.

In latine Aquarius in Englishe a water drawer.

And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out of wells and deepe pittes, by a wheele which they turne rounde about by the mouing of their burthenous bodies. This kinde of dogge is called in like maner.

Canis Sarcinarius in Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers Curre.

Because with marueilous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught with Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettels, porrige pottes, skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery requisite for their occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a great burthen which otherwise he himselfe should carry vpon his shoulders, which condition hath challenged vnto them the foresaid name. Besides the qualities which we haue already recounted, this kind of dogges hath this principall property ingrafted in them, that they loue their masters liberally, and hate straungers despightfully, wherevpon it followeth that they are to their masters, in traueiling a singuler safgard, defending them forceably from the inuasion of villons and theefes, preseruing their lyfes from losse, and their health from hassard, theyr 28 fleshe from hacking and hewing with such like desperate daungers. For which consideration they are meritoriously 30 tearmed,

In Latine Canes defensores defending dogges in our mother tounge.

If it chaunce that the master bee oppressed, either by a multitude, or by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye groueling on the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that this Dogge forsaketh not his master, no not when he is starcke deade: But induring the force of famishment and the outragious tempestes of the weather, most vigilantly watcheth and carefully keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes, indeuouring, furthermore, to kil the murtherer of his master, if he may get any aduantage. Or else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring, snarring, and such like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to haue the death of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged. An example hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The Dogge of a certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of London directly to the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned by reason of the triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings) passing ouer a good portion of his iourney was assaulted and set vpon by certaine confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle in Comeparcke, a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to well knowne for the manyfolde murders & mischeefeous robberies theyr committed. Into whose handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so that his ill lucke cost him the price of his lyfe. And that Dogge whose syer was Englishe (which Blondus registreth to haue bene within the banckes of his remẽbrance) manifestly perceauyng that his Master was murthered (this chaunced not farre from Paris) by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same womã, whom he was a wooer vnto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher, and attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought meanes to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge. In fyers also which fortune in the silence 29 31 and dead time of the night, or in stormy weather of the sayde season, the older dogges barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea notwithstandyng they bee roughly rated) neyther will they stay their tounges till the householde seruauntes, awake, ryse, searche, and see the burning of the fyre, which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary silence, and cease from yolping. This hath bene, and is founde true by tryall, in sundry partes of England. There was no faynting faith in that Dogge, which when his Master by a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and fell toppling downe a deepe dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe, the Dogge signifying his masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was hayled up by a rope, whom the Dogge seeyng almost drawne up to the edge of the dytche, cheerefully saluted, leaping and skipping vpon his master as though he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose longer absence he was lothe to lacke. Some Dogges there be, which will not suffer fyery coales to lye skattered about the hearthe, but with their pawes wil rake up the burnyng coales, musying and studying fyrst with themselues how it myght conueniently be done. And if so bee that the coales cast to great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and so remoue them forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges bee there which exequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme. For when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe, And when,

A hundred barres of brasse and yron boltes,

Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.

VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye,

That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.

As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying there about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And if he finde anything their that is straunge and pertaining to other persons besides his master, 32 whether it be man, woman, or beast, he driueth them out of the ground, not medling with any thing which doth belong to the possession and vse of his master. But how much faythfulnes, so much diuersitie there is in their natures,

30
For there
be some,

Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,

Which doe both barcke and byte,

Which bite bitterly before they barcke,

The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke most vehemently.

The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take heede of them because they sounde, as it were, an Alarum of an afterclappe, and these dogges must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they take on outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the print of their teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are fearce and eager by nature.

The thirde are deadly, for they flye upon a man, without vtteraunce of voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most cruelly byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres, (if thou be wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they bee stoute and stubberne dogges, and set vpon a man at a sodden vnwares. By these signes and tokens, by these notes and argumentes our men discerne the cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from the fearefull, the butcherly from the gentle and tractable. Moreouer they coniecture that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the keeping and that no dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly and so conueniently as this sort of whom we haue so largely written already. For if any be disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a table, what mã more clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce giueth warning eyther of a wastefull beast, or of a spoiling theefe then this? who by his barcking (as good as a burning beacon) 33 foreshoweth hassards at hand? What maner of beast stronger? what seruaũt to his master more louing? what companion more trustie? what watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more constant? what messinger more speedie? what water bearer more painefull? Finally what packhorse more patient? And thus much concerning English Dogges, first of the gentle kinde, secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe it remaineth that 31 we deliuer vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or a currishe kinde, and then will wee perfourme our taske.

¶ A Diall pertaining to the
fourth Section.

     

The keeper or watch man

 
Dogs comprehended
in ye fourth section
are these

The shepherds dogge

The Mastiue or Bandogge,

which hath
sundry names
diriued frõ
sundry
circũstances as
 

The butchers dogge

The messinger or carrier

The Mooner

The water drawer

called
in Latine
Canes
Rustici
.
       

The Tinckers curr

The fencer,

 
32 34

The fifth Section of this
treatise.

Containing Curres of the mungrell and rascall sort and
first of the Dogge called in Latine, Admonitor,
and of vs in Englishe VVappe
or VVarner.

Of such dogges as keepe not their kinde, of such as are mingled out of sundry sortes not imitating the conditions of some one certaine spice, because they resẽble no notable shape, nor exercise any worthy property of the true perfect and gentle kind, it is not necessarye that I write any more of them, but to banishe them as vnprofitable implements, out of the boundes of my Booke, vnprofitable I say for any vse that is commendable, except to intertaine straũgers with their barcking in the day time, giuyng warnyng to them of the house, that such & such be newly come, wherevpon we call them admonishing Dogges, because in that point they performe theyr office.

Of the Dogge called Turnespete in Latine Veruuersator.

There is comprehended, vnder the curres of the coursest kinde, a certaine dogge in kytchen seruice excellent. For whẽ any meate is to bee roasted they go into a wheele which they turning rounde about with the waight of their bodies, so 35 diligently looke to their businesse, that no drudge nor skullion can doe the feate more cunningly. Whom the popular sort herevpon call Turnespets, being the last of all those which wee haue first mencioned.

33

Of the Dogge called the Daunser, in Latine Saltator or Tympanista.

There be also dogges among vs of a mungrell kind which are taught and exercised to daunce in measure at the musicall sounde of an instrument, as, at the iust stroke of the drombe, at the sweete accent of the Cyterne, & tuned strings of the harmonious Harpe showing many pretty trickes by the gesture of their bodies. As to stand bolte upright, to lye flat vpon the grounde, to turne rounde as a ringe holding their tailes in their teeth, to begge for theyr meate, and sundry such properties, which they learne of theyr vagabundicall masters, whose instrumentes they are to gather gaine, withall in Citie, Country, Towne, and Village. As some which carry olde apes on their shoulders in coloured iackets to moue men to laughter for a litle lucre.

Of other Dogges, a short conclusion, wonderfully ingendredB within the coastes of this country.

Three sortes
of them,

The first bred of a bytch and a wolfe,

The second of a bytche and a foxe,

The third of a beare and a bandogge,

In Latine Lyciscus.

In Latine Lacæna.

In Latine Vrcanus.

Of the first we haue none naturally bred within the borders of England. The reason is for the want of wolfes, without whom no such kinde of Dogge can bee ingendred. Againe 36 it is deliuered vnto thee in this discourse, how and by what meanes, by whose benefite, and within what circuite of tyme, this country was cleerely discharged of rauenyng wolfes, and none at all left, no, not to the least number, or the beginnyng of a number, which is an Vnari.

Of the second sort we are not vtterly voyde of some, because this our Englishe soyle is not free from foxes (for in deede we are not without a multitude of them in so much as diuerse keepe, foster, and feede them in their houses among 34 their houndes and dogges, eyther for some maladie of mind, or for some sicknesse of body,) which peraduenture the savour of that subtill beast would eyther mitigate or expell.

The thirde kinde which is bred of a Beare and a Bandogge we want not heare in England, (A straunge & wonderfull effect, that cruell enimyes should enter into ye worke of copulation & bring forth so sauage a curre.) Undoubtedly it is euen so as we haue reported, for the fyery heate of theyr fleshe, or rather the pricking thorne, or most of all, the tyckling lust of lechery, beareth such swinge and sway in them, that there is no contrairietie for the time, but of constraint they must ioyne to ingender. And why should not this bee consonant to truth? why shoulde not these beastes breede in this lande, as well as in other forreigne nations? For wee reede that Tigers and dogges in Hircania, that Lyons and Dogges in Arcadia, and that wolfes and dogges in Francia, couple and procreate. In men and women also lyghtened with the lantarne of reason (but vtterly voide of vertue) that foolishe, frantique, and fleshely action, (yet naturally sealed in vs) worketh so effectuously, yt many tymes it doth reconcile enimyes, set foes at freendship, vnanimitie, & atonement, as Moria mencioneth. The Vrcane which is bred of a beare and a dogge,

Is fearce, is fell, is stoute and stronge,

And byteth sore to fleshe and bone,

His furious force indureth longe

In rage he will be rul’de of none.

That I may vse the wordes of the Poet Gratius, This 37 dogge exceedeth all other in cruell conditions, his leering and fleering lookes, his stearne and sauage vissage, maketh him in sight feareful and terrible, he is violent in fighting, & wheresoeuer he setteth his tenterhooke teeth, he taketh such sure & fast hold that a man may sooner teare and rende him in sunder, then lose him and seperate his chappes. He passeth not for the Wolfe, the Beare, the Lyon, nor the Bull, and may wortherly (as I thinke) be companiõ with Alexanders dogge which came out of India. But of these, thus much, and thus farre may seeme sufficient.

35

A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not impertinent to the Authors purpose.

Vse and custome hath intertained other dogges of an outlandishe kinde, but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane Iseland, dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the lenght of their heare make showe neither of face nor of body. And yet these curres, forsoothe, because they are so straunge are greatly set by, esteemed, taken vp, and made of many times in the roome of the Spaniell gentle or comforter. The natures of men is so moued, nay rather marryed to nouelties without all reason, wyt, iudgement or perseueraunce. Ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτριῶν, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς.

Outlandishe toyes we take with delight,

Things of our owne nation we haue in despight.

Which fault remaineth not in vs concerning dogges only, but for artificers also. And why? it is to manyfest that wee disdayne and contempne our owne workmen, be they neuer so skilfull, be they neuer so cunning, be they neuer so excellent. A beggerly beast brought out of barbarous borders, frõ the vttermost countryes Northward, &c., we stare at, we gase at, we muse, we maruaile at, like an asse of Cumanum, like Thales with the brasen shancks, like the man in the Moone.

38

The which default Hippocrates marcked when he was alyue, as euidently appeareth in the beginnyng of his booke περὶ ἀγμῶν, so intituled and named:

And we in our worcke entituled De Ephemera Britannica, to the people of England haue more plentifully expressed. In this kinde looke which is most blockishe, and yet most waspishe, the same is most esteemed, and not amonge Citizens onely and iolly gentlemen, but among lustie Lordes also, and noble men, and daintie courtier ruffling in their ryotous ragges. Further I am not to wade in the foorde of this discourse, because it was my purpose to satisfie your expectation with a short treatise (most learned Conrade) not wearysome for me to wryte, nor tedious for you to peruse. Among other 36 things which you haue receaued at my handes heretofore, I remember that I wrote a seuerall description of the Getulian Dogge, because there are but a fewe of them and therefore very seldome scene. As touching Dogges of other kyndes you your selfe haue taken earnest paine, in writing of them both lyuely, learnedly and largely. But because wee haue drawne this libell more at length then the former which I sent you (and yet briefer than the nature of the thing myght well beare) regardyng your more earnest and necessary studdies. I will conclude makyng a rehearsall notwithstanding (for memoryes sake) of certaine specialties contayned in the whole body of this my breuiary. And because you participate principall pleasure in the knowledge of the common and vsuall names of Dogges (as I gather by the course of your letters) I suppose it not amysse to deliuer vnto you a shorte table contayning as well the Latine as the Englishe names, and to render a reason of euery particular appellation, to th’intent that no scruple may remaine in this point, but that euery thing may bee sifted to the bare bottome.

39

A Diall pertaining to the
fifte Section.

Dogges contained
in this last
Diall or Table are

The wapp or warner,

The Turnespet,

The dauncer,

called in Latine Canes Rustici
37

A Supplement or Addition, contai-
ning a demonstration of Dogges
names how they had their
Originall.

The names contayned in the generall table, for so much as they signifie nothing to you being a straunger, and ignoraunt of the Englishe tounge, except they be interpreted: As we haue giuen a reason before of ye latine words so meane we to doe no lesse of the Englishe that euery thing maye be manyfest vnto your vnderstanding. Wherein I intende to obserue the same order which I haue followed before.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the first section.

Sagax, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word 40 hunte. One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunde, whom (if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde Hunde which signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude and likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction (friende Gesner) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day many Dutche wordes which the Saxons left at such time as they occupyed this country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as in your language Hunde is the common word, so in our naturall tounge dogge is the vniuersall, but Hunde is perticuler and a speciall, for it signifieth such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt, and therfore it is called a hunde.

Of the Gasehounde.

The Gasehounde called in latine Agasæus, hath his name of the sharpenesse and stedfastnesse of his eyesight. By which vertue he compasseth that which otherwise he cannot by 38 smelling attaine. As we haue made former relation, for to gase is earnestly to viewe and beholde, from whence floweth the deriuation of this dogges name.

Of the Grehounde.

The Grehounde called Leporarius, hath his name of this word, Gre, which word soundeth, Gradus in latine, in Englishe degree. Because among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the chiefest place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde of houndes.

Of the Leuyner or the Lyemmer.

This dogge is called a Leuyner, for his lyghtnesse, which in latine soundeth Leuitas, Or a Lyemmer which worde is borrowed of Lyemme, which the latinists name Lorum: and wherefore we call him a Leuyner of this worde Leuitas? (as we doe many things besides) why we deriue and drawe a thousand of our tearmes, out of the Greeke, the Latine, the Italian, the Dutch, the French, and the Spanishe tounge? (Out of which fountaines in deede, they had their originall issue.) How many words are buryed in the graue of forgetfulnes? growne out of vse? wrested awrye? and peruersly corrupted by diuers 41 defaultes? we wil declare at large in our booke intituled, Symphonia vocum Britannicarum.

Of the Tumbler.

Among houndes the Tumbler called in latine Vertagus, is the last, which commeth of this worde Tumbler flowyng first of al out of the French fountaine. For as we say Tumble so they, Tumbier, reseruing one sense and signification, which the latinists comprehende vnder this worde Vertere, So that we see thus much, that Tumbler commeth of Tumbier, the vowell, I, chaunged into the Liquid, L, after ye maner of our speache. Contrary to the French and the Italian tounge. In which two languages, A Liquid before a Vowell for the most part is 39 turned into another Vowell, As, may be perceaued in the example of these two wordes, Implere & plano, for Impiere & piano, L, before, E, chaunged into, I, and L, before A, turned into I, also. This I thought conuenient for a taste.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the second Section.

After such as serue for hunting orderly doe follow such as serue for hawking and fowling, Among which the principall and chiefest is the Spaniell, called in Latine Hispaniolus, borrowing his name of Hispania Spaine, wherein wee Englishe men not pronouncing the Aspiration H, Nor the Vowell I, for quicknesse and redinesse of speach say roundly A Spaniell.

Of the Setter.

The second sort of this second diuision and second section, is called a Setter, in latine Index, Of the worde Set which signifieth in Englishe that which the Latinistes meane by this word Locum designare, ye reason is rehersed before more largely, it shall not neede to make a new repetition.

42

Of the water Spaniell or Finder.

The water Spaniell consequently followeth, called in Latine Aquaticus, in English a waterspaniell, which name is compounde of two simple wordes, namely Water, which in Latine soũdeth Aqua, wherein he swymmeth. And Spaine, Hispania, the country frõ whence they came, Not that England wanted such kinde of Dogges, (for they are naturally bred and ingendred in this country.) But because they beare the generall and common name of these Dogges synce the time they were first brought ouer out of Spaine. And wee make a certaine difference in this sort of Dogges, eyther for some thing which in theyr voyce is to be marked, or for some thing which in their qualities is to be considered, as for an example in this kinde called the Spaniell by the apposition and putting to of this word water, which two coupled together sounde 40 waterspaniell. He is also called a fynder, in Latine Inquisitor, because that by serious and secure seeking, he findeth such things as be lost, which word Finde in English is that which the Latines meane by this Verbe Inuenire. This dogge hath this name of his property because the principall point of his seruice consisteth in the premisses.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the thirde Section.

Now leauing the suruie we of hunting and hauking dogs, it remaineth that we runne ouer the residue, whereof some be called, fine dogs, some course, other some mungrels or rascalls. The first is the Spaniell gentle called Canis Melitæus, because it is a kinde of dogge accepted among gentles, Nobles, Lordes, Ladies, &c. who make much of them vouchsafeing to admit them so farre into their company that they will not onely lull them in theyr lappes, but kysse them with their lippes, and make them theyr prettie playfellowes. Such a one was Gorgons litle puppie mencioned by Theocritus in Siracusis, 43 who taking his iourney, straightly charged & commaunded his mayde to see to his Dogge as charely and warely as to his childe: To call him in alwayes that he wandred not abroade, as well as to rock the babe a sleepe, crying in the cradle. This puppitly and peasantly curre, (which some frumpingly tearme fysteing hounds) serue in a maner to no good vse except, (As we haue made former relation) to succour and strengthen quailing and quammning stomackes to bewray bawdery, and filthy abhominable leudnesse (which a litle dogge of this kinde did in Sicilia) As Ælianus in his .7. booke of beastes and .27. chapter recordeth.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fourth Section.

Of dogges vnder the courser kinde, wee will deale first with the shepherds dogge, whom we call the Bandogge, the Tydogge, or the Mastyue, the first name is imputed to him 41 for seruice Quoniam pastori famulatur, because he is at the shepherds his masters commaundement. The seconde a Ligamento of the band or chaine wherewith he is tyed, The thirde a Sagina, Of the fatnesse of his body.

For this kinde of dogge which is vsually tyed, is myghty, grosse, and fat fed. I know this that Augustinus Niphus, calleth this Mastinus (which we call Mastiuus.) And that Albertus writeth how the Lyciscus is ingendred by a beare and a wolfe. Notwithstanding the self same Author taketh it for the most part pro Molosso. A dogge of such a countrey.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fifte Section.

Of mungrels and rascalls somwhat is to be spoken. And among these, of ye VVappe or Turnespet, which name is made of two simple words, that is, of Turne, which in latine soundeth Vertere, and of spete which is Veru, or spede, for the Englishe word inclineth closer to the Italian imitation: Veruuersator, Turnspet. He is called also VVaupe, of the naturall noise of 44 his voyce VVau, which he maketh in barcking. But for the better and the redyer sounde, the vowell, u, is chaunged into the cõsonant, p, so yt for waupe we say wappe. And yet I wot well that Nonius boroweth his Baubari of the natural voyce Bau, as the Græcians doe their βάυζειν of wau

Now when you vnderstand this that Saltare in latine signifieth Dansare in Englishe. And that our dogge therevpon is called a daunser and in the latine Saltator, you are so farre taught as you were desirous to learne, And now suppose I, there remaineth nothing, but that your request is fully accomplished.

The winding vp of this worke, called the Supplement, &c.

Thus (Friend Gesner) you haue, not only the kindes of our countrey dogges, but their names also, as well in latine as in 42 Englishe, their offices, seruices, diuersities, natures, & properties, that you can demaunde no more of me in this matter. And albeit I haue not satisfied your minde peraduẽture (who suspectest al speede in the performaunce of your requeste employed, to be meere delayes) because I stayde the setting fourth of that vnperfect pamphlet which, fiue yeares ago, I sent to you as a priuate friende for your owne reeding, and not to be printed, and so made common, yet I hope (hauing like the beare lickt ouer my younge) I haue waded in this worke to your contentation, which delay hath made somewhat better and δευτέραι φροντίδες, after witte more meete to be perused.

The ende of this treatise.
FINIS.
43

+ An Alphabetical Index, declaring the

whole discourse of this abridgement. The number
importeth the Page.

Alphabetization is unchanged. The body text consistently spells “Master”; the Index uses “Maister”.

A.
Abridgement of Dogges. 1
Abstinence from lost goods. 27
Aelianus his opinion of bloodhoundes. 6
Aelianus and Aelius, opinion of the beauer. 19
Alfredus maintained iustice. 27

An example of rebellion, and the reward of the same.

26
An example of loue in a dogge. 31
Arcadian dogge. 36
B.
Bandogges bayte the Beare and the Bull. 25
Blondus opinion of a dogge. 30
Blooddy and butcherlye curres. 32
Beauer called a water dogge. 19
Beauer wherein hee is lyke a dogge. 19
Beasts preuented of succor. 5
Bloodhoundes howe they are knowne. 5
Bloodhounds conditions in hũting. ibidem
Bloodhounds whence they borrowe their names. ibid.
Bloodhoundes pursue without wearinesse. 6
Bloodhoundes discerne theeues from true men. 6
Bloodhoundes hunte by water and by land. ibid.
Bloodhoundes when they cease from hunting. ibidem

Bloodhoundes why they are kept close in the daye, and let lose in the night.

ibide.

Bloodhounds haue not lybertye alwayes to raunge at wyll.

7
Bloodhoundes are their maisters guides. ibid.
Borders of England pestred with pylferers. ibidem

Bloodhounds why they are vsed in England and Scotland.

ibi.
Bloodhoundes take not the water naturally. ibidem
Bloodhoundes called Brache in Scottishe. ibidem
Bloodhounds when they barck. 8
Butchers dogge. 28
Butchers dogge why so called. ibide.
C.
Caius booke of dogges twyse written. 1
Conny is not hunted. 4
Connye caught with the ferryt. ibidem
Conny taken with the net. ibi.
Continuaunce of tyme breedeth cunning. 8
Castle of Flint. 10
Cunnies preuented of succor. 11
Callimachus. 20
Cõforter called Meliteus. ibid.
Comforters proportion described. ibide.
Comforters condicions declared. ibidem
Comforters to what ende they serue. ibidem
Comforters the pretier, the pleasaunter. 21
Comforters, companions of ydle dames. ibidem
44

Comforters why they are so much estemed among gentlefolkes.

ibidem
Comforters, what vertue is in them. ibide.
Conditions natural, som secrete, some manifest. ibide.
Comforters called by sundrye names. ibide.
Cicero pro S. Ross. 26
Countrey cotages annoyed with theeues. ibidem
Capitolium kept dogges at the common charge. ibide.
Carrier why he is so called. 28
Carriers seruice and properties. ibidem
Comeparcke, a perillous place. 30
Cõmendation of the mastiue. 32
D.
Dogges for hunting two kindes generally. 2
Diuerse dogges diuerse vses. 4
Deceipt is th’ instrument of the Tumbler. 12

Dogges for the faulcon, the phesaunt, and the partridge.

15
Dogs are houshold seruants. 16
Ducks deceaue both dogge and maister. 17
Ducks subtyle of nature. ibi.
Ducks dissẽble weaknesse. ibi.
Ducks prudent and prouident. ibidem
Ducks regarde them selues and their broode. ibid.
Dogges of a course kind. ibi.
Dissembling theeues. 27
Dissembling dogges. 30

Defending dogges stick to their maisters to the death.

ibide.
Defending dogges greedy of reuengement. ibidem
Diuersitie of mastiues. 32
Daungerous dogges. ibid.
Daunsers qualities. 35
Daunsers begge for their meate. ibidem
Daunsers vsed for lucre and gaine. ibid.
Dogges wonderfullye ingendred. ibidem
E.
England is not without Scottish dogges. 2
Election in a gase hound. 8
England and VVales are cleare from wolues. 24
Edgar what tyme King of England. ibidem
Epirus a countrey in Græcia. 28
F.
Foxe hunted by the gasehound. 8
Flight preuenteth peryl. 9
Froisart historiographer. 10
Flint Castle. ibide.
Fiench dogges howe their skins be speckled. 15
Fisher dogge none in Englande. 18
Fisher dogge, doubtfull if there be any such. ibidem
Faulcon and an Eagle fight. 26
Faulcon kylled for fighting with an Eagle. ibid.
Fire betraied by a dogge. 30
Fire raked vp by a dogge. 31
Farmars keepe dogges. ibid.
Feareful dogges barke sorest. 32
Foxes kept for sundrye causes. 36
Foxes holsome in houses. ibid.
G.
Gesner desirous of knowledge. 1
Gesner earnest in experimentes. ibi.
Gasehounde whence he hath his name. 9
Gasehoundes vsed in the North. ibidem
Gasehound somtimes loseth his waye. ibidem
Grehound light footed. ibid.
Grehounds special seruice. ibi.
Grehoundes strong and swifte. ibidem
Grehounds game. 10
Grehounds spare of body. ibi.
Grehounds nature wonderfull. ibid.
Grehounde of King Richarde. ibid.
Gentle dogge. 14
45 Gratius Poet his opinion. 37
Getulian dogge. 38
H.
Hunting wherin it consisteth. 2
Hunting and fowleing doo differ. 3
Hunting dogges, fiue speciall kinds. ibid.
Harryer excelleth in smelling. ibidem
Harryer how he is known. ibi.
Hare hunted by the gasehound. 8
Henry Duke of Lancaster. 10
Hole of the Conny, their hauen of health. 11
Hare daunsing in measure 16
Hare beating and thumping a dogge. ibidem

Heare a hinderaunce to the water Spaniell in swymming.

17
Heare an vnprofitable burthen. ibi.
Hector Boethus. 18
Henry the seuenth. 26
Henries commaundement to hang all bandogges. ibid.
Henries Faulconer, and his Faulcon. ibi.
Hippocrates. 38
I.
Justice mayntained by Alfred. 27
Ingulphus Croyladensis historiographer. 28
Ianus watching. 31
Indian dogges. 37
Iseland curres, rough and rugged. ibid.
Iselande curres mutch sette by. ibidem
K.
King Richarde of England. 10
King Edgars trybute out of VVales. 23
King Henrie the seuenth. 26
King of all beasts, the Lyon. ibi.
King of all Birds, the Eagle. ibi.
Keepers seruice. 28

Kingston, or Kingstoune verye famous in olde time.

30

Kinges crowned at Kingstoune, to the number of eyght, theyr names are these. Edward the first, Athelstan, Edmunde, Aldred, Edwin, Edgar, Edeldred, Edwarde, syrnamed Yron rybbes.

ibid.
L.
Leuiner quicke of smelling, and swyft of running. 10
Leuiner, why so called. ibi.
Leuiner foloweth the game eagerly. ibi.
Leuiner taketh his pray speedilie. ibid.
Lyon King of all beasts. 26
Lust of the flesh reconcileth enemies. 36
M.
Maisters becke a direction to the gasehound. 9
Melita or Malta. 20
Mastiues proportiõ described. 20
Mastiue, why he is called Villaticus. ibi.
Mastiues vse and seruice. ibi.
Mastiues are mankind. ibi.
Mastiues of great might. 16
Molossia. 28
Mooner, why so termed. 29
Mooner watchfull. ibi.
Mungrellesl. [34]
Maisterles men carrie Apes about. 35
Man in the moone. 37
N.
Nature hath made some dogges for hunting. 4
Naturall properties of the water spaniel. 16
No VVolues in Englande nor VVales. 24
No place free from theeues. 27
Nothing escapeth the spoiler. 18
Nonius bau wau. 19
Names of the mastiue. 33
Names of the spaniel gentle. 22
Names of Dogges whence they were deriued. 39, 40, 41, 42, &c.
46 O.
One Dogge hunteth diuerse beastes. 4
Owners of bloudhoundes howe they vse them. 6
Order of the Tumbler in hunting. 11
Of the Cumaneasse. 37
Of brasen shanckt Thales. ibi.
Otter. 7
P.
Properties of a bloudhound issuing from desire. 7
Proportion and making of the water spaniel. 17
Pupine a byrd and a fyshe. 18
Princes pallace pestered with theeues. 16
Paris in Fraunce. 30
R.
Rome maintained dogges. 28
Rare toyes meete for Englishemen. 37
S.
Smelling is not incident to the gasehound. 8
Spaniels of a gentle kinde. 14
Spaniels two sortes. ibide.
Spaniel of the lande what properties. ibidem
Spaniel for the hauke and the nette. ibide.
Spaniels some haue speciall names. ibide.
Spaniel a name vniuersall. 15
Spaniels the colour of their skinnes. ibidem

Setters make no noyse, or very litle, in their game.

ibidem
Setters giue attendaunce. ibide.
Setters behauiour. ibide.
Setter whence he hath his name. 16
Sea calfe not numbred amonge Englishe dogges. 19
Sea calfe called a dogge fishe. ibi.
Seele or sea veale. ibidem
Spaniell gentle or the comforter. 20
Shepherdes dogge. 23.
The necessity of their seruice. ibi.
The proportion of them. ibidem

Shepherdes what benefite they reape by their dogges.

24

Sheepherdes in what countryes they go before their sheepe.

ibidem

Sheepe howe they flocke at the sheepherds whistle.

ibid.
Sheepherds Dogge choose and take. ibid.
Salacones vaineglorious. 37
T.
Terrars hunt the badger and the Foxe. 4
Terrars hunt as ferryts hunt. ibi.
Terrars conditions. ibid.
Terrars holde fast with theyr teeth. 5
Tumblers crafty and fraudulent. 11
Tumblers why so named. ibid.
their trade in hũting. ibi.
their dissembling of friendship. ibi.
they hunt against the wind. 12
Theeuish dogges. ibidem
Theeuish Dogge, a night curre. ibidem
Theeues feare no law 27.
Some steale for neede. ibid.
Some to maintaine brauery. ibi.
Tynckers curres beare burthens 29.
their conditions. ibi.
they loue their masters. ibid.
Two suiters to one woman. 30
Turnespet painefull in the kytchen. 34
Thales with the brasen feete. 37
V.
Vertue of the comforter. 21
Valentines law for vagabundes. 27
Virgils vearse. 31
W.
VVatchwordes make Dogges perfect in game. 8
VVonder of a Hare or Leuerit. 16
VVater spaniell called the finder. ibidem
47 VVater spaniels what properties. ibidem.
VVater spaniels their proportion. 17.
howe they be described by D. Caius. ibidem
VVhy so called. ibidem
VVhere their game lyeth and what it is. ibidem
VVhy they are called fynders. ibidem
VVanton women, wanton puppies. 20
VVolues bloudsucking beastes 23.
none England nor wales ibidem
three hundred payde yearely to Prince Edgar. ibid.
VVarner what seruice he doth. 34
VVappes vnprofitable dogges. ibidem
Y.
Young dogges barcke much. 8
Yolping and yelling in a bandogge. 31
Yll kinde whelpes not regarded. 33
The ende of the Index.

 
 

¶ Faultes escaped
thus to b’amended.

In the last page of the Epistle Dedicatory, Quæ for Qui
Page. 3. Grecians for Græcians,
Page. 28. Canis Cultos for Canis Custos,
Page. 38. Britanica for Britannica.

Other faultes we referre to the correction of the Reader.

There bee also certaine Accents wanting in the Greeke words which, because we had them not, are pretermitted: so haue wee byn fayne to let the Greeke words run their full length, for lacke of Abbreuiations.

Studio & industriæ,

Abrahami

Flemingi.


CAMBRIDGE: PRINTED BY JOHN CLAY, M.A. AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

Title Page

Of Englishe Dogges,

the diuersities, the names,

the natures, and the properties.

A Short

Treatise written in latine

by Iohannes Caius of late memo-
rie, Doctor of Phisicke
in the Uniuersitie
of Cambridge,

And newly drawne into Eng-
lishe by Abraham Fle-
ming Student.

Natura etiam in brutis vin
ostendit suam.

Scene and allowed.

¶ Imprinted at London

by Rychard Johnes, and are to be
solde ouer against S. Sepul-
chres Church without
Newgate.
1576.

 

Parallel Texts


 

The first Section of this discourse.

¶ The Preamble or entraunce, into this treatise.

Scripsimus ad te (charissime Gesnere) superioribus annis variam historiam de variis quadrupedum, avium, atque piscium formis, variis herbarum atque fruticum speciebus & figuris.

I wrote vnto you (well beloued friende Gesner) not many yeares past, a manifolde historie, contayning the diuers formes and figures of Beastes, Byrdes, and Fyshes, the sundry shapes of plantes, and the fashions of Hearbes, &c.

Scripsimus & de canibus quædam ad te seorsum, quæ in libro tuo de iconibus animalium ordine secundo mansuetorum quadrupedum, ubi de Canibus Scoticis scribis, & in fine epistolæ tuæ ad Gulielmum Turnerum de libris a te editis, inter libros nondum excusos, te editurum polliceris.

I wrote moreouer, vnto you seuerally, a certayne abridgement of Dogges, which in your discourse vpon the fourmes of Beastes in the seconde order of mylde and tameable Beastes, where you make mencion of Scottishe Dogges, and in the wynding vp of your Letter written and directed to Doctour Turner, comprehending a Catalogue or rehersall of your bookes not yet extant, you promised to set forth in print, and openly to publishe in the face of the worlde among such your workes as are not yet come abroade to lyght and sight.

Sed quia de Canibus nostris quædam in eo libello mihi videbantur desiderari, editionem prohibui, & alium promisi. Quamobrem, ut promissis meis starem, & expectationi tuæ satisfacerem, homini omnis cognitionis cupido, universitatem generis, differentiam atque usum, mores & ingenium, veluti methodo quadam conabor explicare.

But, because certaine circumstaunces were wanting in my breuiary of Englishe Dogges (as seemed vnto mee) I stayed the publication of the same, making promise to sende another abroade, which myght be commytted to the handes, the eyes, the eares, the mindes, and the iudgements of the Readers. Wherefore that I myght perfourme that preciselye, which I promised solempnly, accomplishe my determination, and satisfy your expectacion: which art a man desirous and capeable of all kinde of knowledge, and very earnest to be acquaincted with all experimentes: I wyll expresse and declare in due order, the grand and generall kinde of Englishe Dogges, the difference of them, the vse, the propertyes, and the diuerse natures of the same, making a tripartite diuision in this sort and maner.

Dispertiar in tres species, Generosam, Rusticam, & Degenerem; sic ut de illa primò, de hac postremò, de rustica, medio loco tibi dicam.

All Englishe Dogges be eyther of,

A gentle kinde, seruing the game.

A homely kind, apt for sundry necessary vses.

A currishe kinde, meete for many toyes.

Of these three sortes or kindes so meane I to entreate, that the first in the first place, the last in the last roome, and the myddle sort in the middle seate be handled.

Omnes Britannicos vocabo; tum quòd una Insula Britannia, ut Anglicos omnes, sic quoque Scoticos omnes complectatur: tum quòd venatibus magis indulgemus, quia voluptati ex feris & venatione, propter animalium copiam, atque hominum otium, magis Britanni sumus dediti, quàm eorum animalium indigi & negotiosi Scoti.

I cal thẽ vniuersally all by the name of English dogges, as well because England only, as it hath in it English dogs, so it is not without Scottishe, as also for that wee are more inclined and delighted with the noble game of hunting, for we Englishmen are adicted and giuen to that exercise, & painefull pastime of pleasure, as well for the plenty of fleshe which our Parkes and Forrests doe foster, as also for the oportunitie and conuenient leasure which we obtaine, both which, the Scottes want.

Ex generosis venaticis.

Ergo cum omnis ratio generosæ venationis, vel in persequendis feris, vel in capiendis avibus finiatur, canum, quibus hæc aguntur, duo genera sunt: alterum quod feras investiget, alterum quod aves persequatur.

Wherfore seeing that the whole estate of kindly hunting consisteth principally,

In these two pointes,

In chasing the beast

In taking the byrde

that is in
hunting
fowleing

Utraque Latinis uno & communi nomine dici possunt venatica.

It is necessary and requisite to vnderstand, that there are two sortes of Dogges by whose meanes, the feates within specifyed are wrought, and these practyses of actiuitie cunningly and curiously compassed,

Two kindes of Dogges

One which rouseth the beast and continueth the chase,

Another which springeth the byrde and bewrayeth flight by pursuite,

Both which kyndes are tearmed of the Latines by one common name that is, Canes Venatici, hunting dogges.

Sed Anglis cum aliud esse videatur feras sectari, aliud aves capere, ut primum venationem, secundum aucupium nominant, ita canum nomina volunt esse diversa: ut qui feras lacessunt, venatici; qui aves, aucupatorii dicerentur.

But because we Englishe men make a difference betweene hunting and fowleling, for that they are called by these seuerall wordes, Venatio & Aucupium, so they tearme the Dogges whom they vse in these sundry games by diuers names, as those which serue for the beast, are called Venatici, the other which are vsed for the fowle are called Aucupatorij,

Venaticos rursum divido in quinque genera. Aut enim odoratu, aut visu fatigant feras, aut pernicitate vincunt, aut odoratu & pernicitate superant, aut dolo capiunt.

The first kind called Venatici I deuide into fiue sortes.

The first in perfect smelling

The second in quicke spying

The thirde in swiftnesse and quicknesse

The fourth in smelling & nymblenesse

The fifte in subtiltie and deceitfulnesse,

excelleth.
Sagax.

Of the Dogge called a Harier, in Latine Leuerarius.

Qui odoratu fatigat, & prompta alacritate in venando utitur, & incredibili ad investigandum sagacitate narium valet: a qua re nos sagacem hunc appellamus, quem Græci ab investigando ἰχνευτὴν, à nare ῥινηλάτην dicunt. Huic labra propensa sunt, & aures ad os usque pendulæ, corporisque media magnitudo.

That kinde of Dogge whom nature hath indued with the vertue of smelling, whose property it is to vse a lustines, a readines, and a couragiousnes in hunting, and draweth into his nostrells the ayre or sent of the beast pursued and followed, we call by this word Sagax, the Græcians by thys word ιχνευτήν of tracing or chasing by ye foote, or ῥινηλάτην, of the nostrells, which be the instrumentes of smelling. Wee may knowe these kinde of Dogges by their long, large, and bagging lippes, by their hanging eares, reachyng downe both sydes of their chappes, and by the indifferent and measurable proportion of their making.

Leverarius.

Hunc Leverarium vocitabimus, ut universum genus in certas species atque nomina reducamus: cum alioqui usus aut officii nomine, in unitatem speciei adigi nullo modo queant.

This sort of Dogges we call Leuerarios Hariers, that I may comprise the whole nũber of them in certaine specialties, and apply to them their proper and peculier names, for so much as they cannot all be reduced and brought vnder one sorte, considering both the sundrye uses of them, and the difference of their seruice wherto they be appointed.

Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi, alius platycerotis, alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius cuniculi (quem tamen non venamur nisi casse & viverra) tantum odore gaudet: & in suo quisque genere & desiderio egregius est.

Some for
The Hare
The Foxe
The Wolfe
The Harte
The Bucke
The Badger
The Otter
The Polcat
The LobsterC
The Weasell
The Conny, &c.
Some for one thing and some for another.

As for the Conny, whom we haue lastly set downe, wee use not to hunt, but rather to take it, somtime with the nette sometime with a ferret, and thus euery seuerall sort is notable and excellent in his naturall qualitie and appointed practise.

Sunt ex his qui duos, ut vulpem atque leporem, variatis vicibus sequi student, sed non ea felicitate, qua id quod natura sequi docuit: errant enim sæpius.

Among these sundry sortes, there be some which are apt to hunt two diuers beasts, as the Foxe otherwhiles, and other whiles the Hare, but they hunt not with such towardnes and good lucke after them, as they doe that whereunto nature hath formed and framed them, not onely in externall composition & making, but also in inward faculties and conditions, for they swarue oftentimes, and doo otherwise then they should.

Terrarius.

Of the Dogge called a Terrar, in Latine Terrarius.

Sunt qui vulpem atque taxum solum, quos Terrarios vocamus; quod subeant terræ cuniculos, more viverrarum in venatu cuniculorum, & ita terrent mordentque vulpem atque taxum, ut vel in terra morsu lacerent, vel è specu in fugam aut casses cuniculorum ostiis inductas compellant. Sed hi in sagacium genere minimi sunt.

Another sorte there is which hunteth the Foxe and the Badger or Greye onely, whom we call Terrars, because they (after the manner and custome of ferrets in searching for Connyes) creepe into the grounde, and by that meanes make afrayde, nyppe, and byte the Foxe and the Badger in such sort, that eyther they teare them in peeces with theyr teeth beyng in the bosome of the earth, or else hayle and pull them perforce out of their lurking angles, darke dongeons, and close caues, or at the least through cõceaued feare, driue them out of their hollow harbours, in so much that they are compelled to prepare speedy flight, and being desirous of the next (albeit not the safest) refuge, are otherwise taken and intrapped with snares and nettes layde ouer holes to the same purpose. But these be the least in that kynde called Sagax.

Sangui­narius.

Of the Dogge called a Bloudhounde in Latine Sanguinarius.

Qui insequuntur, majores: propenso & hi labro atque aure, nec vivas tantum uti memorati omnes, sed & mortuas quoque conspersi sanguinis odore persequuntur.

For whether the beast beyng wounded, doth notwithstanding enioye life, and escapeth the handes of the huntesman, or whether the said beast beyng slayne is conuayed clenly out of the parcke (so that there be some signification of bloud shed) these Dogges with no lesse facilitie and easinesse, then auiditie and greedinesse can disclose and bewray the same by smelling, applying to their pursute, agilitie and nimblenesse, without tediousnesse, for which consideration, of a singuler specialtie they deserued to bee called Sanguinarij bloudhounds.

Sive enim vivæ sauciantur feræ, atque è manibus venatorum elabuntur, sive mortuæ ex vivario sublatæ sunt (sed profusione sanguinis utræque) isti canes odore facilè persentiscunt, & subsequuntur. Eam ob causam ex argumento sanguinarii appellantur.

The greater sort which serue to hunt, hauing lippes of a large syze, & eares of no small lenght, doo, not onely chase the beast whiles it liueth, (as the other doo of whom mencion aboue is made) but beyng dead also by any maner of casualtie, make recourse to the place where it lyeth, hauing in this poynt an assured and infallible guyde, namely, the sent and sauour of the bloud sprinckled heere and there vpon the ground.

Cum tamen fieri solet ut furum astutia nullo consperso sanguine abripiatur fera, etiam sicca hominis vestigia per extentissima spatia nullo errore sequi nôrunt,

And albeit peraduenture it may chaunce, (As whether it chaunceth sealdome or sometime I am ignorant) that a peece of fleshe be subtily stolne and cunningly conuayed away with such prouisos and precaueats as thereby all apparaunce of bloud is eyther preuented, excluded, or concealed, yet these kinde of dogges by a certaine direction of an inwarde assured notyce and priuy marcke, pursue the deede dooers, through long lanes, crooked reaches, and weary wayes, without wandring awry out of the limites of the land whereon these desperate purloyners prepared their speedy passage.

in quantalibet multitudine secernere, per abditissima & densissima loca appetere, & si flumina tranent etiam persequi, cumque ad ulteriorem ripam perventum est, circuitu quodam qua fugitum est investigare, si primo statim odore in vestigium furis non inciderint.

Yea, the natures of these Dogges is such, and so effectuall is their foresight, that they cã bewray, seperate, and pycke them out from among an infinite multitude and an innumerable company, creepe they neuer so farre into the thickest thronge, they will finde him out notwithstandying he lye hidden in wylde woods, in close and ouergrowen groues, and lurcke in hollow holes apte to harbour such vngracious guestes. Moreouer, although they should passe ouer the water, thinking thereby to auoyde the pursute of the houndes, yet will not these Dogges giue ouer their attempt, but presuming to swym through the streame, perseuer in their pursute, and when they be arriued and gotten the further bancke, they hunt vp and downe, to and fro runne they, from place to place shift they, vntill they haue attained to that plot of grounde where they passed ouer. And this is their practise, if perdie they cãnot at ye first time smelling, finde out the way which the deede dooers tooke to escape.

Sic enim arte inveniunt, quod fortuna nequeunt, ut rectè videatur ab Æliano scriptum lib. 6. cap. 59. de animalibus, τὸ ἐνθυμητικὸν καὶ διαλεκτικὸν, καὶ μέντοι καὶ τὸ αἱρετὸν, hoc est, considerationem, ratiocinationem, atque etiam participationem seu arbitrium canibus hisce venaticis inesse; nec ante cessant persequi, quàm sunt fures comprehensi.

So at length get they that by arte, cunning, and diligent indeuour, which by fortune and lucke they cannot otherwyse ouercome. In so much as it seemeth worthely and wisely written by Ælianus in his sixte Booke, and xxxix. Chapter. Τὸ ἐνθυμητικον καὶ διαλεκτικὸν. to bee as it were naturally instilled and powred into these kinde of Dogges. For they wyll not pause or breath from their pursute vntill such tyme as they bee apprehended and taken which committed the facte.

Eos luce in tenebris habent heri, nocte producunt, quo alacriores in persequendo sint assueti tenebris, quibus prædones delectantur maximè.

The owners of such houndes vse to keepe them in close and darke channells in the day time, and let them lose at liberty in the night season, to th’intent that they myght with more courage and boldnesse practise to follow the fellon in the euening and solitarie houres of darkenesse, when such yll disposed varlots are principally purposed to play theyr impudent pageants, & imprudent pranckes.

Iidem, cum fures insequuntur, non ea donantur libertate qua cum feras, nisi in magna celeritate fugientium furum, sed loro retenti herum ducunt qua velit ille celeritate, sive pedes sit, sive eques.

These houndes (vpon whom this present portion of our treatise runneth) when they are to follow such fellowes as we haue before rehersed, vse not that liberty to raunge at wil, which they have otherwise when they are in game, (except upon necessary occasion, wheron dependeth an urgent and effectuall perswasion) when such purloyners make speedy way in flight, but beyng restrained and drawne backe from running at randon with the leasse, the ende whereof the owner holding in his hand is led, guyded, and directed with such swiftnesse and slownesse (whether he go on foote, or whether he ryde on horsebacke) as he himselfe in hart would wishe for the more easie apprehension of these venturous varlots.

In confiniis Angliæ atque Scotiæ propter frequentia pecorum & jumentorum spolia, multus usus hujus generis canum est, & principio discit pecudem & armentum persequi, postea furem relicto armento.

In the borders of England & Scotland, (the often and accustomed stealing of cattell so procuring) these kinde of Dogges are very much vsed and they are taught and trayned up first of all to hunt cattell as well of the smaller as of the greater grouth, and afterwardes (that qualitie relinquished and lefte) they are learned to pursue such pestilent persons as plant theyr pleasure in such practises of purloyning as we have already declared.

In hoc genere nullus est aquaticus naturaliter, nisi eos ita nominare placeat, qui Lutram insequuntur, qui subinde ripas, subinde aquas frequentant. Non recusant tamen omnes, aviditate prædæ tranantis flumina, etiam aquis se committere. Sed hoc desiderii potius est, quàm naturæ.

Of this kinde there is none that taketh the water naturally, except it please you so to suppose of them whych follow the Otter, whych sometimes haunte the lande, and sometime vseth the water. And yet neuerthelesse all the kind of them boyling and broyling with greedy desire of the pray which by swymming passeth through ryuer and flood, plung amyds the water, and passe the streame with their pawes. But this propertie proceedeth from an earnest desire wherwith they be inflamed, rather then from any inclination issuyng from the ordinance and appoyntment of nature.

Quod autem ex his aliquas Brachas nostri, Rachas Scoti sua lingua nominant, in causa sexus est, non genus. Sic enim canes fœminas in venatico genere vocare solent nostri.

And albeit some of this sort in English be called Brache, in Scottishe Rache, the cause hereof resteth in the shee sex and not in the generall kinde. For we English men call bytches, belonging to the hunting kinde of Dogges, by the tearme aboue mencioned.

Ad postremum, in natura sagacium est, ut alii pervestigando taceant ante excitatam feram, alii statim ad primum odorem voce prodant animal, etsi remotum adhuc, & in cubili; & quo juniores, eo petulantioris oris & mendacioris sunt. Ætas enim & venandi assiduitas experientiam in his facit & certitudinem, ut in aliis omnibus, maximè, cum norint obtemperare domino vel inhibenti vel animanti.

To bee short it is proper to the nature of houndes, some to keepe silence in hunting untill such tyme as there is game offered. Othersome so soone as they smell out the place where the beast lurcketh, to bewray it immediatly by their importunate barcking, notwithstanding it be farre of many furlongs cowchyng close in his cabbyn. And these Dogges the younger they be, the more wantonly barcke they, and the more liberally, yet, oftimes without necessitie, so that in them, by reason of theyr young yeares and want of practise, small certaintie is to be reposed. For continuance of tyme, and experience in game, ministreth to these houndes not onely cunning in running, but also (as in the rest) an assured foresight what is to bee done, principally, being acquainted with their masters watchwordes, eyther in reuoking or imboldening them to serue the game.

Agasæus.

Of the Dogge called the Gasehounde, in Latine Agaseus.

Quod visu lacessit, nare nihil agit, sed oculo; oculo vulpem leporemque persequitur, oculo seligit medio de grege feram, & eam non nisi bene saginatam & opimam oculo insequitur,

This kinde of Dogge which pursueth by the eye, preuayleth little, or neuer a whit, by any benefite of the nose that is by smelling, but excelleth in perspicuitie and sharpenesse of sight altogether, by the vertue whereof, being singuler and notable, it hunteth the Foxe and the Hare. Thys Dogge will choose and seperate any beast from among a great flocke or hearde, and such a one will it take by election as is not lancke, leane and hollow, but well spred, smoothe, full, fatte, and round, it followes by the direction of the eyesight, which in deede is cleere, constant, and not uncertaine,

oculo perditam requirit, oculo, si quando in gregem redeat, secernit, cæteris relictis omnibus, secretamque cursu denuo fatigat ad mortem. Agasæum nostri abs re, quòd intento sit in feram oculo, vocant.

if a beast be wounded and gone astray this Dogge seeketh after it by the stedfastnes of the eye, if it chaunce peraduenture to returne & bee mingled with the residue of the flocke, this Dogge spyeth it out by the vertue of his eye, leauing the rest of the cattell vntouched, and after he hath set sure sight upõ it he seperateth it from among the company and hauing so done neuer ceaseth untill he haue wearyed the Beast to death. Our countrey men call this dogge Agasæum. A gasehounde because the beames of his sight are so stedfastly setled and vnmoueably fastened.

Usus ejus est, in septentrionalibus Angliæ partibus magis quam meridionalibus; locis planis & campestribus, quàm dumosis & sylvestribus; equitibus magis quàm peditibus, quo ad cursum equos incitent (quibus delectantur magis quàm ipsa præda) assuescantque sepes fossasque inoffensè & intrepidè transilire & aufugere,

These Dogges are much and vsually occupyed in the Northern partes of England more then in the Southern parts, & in fealdy landes rather then in bushy and wooddy places, horsemen vse them more then footemen to th’intent that they might prouoke their horses to a swift galloppe (wherwith they are more delighted then with the pray it selfe) and that they myght accustome theyr horse to leape ouer hedges & ditches, without stoppe or stumble, without harme or hassard, without doubt or daunger, and so escape with safegard of lyfe.

quò insessores per necessitates & pericula salutem fuga sibi quærant, aut hostem insequendo cum velint cædant.

And to the ende that the ryders themselues when necessitie so constrained, and the feare of further mischiefe inforced, myght saue themselues vndamnifyed, and preuent each perilous tempest by preparing speedy flight, or else by swift pursute made vpon theyr enimyes, myght both ouertake them, encounter with them, and make a slaughter of them accordingly.

At si quando canis aberraverit, dato signo quàm mox accurrit, & feram de integro subsequens, clara voce, cursuque celeri ut ante lacessit.

But if it fortune so at any time that this Dogge take a wrong way, the master making some vsuall signe and familiar token, he returneth forthwith, and taketh the right and ready trace, beginning his chase a fresh, & with a cleare voyce, and a swift foote followeth the game with as much courage and nimblenesse as he did at the first.

Leporarius.

Of the Dogge called the Grehounde, in Latine Leporarius.

Quod pernicitate vincit, leporarius dicitur, quòd præcipua ejus cura, præcipuusque usus est in persequendo lepore. Quanquam & in capiendo platycerote, cervo, dorcade, vulpe, & hoc genus aliis feris, & viribus & memorata velocitate valent: sed plus minus pro suo quisque desiderio, & corporis firmitudine aut exilitate.

There is another kinde of Dogge which for his incredible swiftnesse is called Leporarius a Grehounde, because the principall seruice of them dependeth and consisteth in starting and hunting the hare, which Dogges likewyse are indued with no lesse strength then lightnes in maintenance of the game, in seruing the chase, in taking the Bucke, the Harte, the Dowe, the Foxe, and other beastes of semblable kinde ordained for the game of hunting. But more or lesse, each one according to the measure and proportion of theyr desire, and as might and habilitie of theyr bodyes will permit and suffer.

Est enim strigosum genus: in quo alii majores sunt, alii minores: alii pilo sessili, alii hirto. Majores majoribus, minores minoribus feris destinamus.

For it is a spare and bare kinde of Dogge, (of fleshe but not of bone) some are of a greater sorte, and some of a lesser, some are smooth skynned, & some are curled, the bigger therefore are appoynted to hunt the bigger beasts, & the smaller serue to hunt the smaller accordingly.

Cujus naturam in venatione, magnam; in hoc, miram deprehendi: quòd (referente Joanne Froisarto historico lib. hist. suæ 4.) leporarius Richardi secundi Anglorum regis, qui ante neminem præter regem agnoverat, venientem Henricum Lancastriæ ducem ad castellum Flinti ut Richardum comprehenderet, relicto Richardo, Henricum solitis in Richardum favoribus exceperit;

The nature of these dogges I finde to be wonderful by ye testimoniall of histories. For, as Iohn Froisart the Historyographer in his 4. lib. reporteth. A Grehound of King Richard, the second yt wore the Crowne, and bare the Scepter of the Realme of England, neuer knowing any man, beside the kings person, whẽ Henry Duke of Lancaster came to the castle of Flinte to take King Richarde. The Dogge forsaking his former Lord & master came to Duke Henry, fawned upon him with such resemblaunces of goodwyll and conceaued affection, as he fauoured King Richarde before: he followed the Duke, and vtterly left the King.

quasi adversitates Richardi futuras intellexerat & præsentiscerat. Id quod Richardus probe animadvertit, atque ut præsagium futuri interitus verbis non dissimulavit.

So that by these manifest circumstances a man myght iudge this Dogge to haue bene lightened wyth the lampe of foreknowledge & vnderstãding, touchyng his olde masters miseryes to come, and vnhappinesse nye at hand, which King Richarde himselfe euidently perceaued, accounting this deede of his Dogge a Prophecy of his ouerthrowe.

Levinarius seu lorarius.

Of the Dogge called the Leuiner, or Lyemmer in Latine Lorarius.

Quod sagacitate simul & pernicitate potest, & genere, & compositione corporis medium est inter sagacem illum & leporarium, & à levitate appellatur levinarius, à loro (quo ducitur) lorarius. Hic propter velocitatem & gravius feram urget, & citius capit.

Another sort of dogges be there, in smelling singuler, and in swiftnesse incomparable. This is (as it were) a myddle kinde betwixt the Harier and the Grehounde, as well for his kinde, as for the frame of his body. And it is called in latine Leuinarius, a Leuitate, of lyghtnesse, and therefore may well be called a lyghthounde, it is also called by this worde Lorarius, a Loro, wherwith it is led. This Dogge for the excellency of his conditions, namely smelling and swift running, doth followe the game with more eagernes, and taketh the pray with a iolly quicknes.

Vertagus.

Of the Dogge called a Tumbler, in Latine Vertagus.

Quod dolo agit, vertagum nostri dicunt, quòd se, dum prædatur, vertat, & circumacto corpore, impetu quodam in ipso specus ostio feram opprimit & intercipit.

This sorte of Dogges, which compasseth all by craftes, fraudes, subtelties and deceiptes, we Englishe men call Tumblers, because in hunting they turne and tumble, winding their bodyes about in circle wise, and then fearcely and violently venturing upõ the beast, doth soddenly gripe it, at the very entrance and mouth of their receptacles, or closets before they can recouer meanes, to saue and succour themselues.

Is hoc utitur astu. Cum in vivarium cuniculorum venit, eos non lacessit cursu, non latratu terret, nec ullas inimicitias ostentat, sed velut amicus aliud agens, taciturna solertia prætergreditur, observatis diligenter eorum cuniculis.

This dogge vseth another craft and subteltie, namely, when he runneth into a warren, or setteth a course about a connyburrough, he huntes not after them, he frayes them not by barcking, he makes no countenance or shadow of hatred against them, but dissembling friendship, and pretending fauour, passeth by with silence and quietnesse, marking and noting their holes diligently, wherin (I warrant you) he will not be ouershot nor deceaued.

Eò cum pervenerit, ita se humi componit, ut & adversum ventum semper habeat, & cuniculum lateat. Sic enim ille revertentis aut exeuntis cuniculi odorem facilè sentit, & suus cuniculo omnino tollitur, & prospectu fera fallitur.

When he commeth to the place where Connyes be, of a certaintie, he cowcheth downe close with his belly to the groũd, Prouided alwayes by his skill and polisie, that ye winde bee neuer with him but against him in such an enterprise. And that the Connyes spie him not where he lurcketh.

Ad hunc modum compositus canis, & prostratus, aut exeuntem cuniculum & imprudentem in ipso specus ingressu versutè opprimit, aut revertentem excipit, atque ad latentem herum ore perducit.

By which meanes he obtaineth the sent and sauour of the Connyes, carryed towardes him with the wind & the ayre, either going to their holes, or cõming out, eyther passing this way, or running that way, and so prouideth by his circumspection, that the selly simple Conny is debarred quite from his hole (which is the hauen of their hope and the harbour of their health) and fraudulently circumuented and taken, before they can get the aduantage of their hole. Thus hauing caught his pray he carryeth it speedily to his Master, wayting his Dogges returne in some conuenient lurcking corner.

Minor hic est sagaci illo, strigosior, & erectiore aure. Corporis figura leporarium spurium diceres, si major esset. Et quamvis eo minor multò sit, uno tamen die tot potest capere, quot justum equi onus esse possunt. Dolus enim illi pro virtute est, & corporis agilitas.

These Dogges are somewhat lesser than the houndes, and they be lancker & leaner, beside that they be somwhat prick eared. A man that shall marke the forme and fashion of their bodyes, may well call them mungrell Grehoundes if they were somwhat bigger. But notwithstanding they counteruaile not the Grehound in greatnes, yet will he take in one dayes space as many Connyes as shall arise to as bigge a burthen, and as heauy a loade as a horse can carry, for deceipt and guile is the instrument wherby he maketh this spoyle, which pernicious properties supply the places of more commendable qualities.

Canis furax.

Of the Dogge called the theeuishe Dogge in Latine Canis furax.

Huic similis canis furax est, qui jubente hero noctu progreditur, & sine latratu odore adverse persequens cuniculos, cursu prehendit quot herus permiserit, & ad heri stationem reportat. Vocant incolæ canem nocturnum, quòd venetur noctu. Sed hæc de iis qui feras insequuntur.

The like to that whom we have rehearsed, is the theeuishe Dogge, which at the mandate and bydding of his master steereth and leereth abroade in the night, hunting Connyes by the ayre, which is leuened with their sauour and conueyed to the sense of smelling by the meanes of the winde blowing towardes him. During all which space of his hunting he will not barcke, least he shoulde bee preiudiciall to his owne aduantage. And thus watcheth and snatcheth up in course as many Connyes as his Master will suffer him, and beareth them to his Masters standing. The farmers of the countrey and uplandishe dwellers, call this kinde of Dogge a nyght curre, because he hunteth in the darke. But let thus much seeme sufficient for Dogges which serue the game and disport of hunting.

¶ A Diall pertaining to the first Section.

Venatici.
Sagax. Hunde
Terrarius.
Leverarius.
Sanguinarius.
Terrare.
Harier.
Blud-hunde.
Agasæus.
Leporarius.

Levinarius seu Lorarius.

Vertagus.
Gasehunde.
Grehunde.

Leviner, or Lyemmer.

Tumbler.

Dogges seruing ye pastime of hunting beastes.
are diuided into

Hariers
Terrars
Bloudhounds
Gasehounds
Grehounds
Leuiners or Lyemmers
Tumblers
Stealers

In Latine called Venatici.

Ex generosis aucupatoriis.

The seconde Section of this discourse.

Of gentle Dogges seruing the hauke, and first of the Spaniell, called in Latine Hispaniolus.

Qui aves, proximum locum habent. Eos Aucupatorios dici ante proposuimus.

Svch Dogges as serue for fowling, I thinke conuenient and requisite to place in this seconde Section of this treatise. These are also to bee reckoned and accounted in the number of the dogges which come of a gentle kind, and of those which serue for fowling.

Hi ex generosorum numero etiam sunt, & duûm generum. Alii enim per sicca tantum venantur: Alii per aquas tantum aves persequuntur.

There be two sortes

The first findeth game on the land.

The other findeth game on the water.

Qui per sicca tantum, aut libero vestigio & latratu avem investigant & excitant, aut tacito indicio eandem commonstrant.

Such as delight on the land, play their partes, eyther by swiftnesse of foote, or by often questing, to search out and to spring the byrde for further hope of aduauntage, or else by some secrete signe and priuy token bewray the place where they fall.

Primum genus Accipitri servit; secundum reti.

The first kinde of such serue
The Hauke,
The seconde,
The net, or, traine,

Hispaniolus.

Peculiaria nomina primum genus non habet, nisi ab ave ad quam venandam natura est propensius. Qua de causa falconarii hos phasianarios, hos perdiciarios, vocare solent.

The first kinde haue no peculier names assigned vnto them, saue onely that they be denominated after the byrde which by naturall appointment he is alotted to take, for the which consideration.

Some be called Dogges,
For the Falcon
The Phesant
The Partridge
and such like,

Vulgus tamen nostrum communi nomine Hispaniolos nominat, quasi ex Hispania productum istud genus primo esset. Omnes maxima ex parte candidi sunt: & si quas maculas habeant, rubræ sunt, raræ, & majores. Sunt & ruffi atque nigri, sed perpauci.

The common sort of people call them by one generall word, namely Spaniells. As though these kinde of Dogges came originally and first of all out of Spaine, The most part of their skynnes are white, and if they be marcked with any spottes, they are commonly red, and somewhat great therewithall, the heares not growing in such thicknesse but that the mixture of them maye easely bee perceaued. Othersome of them be reddishe and blackishe, but of that sorte there be but a very few.

Est & hodie novum genus ex Gallia advectum (ut novitatis omnes sumus studiosi) sed ex toto in albo obfuscatum maculosè, quem Gallicanum vocitamus.

There is also at this day among vs a newe kinde of dogge brought out of Fraunce (for we Englishe men are maruailous greedy gaping gluttons after nouelties, and couetous coruorauntes of things that be seldom, rare, straunge, and hard to get.) And they bee speckled all ouer with white and black, which mingled colours incline to a marble blewe, which bewtifyeth their skinnes and affordeth a seemely show of comlynesse. These are called French dogges as is aboue declared already.

Index.

The Dogge called the Setter, in Latine Index.

Secundum genus est, quod tacito pede atque ore avem quærit, & nutum juvantis heri sequitur, vel promovendo se, vel reducendo, vel in alterutram partem dextram aut sinistram declinando. Cum avem dico, Perdicem & Coturnicem intelligo.

Another sort of Dogges be there, seruiceable for fowling, making no noise either with foote or with tounge, whiles they followe the game. These attend diligently vpon theyr Master and frame their conditions to such beckes, motions, and gestures, as it shall please him to exhibite and make, either going forward, drawing backeward, inclining to the right hand, or yealding toward the left, (In making mencion of fowles, my meaning is of the Partridge & the Quaile)

Cum invenerit, cauto silentio, suspenso vestigio, & occulto speculatu, humiliando se prorepit, & cum propè est, procumbit, & pedis indicio locum stationis avium prodit: unde canem indicem vocare placuit. Loco commonstrato, auceps exporrectum rete avi inducit.

when he hath founde the byrde, he keepeth sure and fast silence, he stayeth his steppes and wil proceede no further, and with a close, couert, watching eye, layeth his belly to the grounde and so creepeth forward like a worme. When he approcheth neere to the place where the birde is, he layes him downe, and with a marcke of his pawes betrayeth the place of the byrdes last abode, whereby it is supposed that this kinde of dogge is called Index, Setter, being in deede a name most consonant and agreable to his quality.

Quo facto, canis ad consuetum heri indicium seu vocabulum quam mox assurgit, & propinquiori præsentia aves perturbat, atque ut inexplicabilius irretiantur, facit.

The place being knowne by the meanes of the dogge, the fowler immediatly openeth and spreedeth his net, intending to take them, which being done the dogge at the accustomed becke or vsuall signe of his Master ryseth vp by and by, and draweth neerer to the fowle that by his presence they might be the authors of their owne insnaring, and be ready intangled in the prepared net,

Lepus tympanum pulsat.

Quod artificium in cane, animali domestico, mirum videri non debet, cum & lepus agreste animal, & saltare, & tympanum anterioribus pedibus numero pulsare tympanistarum more, & canem dente atque ungue petere, pedibusque crudeliter cædere, in Anglia visus est omnium admiratione, anno salutis nostræ 1564.

which conning and artificiall indeuour in a dogge (being a creature domesticall or householde seruaunt brought vp at home with offalls of the trencher & fragments of victualls,) is not much to be maruailed at, seing that a Hare (being a wilde and skippishe beast) was seene in England to the astonishment of the beholders, in the yeare of our Lorde God, 1564, not onely dauncing in measure, but playing with his former feete vppon a tabberet, and obseruing iust number of strokes (as a practicioner in that arte) besides that nipping & pinching a dogge with his teeth and clawes, & cruelly thumping him with ye force of his feete.

Nec est vanum istud, eoque relatum lubentius, quòd operæ pretium putarem, nihil prætereundum esse, in quo naturæ spectanda sit providentia.

This is no trumpery tale, nor trifling toye (as I imagine) and therefore not vnworthy to bee reported, for I recken it a requitall of my trauaile, not to drowne in the seas of silence any speciall thing, wherin the prouidence and effectuall working of nature is to be pondered.

Aquaticus seu inquisitor.

Of the Dogge called the water Spaniell, or finder, in Latine Aquaticus seu Inquisitor.

Qui per aquas aucupatur propensione naturali accedente mediocri documento, major his est, & promisso naturaliter hirtus pilo. Ego tamen ab armis ad posteriores suffragines, caudamque extremam, ad te (Gesnere) detonsum pinxi, ut usus noster postulat, quo pilis nudus expeditior sit, & minus per natationes retardetur.

That kinde of Dogge whose seruice is required in fowling vpon the water, partly through a naturall towardnesse, and partly by diligent teaching, is indued with that property. This sort is somewhat bigge, and of a measurable greatnesse, hauing long, rough, and curled heare, not obtayned by extraordinary trades, but giuen by natures appointment, yet neuerthelesse (friend Gesner) I have described and set him out in this maner, namely powlde and netted from the shoulders to the hindermost legges, and to the end of his tayle, which I did for vse and customs cause, that beyng as it were made somewhat bare and naked, by shearing of such superfluitie of heare, they might atchiue the more lightnesse, and swiftnesse, and be lesse hindered in swymming, so troublesome and needelesse a burthen being shaken of.

Aquaticus à nostris appellatur, ab aquis quas frequentat sumpta appellatione. Eo aut aves in aquis aucupamur (& præcipue anates; unde etiam anatarius dicitur, quod id excellenter facit) aut Scorpione occisas educimus, aut spicula sagittasve fallente ictu recuperamus, aut amissa requirimus: quo nomine & canes inquisitores eosdem appellamus.

This kinde of dogge is properly called, Aquaticus, a water spaniel because he frequenteth and hath vsual recourse to the water where all his game & exercise lyeth, namely, waterfowles, which are taken by the helpe & seruice of them, in their kind. And principally duckes and drakes, wherupon he is lykewise named a dogge for the ducke, because in that quallitie he is excellent. With these dogges also we fetche out of the water such fowle as be stounge to death by any venemous worme, we vse them also to bring vs our boultes & arrowes out of the water, (missing our marcke) whereat we directed our leuell, which otherwise we should hardly recouer, and oftentimes they restore to vs our shaftes which we thought neuer to see, touche or handle againe, after they were lost, for which circumstaunces they are called Inquisitores, searchers, and finders.

Anatum fallaciæ.

Quanquam Anas & canem & aucupem quoque egregiè subinde fallat, tum urinando, tum etiam dolo naturali. Etenim si quis hominum, ubi incubant aut excludunt, propinquabit, egressæ matres venientibus se sponte offerunt, & simulata debilitate vel pedum vel alarum, quasi statim capi possint, egressus fingunt tardiores.

Although the ducke otherwhiles notably deceaueth both the dogge and the master, by dyuing vnder the water, and also by naturall subtilty, for if any man shall approche to the place where they builde, breede, and syt, the hennes go out of their neastes, offering themselues voluntarily to the hãds, as it were, of such as draw nie their neasts. And a certaine weaknesse of their winges pretended, and infirmitie of their feete dissembled, they go so slowely and so leasurely, that to a mans thinking it were no masteryes to take them.

Hoc mendacio sollicitant obvios, & eludunt, quoad profecti longius, à nidis avocentur; caventque diligenter revertendo, ne indicium loci conversatio frequens faciat.

By which deceiptfull tricke they doe as it were entyse and allure men to follow them, till they be drawne a long distaunce from theyr neastes, which being compassed by their prouident conning, or conning prouidence, they cut of all inconueniences which might growe of their returne, by using many carefull and curious caueates, least theyr often haunting bewray ye place where the young ducklings be hatched. Great therfore is theyr desire, & earnest is theyr study to take heede, not only to theyr broode but also to themselues.

Anati­cularum provi­dentia.

Nec anaticularum studium segnius ad cavendum. Cum enim visas se persentiscunt, sub cespitem confugiunt aut carectum, quorum obtectu tam callidè proteguntur, ut lateant etiam deprehensæ, nisi fraudem canis odore detegat.

For when they haue an ynckling that they are espied they hide themselues vnder turfes or sedges, wherwith they couer and shrowde themselues so closely and so craftely, that (notwithstanding the place where they lurcke be found and perfectly perceaued) there they will harbour without harme, except the water spaniell by quicke smelling discouer theyr deceiptes.

Canis piscator.

Of the Dogge called the Fisher, in Latine Canis Piscator.

Canem piscatorem (de quo scribit Hector Boethus) qui inter saxa pisces odore perquirit, nullum planè novi inter nostros, neque ex relatione aliquando audivi, etsi in ea re perscrutanda perdiscendaque diligentior fuerim inter piscatores & venatores:

The Dogge called the fisher, wherof Hector Boethus writeth, which seeketh for fishe by smelling among rockes & stones, assuredly I knowe none of that kinde in Englande, neither haue I receaued by reporte that there is any suche, albeit I haue bene diligent & busie in demaunding the question as well of fishermen, as also of huntesmen in that behalfe being carefull and earnest to learne and vnderstand of them if any such were,

Lutra.

nisi Lutram piscem dicas, ut à multis creditur:

except you holde opinion that the beauer or Otter is a fishe (as many haue beleeued) & according to their beliefe affirmed,

Pupinus.

quo modo & Pupinus avis piscis esse dicitur & habetur. Sed qui perquirit piscem (si quis perquirat) venationisne causa, an famis faciat, more cæterorum canum, qui per inediam cadaverum morticinam carnem appetere solent, tum demum ad te scribam, cum de ea re certior fiam.

and as the birde Pupine, is thought to be a fishe and so accounted. But that kinde of dogge which followeth the fishe to apprehend and take it (if there bee any of that disposition and property) whether they do this for the game of hunting, or for the heate of hunger, as other Dogges do which rather then they wil be famished for want of foode, couet the carckases of carrion and putrifyed fleshe. When I am fully resolued and disburthened of this doubt I wil send you certificate in writing.

Interim id scio, Ælianum & Aetium Lutram κύνα ποτάμιον solere appellare. Intelligo etiam Lutram hoc habere cum cane commune, quòd per inopiam piscium excursiones in terram faciat, atque agnos laniet, rursusque ad aquam satur redeat. Sed inter nostros canes is non est.

In the meane season I am not ignorant of that both Ælianus, and Ælius, call the Beauer κύνα ποτάμιον a water dogge, or a dogge fishe, I know likewise thus much more, that the Beauer doth participate this propertie with the dogge, namely, that when fishes be scarse they leaue the water and raunge vp and downe the lande, making an insatiable slaughter of young lambes vntil theyr paunches be replenished, and whẽ they haue fed themselues full of fleshe, then returne they to the water, from whence they came. But albeit so much be graunted that this Beauer is a dogge, yet it is to be noted that we recken it not in the beadrowe of Englishe dogges as we haue done the rest.

Phoca.

Phoca etiam inter scopulos atque saxa prædatur piscem, sed in numero canum nostratium habitus non est, etsi canis marinus à nostris appelletur.

The sea Calfe, in like maner, which our country mẽ for breuitie sake call a Seele, other more largely name a Sea Vele, maketh a spoyle of fishes betweene rockes and banckes, but it is not accounted in the catalogue or nũber of our Englishe dogges, notwithstanding we call it by the name of a Sea dogge or a sea Calfe. And thus much for our dogges of the second sort called in Latine Aucupatorij, seruing to take fowle either by land or water.

¶ A Diall pertaining to the second Section.

Aucupatorii.
Hispaniolus.
Spainel.
Index.
Setter.

Aquaticus, seu Inquisitor.

Water-spainel, or Fynder.

Dogges seruing the disport of fowling.
are diuided into

Land spaniels
Setters
Water spaniels or finders.

called in latine Canes Aucupatorij

The fisher is not of their number, but seuerall.

Ex generosis delicatis,
Melitæus seu fotor.

The thirde Section of this abridgement.

Nowe followeth in due order and conuenient place our Englishe Dogges of the thirde gentle kinde, what they are called to what vse they serue, and what sort of people plant their pleasure in thẽ, which because they neede no curious canuassing and nye syfting, wee meane to bee so much the briefer.

Of the delicate, neate, and pretty kind of dogges called the Spaniel gentle, or the comforter, in Latine Melitæus or Fotor.

Est & aliud genus canum generosorum apud nos, sed extra horum ordinem, quos Melitæos Callimachus vocat, à Melita insula in freto Siculo (quæ hodie usu derivante Malta vulgo dicitur, & christiano milite nobilis existit) unde ortum id genus habuit maximè: atque à Melita Siculi Pachyni, ut author Strabo est.

There is, besides those which wee haue already deliuered, another sort of gentle dogges in this our Englishe soyle but exempted from the order of the residue, the Dogges of this kinde doth Callimachus call Melitæos, of the Iseland Melita, in the sea of Sicily, (what at this day is named Malta, an Iseland in deede, famous and renoumed, with couragious and puisaunt souldiours valliauntly fighting vnder the banner of Christ their vnconquerable captaine) where this kind of dogges had their principall beginning.

Perexiguum id est planè, & fœminarum lusibus ac deliciis tantum expetitum, quibus, quo minus est, eo gratius est, ut sinu gestent in cubiculis, & manu in pilentis,

These dogges are litle, pretty, proper, and fyne, and sought for to satisfie the delicatenesse of daintie dames, and wanton womens wills, instrumentes of folly for them to play and dally withall, to tryfle away the treasure of time, to withdraw their mindes from more commendable exercises, and to content their corrupted concupiscences with vaine disport (A selly shift to shunne yrcksome ydlnesse.) These puppies the smaller they be, the more pleasure they prouoke, as more meete play fellowes for minsing mistrisses to beare in their bosoms, to keepe company withal in their chambers, to succour with sleepe in bed, and nourishe with meate at bourde, to lay in their lappes, and licke their lippes as they ryde in their waggons, and good reason it should be so, for coursnesse with fynenesse hath no fellowship, but featnesse with neatenesse hath neighbourhood enough. That plausible prouerbe verified vpon a Tyraunt, namely that he loued his sowe better then his sonne, may well be applyed to these kinde of people who delight more in dogges that are depriued of all possibility of reason, then they doe in children that be capeable of wisedome and iudgement. But this abuse peraduenture raigneth where there hath bene long lacke of issue, or else where barrennes is the best blossome of bewty.

The vertue which remaineth in the Spainell gentle otherwise called the comforter.

genus sanè ad omnia inutile, nisi quòd stomachi dolorem sedat, applicatum sæpius, aut in sinu ægri gestatum frequentius, caloris moderatione.

Notwithstanding many make much of those pretty puppies called Spaniels gentle, yet if the question were demaunded what propertie in them they spye, which shoulde make them so acceptable and precious in their sight, I doubt their aunswere would be long a coyning. But seeing it was our intent to trauaile in this treatise, so that ye reader might reape some benefite by his reading, we will communicate vnto you such coniectures as are grounded upon reason. And though some suppose that such dogges are fyt for no seruice, I dare say, by their leaues, they be in a wrong boxe. Among all other qualities therfore of nature, which be knowne (for some conditions are couered with continuall and thicke clouds, that the eye of our capacities can not pearse through thẽ) we find that these litle dogs are good to asswage the sicknesse of the stomacke being oftentimes thervnto applyed as a plaster preseruatiue, or borne in the bosom of the diseased and weake person, which effect is performed by theyr moderate heate.

Quin & transire quoque morbos ægritudine eorum intelligitur, plerumque & morte: quasi malo in eos transeunte caloris similitudine.

Moreouer the disease and sicknesse chaungeth his place and entreth (though it be not precisely marcked) into the dogge, which to be no vntruth, experience can testify, for these kinde of dogges sometimes fall sicke, and sometime die, without any harme outwardly inforced, which is an argument that the disease of the gentleman, or gentle woman or owner whatsoeuer, entreth into the dogge by the operation of heate intermingled and infected.

Generosorum canum genus jam explicui: Nunc rusticum adjicio.

And thus haue I hetherto handled dogges of a gentle kinde whom I haue comprehended in a triple diuisiõ. Now it remaineth that I annex in due order such dogges as be of a more homely kinde.

A Diall pertaining to the thirde Section.

Delicati.
Melitæus, seu Fotor.
Spainel-gentle, or Comforter.

In the third section is cõtained one kind of dog which is called the

Spaniell gentle
or the cõforter,

It is also called

A chamber cõpanion,

A pleasaunt playfellow,

A pretty worme,

generally called Canis delicatus.

Ex rusticis.

The fourth Section of this discourse.

Dogges of a course kind seruing for many necessary vses called in Latine Canes rustici, and first of the shepherds dogge called in Latine Canis Pastoralis.

In eo memorabilia duo tantum genera sunt: pecuarium seu pastorale, & villaticum seu Molossum:

Dogges of the courser sort are
The shepherds dogge
The mastiue or Bandogge.
These two are the principall.

alterum ad propellendas injurias ferarum, alterum adversus insidias hominum utile.

The first kinde, namely the shepherds hounde is very necessarye and profitable for the auoyding of harmes and inconueniences which may come to men by the meanes of beastes. The second sort serue to succour against the snares and attemptes of mischiefous men.

Pastoralis.

Pastorale nostrum mediocre est, quòd illi cum Lupo, naturali pecori inimico, res non est, cum apud nos nullus est, beneficio optimi principis Edgari, qui, quò genus universum deleretur, Cambris (apud quos in magna copia erant) vectigalis nomine in annos imperavit trecentos lupos.

Our shepherdes dogge is not huge, vaste, and bigge, but of an indifferent stature and growth, because it hath not to deale with the bloudthyrsty wolf, sythence there be none in England, which happy and fortunate benefite is to be ascribed to the puisaunt Prince Edgar, who to thintent yt the whole countrey myght be euacuated and quite cleered from wolfes, charged & commaunded the welshemẽ (who were pestered with these butcherly beastes aboue measure) to paye him yearely tribute which was (note the wisedome of the King) three hundred Wolfes.

Lupi nulli in Britannia.

Sunt qui scribunt Ludwallum Cambriæ principem pendisse annuatim Edgaro regi 3000 luporum tributi nomine, atque ita annis quatuor omnem Cambriam atque adeo omnem Angliam orbasse lupis.

Some there be which write that Ludwall Prince of Wales paide yeerely to King Edgar three hundred wolfes in the name of an exaction (as we haue sayd before.) And that by the meanes hereof, within the compasse and tearme of foure yeares, none of those noysome, and pestilent Beastes were left in the coastes of England and Wales.

Edgarus.

Regnavit autem Edgarus circiter annum Domini 959. A quo tempore non legimus nativum in Anglia visum lupum: advectum tamen quæstus faciundi causa ex alienis regionibus, ut spectetur tantum, tanquam animal rarum & incognitum, sæpius vidimus.

This Edgar wore the Crowne royall, and bare the Scepter imperiall of this kingdome, about the yeere of our Lorde, nyne hundred fifty, nyne. Synce which time we reede that no Wolfe hath bene seene in England, bred within the bounds and borders of this countrey, mary there have bene diuers brought ouer from beyonde the seas, for greedynesse of gaine and to make money, for gasing and gaping, staring, and standing to see them, being a straunge beast, rare, and seldom seene in England.

Sed ad canem pastoralem. Is ad certam heri jubentis vocem, aut ex pugno concluso & inflato clariorem sibilum, errantes oves in eum locum redigit, in quem pastor maximè desiderat; sic ut levi negotio, & immoto ferè pede, pastor quo velit modo ovibus moderetur, vel ut se promoveant, vel gradum sistant, pedem referant, vel in hanc illamve partem se inclinent.

But to returne to our shepherds dogge. This dogge either at the hearing of his masters voyce, or at the wagging and whisteling in his fist, or at his shrill and horse hissing bringeth the wandring weathers and straying sheepe, into the selfe same place where his masters will and wishe is to haue thẽ, wherby the shepherd reapeth this benefite, namely, that with litle labour and no toyle or mouing of his feete he may rule and guide his flocke, according to his owne desire, either to haue them go forward, or to stand still, or to drawe backward, or to turne this way, or to take that way.

Etenim non ut in Gallia & Germania, non ut in Syria & Tartaria, sic in Anglia quoque oves pastorem sequuntur, sed contra, pastor oves. Quandoque etiam nullo procurrente aut circumeunte cane, ad solum ex pugno sibilum sese congregant palantes oves, metu canis credo, memores unà cum sibilo prodire quoque & canem solere.

For it is not in Englande, as it is in Fraunce, as it is in Flaunders, as it is in Syria, as it in Tartaria, where the sheepe follow the shepherd, for heere in our country the sheepherd followeth the sheepe. And somtimes the straying sheepe, when no dogge runneth before them, nor goeth about & beside them, gather themselues together in a flocke, when they heere the sheepherd whistle in his fist, for feare of the Dogge (as I imagine) remembring this (if vnreasonable creatures may be reported to haue memory) that the Dogge commonly runneth out at his masters warrant which is his whistle.

Id quod in itinere diligenter sæpius observavimus, ad pastoris sibilum refrænantes equos, quo videremus rei experimentum. Eodem etiam cane ovem vel mactandum prehendit, vel sanandum pastor capit, nulla prorsus læsione.

This haue we oftentimes diligently marcked in taking our journey from towne to towne, when wee haue hard a sheepherd whistle we haue rayned in our horse and stoode styll a space, to see the proofe and triall of this matter. Furthermore with this dogge doth the sheepherd take sheepe for ye slaughter, and to be healed if they be sicke, no hurt or harme in the world done to the simple creature.

Villaticus seu Catenarius.

Of the mastiue or Bandogge called in Latine Villaticus or Cathenarius.

Villaticum vastum genus est & robustum, corpore quidem grave & parum velox, sed aspectu truculentum, voce terrificum, & quovis Arcadico (qui tamen ex leonibus creditur provenire) potentius atque acrius.

This kinde of Dogge called a mastyue or Bandogge is vaste, huge, stubborne, ougly, and eager, of a heuy and burthenous body, and therfore but of litle swiftnesse, terrible, and frightfull to beholde, and more fearce and fell then any Arcadian curre (notwithstãding they are sayd to hane their generation of the violent Lyon.)

Quòd villis fideliter custodiendis destinamus, cum metus est à furibus, villaticum appellamus. His quoque utile id est contra vulpem atque taxum, qui rem pecuariam faciunt.

They are called Villatici, because they are appoynted to watche and keepe farme places and coũtry cotages sequestred from commõ recourse, and not abutting vpon other houses by reason of distaunce, when there is any feare conceaued of theefes, robbers, spoylers, and night wanderers. They are seruiceable against the Foxe and the Badger,

Valet etiam ad sues agrestes persequendos, domesticos è frugibus aut arvis abigendos, taurosque capiendos atque retinendos, cum usus aut venatio postulat, singuli singulos, aut summum duo singulos, quamvis intractabiles.

to drive wilde and tame swyne out of Medowes, pastures, glebelandes and places planted with fruite, to bayte and take the bull by the eare, when occasion so requireth. One dogge or two at the vttermost, sufficient for that purpose be the bull neuer so monsterous, neuer so fearce, neuer so furious, neuer so stearne, neuer so vntameable.

Est enim acerrimum genus & violentum, formidabile etiam homini, quem non reformidat. Neque enim ad arma expavescit; quóque acrius fiat, assuescunt nostri naturam arte & consuetudine juvare.

For it is a kinde of dogge capeable of courage, violent and valiaunt, striking could feare into the harts of men, but standing in feare of no man, in so much that no weapons will make him shrincke, nor abridge his boldnes. Our Englishe men (to th’ intent that theyr dogges might be the more fell and fearce) assist nature with arte, vse, and custome,

Etenim ursos, tauros, arctylos, aliaque fera animalia, præfectis certaminum arctophylacibus, nullo millo, nullo corio defenses exagitare: sæpe etiam cum homine sude, clava, enseve armato concertare decent, atque ita ferociores acrioresque reddunt, & imperterritos faciunt.

for they teach theyr dogges to baite the Beare, to baite the Bull and other such like cruell and bloudy beastes (appointing an ouerseer of the game) without any collar to defend theyr throtes, and oftentimes they traine them vp in fighting and wrestling with a man hauing for the safegarde of his lyfe, eyther a Pikestaffe, a clubbe, or a sworde and by vsing them to such exercises as these, theyr dogges become more sturdy and strong.

Vis illis supra fidem, & pertinax mordacitas, usque adeo ut tres ursum, quatuor vel leonem comprehendant.

The force which is in them surmounteth all beleefe, the fast holde which they take with their teeth exceedeth all credit, three of them against a Beare, fowre against a Lyon are sufficient, both to try masteryes with them and vtterly to ouermatch them.

Henricus septimus.

Quod videns aliquando (ut fama est) Henricus septimus, Angliæ rex prudentissimus, quotquot erant suspendi jussit, indignatus ut infimi & ignobilis generis canes, generoso leoni, & animalium regi violentiam inferant: memorabili exemplo subditorum, ne quid contra regem gens rebellis audeat.

Which thing Henry the seuenth of that name, King of England (a Prince both politique & warlike) perceauing on a certaine time (as the report runneth) commaunded all such dogges (how many soeuer they were in number) should be hanged, beyng deepely displeased, and conceauing great disdaine, that an yll fauoured rascall curre should with such violent villany, assault the valiaunt Lyon king of all beastes. An example for all subiectes worthy remembraunce, to admonishe them that it is no aduantage to them to rebell against ye regiment of their ruler, but to keepe them within the limits of Loyaltie.

Haud absimilis etiam historia de eo fertur, quod falconem quendam suum, à falconariis vehementer laudatum, quòd in aquilam quid auderet, quam mox occidi jussit, ob eandem rationem. Hoc genus canis, etiam catenarium, à catena ligamento, qua ad januas interdiu detinetur, ne solutum lædat, & tamen latratu terreat, appellatur.

I reede an history aunswerable to this of the selfe same Henry, who hauing a notable and an excellent fayre Falcon, it fortuned that the kings Falconers, in the presence and hearing of his grace, highly commended his Maiesties Falcon, saying that it feared not to intermeddle with an Eagle, it was so venturous a byrde and so mighty, which when the King harde, he charged that the Falcon should be killed without delay, for the selfe same reason (as it may seeme) which was rehersed in the cõclusion of the former history concerning the same king. This dogge is called, in like maner, Cathenarius, a Cathena, of the chaine wherwith he is tyed at the gates, in ye day time, least beyng lose he should doe much mischiefe and yet might giue occasion of feare and terror by his bigge barcking.

Cicero.

Et quanquam CiceroA pro S. Ross. opinetur, si canes luce latrent, iis crura suffringantur, nostri tamen homines propter securitatem vitæ atque rei longe aliter sentiunt.

And albeit CiceroC in his oration had Pro. S. Ross. be of this opinion, that such Dogges as barcke in the broade day light shoulde haue their legges broken, yet our countrymen, on this side the seas for their carelessnes of lyfe setting all at cinque and sice, are of a contrary iudgement.

Fures.

Nam furum apud nos plena sunt omnia, etiam luce, neque infamem mortem suspendia metuunt.

For theefes roge vp & down in euery corner, no place is free from them, no not ye princes pallace, nor the country mans cotage. In the day time they practise pilfering, picking, open robbing, and priuy stealing, and what legerdemaine lacke they? not fearing the shamefull and horrible death of hanging.

In causa est non curta res solum, sed vestis vitæque luxus atque fastus etiam, sed petulantia, sed otium & superbia Salaconum μεγαλοῤῥούντων, qui nihil aliud quàm ut equi insultare solo & gressus glomerare superbos, quàm gyro breviori flecti, qui nihil aliud quàm cevere, quàm otiosè mendicando accusata non merente corporis infirmitate spoliare.

The cause of which inconuenience doth not onely issue from nipping neede & wringing want, for all yt steale, are not pinched with pouerty, but som steale to maintaine their excessiue and prodigall expences in apparell, their lewdnes of lyfe, their hautines of hart, theyr wantonnes of maners, theyr wilfull ydlenes, their ambitious brauery, and the pryde of the sawcy Salacones’ μεγαλορρούντων vaine glorious and arrogant in behauiour, whose delight dependeth wholly to mount nimbly on horsebacke, to make them leape lustely, spring and praunce, galloppe and amble, to runne a race, to wynde in compasse, and so forthe, liuing all together vpon the fatnesse of the spoyle. Othersom therbe which steale, being thereto prouoked by penury & neede, like masterlesse mẽ applying themselues to no honest trade, but raunging vp and downe impudently begging, and complayning of bodily weakenesse where is no want of abilitie.

Valenti­nianus.

Sed his Valentinianus imperator benè prospexit, legibus latis, ut qui nullo corporis morbo laborantes, corporis infirmitatem desidiosi ignavique prætexentes, mendicarent, perpetui colono ei inservirent, qui eorum ignaviam proderet atque accusaret, ne eorum desidia onerosa populo, odiosave sit exemplo.

But valiaunt Valentine th’emperour, by holsome lawes prouided that suche as hauing no corporall sicknesse, solde themselues to begging, pleded pouerty wyth pretended infirmitie, & cloaked their ydle and slouthfull life with colourable shifts and cloudy cossening, should be a perpetuall slaue and drudge to him, by whom their impudent ydlenes was bewrayed, and layde against them in publique place, least the insufferable slouthfullnes of such vagabondes should be burthenous to the people, or being so hatefull and odious, should growe into an example.

Alfredi vigilantia.

Alfredus quoque regno administrando tanta vigilantia justitiaque usus est, ut si quis per vias publicas incedens, marsupium auro plenum vesperi perdidisset, manè, atque adeo post mensem unum, integrum & intactum inveniret, uti Ingulphus Croylandensis in historia refert.

Alfredus likewise in the gouernment of his common wealth, procured such increase of credite to Justice and vpright dealing by his prudent actes and statutes, that if a mã trauailing by the hygh way of the countrey vnder his dominion, chaunced to lose a budget full of gold, or his capcase farsed with things of great value, late in the euening, he should finde it where he lost it, safe, sound, and vntouched the next morning, yea (which is a wonder) at any time for a whole monethes space if he sought for it, as Ingulphus Croyladensis in his History recordeth.

Nostra autem ætate, nihil ferè securum, ne in ædibus quidem, quamvis accuratè conclusis.

But in this our vnhappy age, in these (I say) our deuelishe dayes nothing can scape the clawes of the spoyler, though it be kept neuer so sure within the house, albe it the doores bee lockt and boulted round about. This dogge in like maner of Græcians is called οἰκουρος

Canis custos.

Of the latinists Canis Custos, in Englishe the Dogge keeper.

Custos quoque (Græcis οἰκουρὸς) a  custodiendis non solum villis, sed & mercatorum ædibus, & quibus ampla res est domi, canis iste nominatur. Eam ob rem canes publicæ alebantur Romæ in Capitolio, ut significent si fures venerint.

Borrowing his name of his seruire, for he doth not onely keepe farmers houses, but also merchaunts maisons, wherin great wealth, riches, substaunce, and costly stuffe is reposed. And therfore were certaine dogges founde and maintained at the common costes and charges of the Citizens of Rome in the place called Capitolium, to giue warning of theefes comming.

Canis laniarius.

This kind of dogge, is also called,

In latine Canis Laniarius in Englishe the Butchers Dogge.

Dicitur & Laniarium, quòd eorum usus multus sit laniis agendis & capiendis bestiis.

So called for the necessity of his vse, for his seruice affoordeth great benefite to the Butcher as well in following as in taking his cattell when neede constraineth, vrgeth, and requireth.

Molossicus.

This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Molossicus or Molossus.

Sed & Molossicum quoque & Molossum latinis dicitur, à Molossia Epiri regione, ubi hoc genus canes boni & acres erant.

After the name of a countrey in Epirus called Molossia, which harboureth many stoute, stronge, and sturdy Dogges of this sort, for the dogges of that countrey are good in deede, or else their is no trust to be had in the testimonie of writers.

Mandatarius.

This dogge is also called,

In latine Canis Mandatarius a Dogge messinger or Carrier.

Est ex hoc genere quem Mandatarium ex argumento appellamus: quòd domini mandato literas aliasve res de loco in locum transferat, vel mellio inclusas, vel eidem alligatas. Quæ ne intercipiantur, vel pugna, vel fuga si impar sit, diligenter cavet.

Upon substanciall consideration, because at his masters voyce and commaundement, he carrieth letters from place to place, wrapped vp cunningly in his lether collar, fastened therto, or sowed close therin, who, least he should be hindered in his passage vseth these helpes very skilfully, namely resistaunce in fighting if he be not ouermatched, or else swiftnesse & readinesse in running away, if he be vnable to buckle with the dogge that would faine haue a snatch at his skinne.

Lunarius.

This kinde of dogge is likewise called,

In latine Canis Lunarius, in Englishe the Mooner.

Est & Lunarium, quòd nihil aliud quàm excubias agit, quàm insomnes noctes totas protrahit baubando ad lunam, ut Nonii verbo utar.

Because he doth nothing else but watch and warde at an ynche, wasting the wearisome night season without slombering or sleeping, bawing & wawing at the Moone (that I may vse the word of Nonius) a qualitie in mine opinion straunge to consider.

Aquarius.

This kinde of dogge is also called.

In latine Aquarius in Englishe a water drawer.

Ex quibus grandiores atque graviores, etiam rotæ amplioris circumactu, aquam ex altis puteis ad usus rusticos hauriunt, quos Aquarios appellamus ex officio:

And these be of the greater and the waighter sort drawing water out of wells and deepe pittes, by a wheele which they turne rounde about by the mouing of their burthenous bodies.

Sarcinarius.

This kinde of dogge is called in like maner.

Canis Sarcinarius in Latine, and may aptly be englished a Tynckers Curre.

& sarctores ærarios vagos manticis ferendis memorabili patientia levant; à qua re sarcinarios nuncupamus.

Because with marueilous pacience they beare bigge budgettes fraught with Tinckers tooles, and mettall meete to mend kettels, porrige pottes, skellets, and chafers, and other such like trumpery requisite for their occupacion and loytering trade, easing him of a great burthen which otherwise he himselfe should carry vpon his shoulders, which condition hath challenged vnto them the foresaid name.

Defensor.

Præter has villaticorum qualitates atque usus, hanc unam habent præcipuam, quòd amantes dominorum sunt, & odium gerant in externos. Quo fit ut per itinera dominis in præsidio sunt, quos à furibus defendunt, vivos salvosque conservant:

Besides the qualities which we haue already recounted, this kind of dogges hath this principall property ingrafted in them, that they loue their masters liberally, and hate straungers despightfully, wherevpon it followeth that they are to their masters, in traueiling a singuler safgard, defending them forceably from the inuasion of villons and theefes, preseruing their lyfes from losse, and their health from hassard, theyr fleshe from hacking and hewing with such like desperate daungers.

a qua re etiam canes defensores jure dici possunt.

For which consideration they are meritoriously tearmed,

In Latine Canes defensores defending dogges in our mother tounge.

Canum amor & fides.

At si quando vel multitudine, vel majori vi opprimatur dominus atque concidat, usu compertum est, herum non deserere ne mortuum quidem, sed eum ad multos dies per famis & cœli injuriæ patientiam peramanter observare, & homicidam, si occasio dabitur, interficere, aut saltem prodere vel latratu, vel ira, vel hostili insultu, quasi mortem heri ulturum.

If it chaunce that the master bee oppressed, either by a multitude, or by the greater violence & so be beaten downe that he lye groueling on the grounde, (it is proued true by experience) that this Dogge forsaketh not his master, no not when he is starcke deade: But induring the force of famishment and the outragious tempestes of the weather, most vigilantly watcheth and carefully keepeth the deade carkasse many dayes, indeuouring, furthermore, to kil the murtherer of his master, if he may get any aduantage. Or else by barcking, by howling, by furious iarring, snarring, and such like meanes betrayeth the malefactour as desirous to haue the death of his aforesayde Master rigorouslye reuenged.

Kingestoune.

Hujus rei exemplo fuit nostra memoria canis cujusdam viatoris, qui Londino recta Kingestonum, octo regum coronatione percelebre oppidum, profecturus, cum bonam itineris partem confecisset, latronum insidiis in Comparco, valli amplo & spatioso, nemoribus obsito, & latrociniis infami loco, occubuit.

An example hereof fortuned within the compasse of my memory. The Dogge of a certaine wayefaring man trauailing from the Citie of London directly to the Towne of Kingstone (most famous and renowned by reason of the triumphant coronation of eight seuerall Kings) passing ouer a good portion of his iourney was assaulted and set vpon by certaine confederate theefes laying in waight for the spoyle in Comeparcke, a perillous bottom, compassed about wyth woddes to well knowne for the manyfolde murders & mischeefeous robberies theyr committed. Into whose handes this passinger chaunced to fall, so that his ill lucke cost him the price of his lyfe.

Canis item ille Britannus genere, quem Blondus sua memoria scribit, non longe Parisiis hero à rivali interempto, & homicidam prodidisse, & ni canis ultionem homicida deprecatus esset, jugulaturum fuisse.

And that Dogge whose syer was Englishe (which Blondus registreth to haue bene within the banckes of his remẽbrance) manifestly perceauyng that his Master was murthered (this chaunced not farre from Paris) by the handes of one which was a suiter to the same womã, whom he was a wooer vnto, dyd both bewraye the bloudy butcher, and attempted to teare out the villons throate if he had not sought meanes to auoyde the reuenging rage of the Dogge.

In incendiis quoque in conticinio seu intempesta nocte incidentibus, eo usque latrant annosi canes, etiam prohibiti, dum à domesticis excitatis percipiatur focus; & tum sua sponte cessant à latratu, quod usu compertum est in Britannia.

In fyers also which fortune in the silence and dead time of the night, or in stormy weather of the sayde season, the older dogges barcke, ball, howle, and yell (yea notwithstandyng they bee roughly rated) neyther will they stay their tounges till the householde seruauntes, awake, ryse, searche, and see the burning of the fyre, which beyng perceaued they vse voluntary silence, and cease from yolping. This hath bene, and is founde true by tryall, in sundry partes of England.

Nec minor erat fides in eo cane qui domino profundam foveam per venatum incidenti nunquam abfuit, dum sui unius indicio sublatus is per funem fuit: in quem, cum oris cavernæ proximus esset, insiliebat canis, tanquam ulnis amplexurus revertentem herum, impatiens longioris moræ.

There was no faynting faith in that Dogge, which when his Master by a mischaunce in hunting stumbled and fell toppling downe a deepe dytche beyng vnable to recouer of himselfe, the Dogge signifying his masters mishappe, reskue came, and he was hayled up by a rope, whom the Dogge seeyng almost drawne up to the edge of the dytche, cheerefully saluted, leaping and skipping vpon his master as though he woulde haue imbraced hym, beyng glad of his presence, whose longer absence he was lothe to lacke.

Canum ingenia.

Sunt qui focum non patiuntur dissipari, sed prunas in focum pede removent, prius cogitabundi aspicientes qua ratione id possit à se fieri. Quod si pruna ardentior fuerit, cinere obruunt, ac dein nare in locum promovent. Sunt quoque qui noctu villici officium præstant.

Some Dogges there be, which will not suffer fyery coales to lye skattered about the hearthe, but with their pawes wil rake up the burnyng coales, musying and studying fyrst with themselues how it myght conueniently be done. And if so bee that the coales cast to great a heate then will they buyry them in ashes and so remoue them forwarde to a fyt place wyth theyr noses. Other Dogges bee there which exequute the office of a Farmer in the nyghte tyme.

Cum enim lectum petit herus, & omnia centum ærei claudunt vectes, æternaque ferri robora, nec custos absistit limine Janus (ut scribit Virgilius) tum si prodire jubeat herus canem, is per fundos omnes oberrat, quovis villico diligentior, & si alienum quid invenerit sive hominem, sive bestiam, abigit, domesticis relictis animalibus atque servis.

For when his master goeth to bedde to take his naturall sleepe, And when,

A hundred barres of brasse and yron boltes,

Make all things safe from startes and from reuoltes.

VVhen Ianus keepes the gate with Argos eye,

That daungers none approch, ne mischiefes nye.

As Virgill vaunteth in his verses, Then if his master byddeth him go abroade, he lingereth not, but raungeth ouer all his lands lying there about, more diligently, I wys, then any farmer himselfe. And if he finde anything their that is straunge and pertaining to other persons besides his master, whether it be man, woman, or beast, he driueth them out of the ground, not medling with any thing which doth belong to the possession and vse of his master.

Sed quanta in his fidelitas, tanta varietas in ingeniis.

But how much faythfulnes, so much diuersitie there is in their natures,

Nam sunt qui ore infræno latrent tantum nullo morsu; verum hi minus tremendi, quòd timidiores sunt. Canes enim timidi vehementius latrant, ut est in proverbio. Sunt qui latrent atque mordeant.

For there be some,

Which barcke only with free and open throate but will not bite,

Which doe both barcke and byte,

Which bite bitterly before they barcke,

The first are not greatly to be feared, because they themselues are fearefull, and fearefull dogges (as the prouerbe importeth) barcke most vehemently.

Ab his cavendum quidem, quia admonent futuræ injuriæ, sed non lacessendum, quoniam ira concitantur ad dentem, ipsi etiam natura acerbiores.

The second are daungerous, it is wisedome to take heede of them because they sounde, as it were, an Alarum of an afterclappe, and these dogges must not be ouer much moued or prouoked, for then they take on outragiously as if they were madde, watching to set the print of their teeth in the fleshe. And these kinde of dogges are fearce and eager by nature.

Sunt qui sine voce prosiliunt, impetu involant, jugulum petunt, & crudelius lacerant. Hos formidato, quia ammosiores sunt, & incautos opprimunt.

The thirde are deadly, for they flye upon a man, without vtteraunce of voyce, snatch at him, and catche him by the throate, and most cruelly byte out colloppes of fleashe. Feare these kind of Curres, (if thou be wise and circumspect about thine owne safetie) for they bee stoute and stubberne dogges, and set vpon a man at a sodden vnwares.

Notæ ignaviæ aut audaciæ.

Istis notis ignavum genus a strenuo, audax a timido discernunt nostri. Etenim ex malo genere, ne catulum quidem habendum existimant, quòd nullum necessariis usibus humanis commodiorem canem isto putent.

By these signes and tokens, by these notes and argumentes our men discerne the cowardly curre from the couragious dogge the bolde from the fearefull, the butcherly from the gentle and tractable. Moreouer they coniecture that a whelpe of an yll kinde is not worthe the keeping and that no dogge can serue the sundry vses of men so aptly and so conueniently as this sort of whom we haue so largely written already.

Nam si quis commemoratos eorum usus ad summas velit revocare, quis hominum clarius aut tanta vociferatione bestiam vel furem prædicat, quam iste latratu? quis domitor ferarum potentior? quis famulus amantior domini? quis fidelior comes? quis custos incorruptior? quis excubitor vigilantior? quis ultor aut vindex constantior? quis nuncius expeditior? quis aquarius laboriosior? quis denique sarctor ærarius gestandis sarcinis tolerantior?

For if any be disposed to drawe the aboue named seruices into a table, what mã more clearely, and with more vehemency of voyce giueth warning eyther of a wastefull beast, or of a spoiling theefe then this? who by his barcking (as good as a burning beacon) foreshoweth hassards at hand? What maner of beast stronger? what seruaũt to his master more louing? what companion more trustie? what watchman more vigilant? what reuenger more constant? what messinger more speedie? what water bearer more painefull? Finally what packhorse more patient?

Atque hæc quidem de canibus Britannicis generosis atque rusticis, qui genus suum servant, diximus.

And thus much concerning English Dogges, first of the gentle kinde, secondly of the courser kinde. Nowe it remaineth that we deliuer vnto you the Dogges of a mungrell or a currishe kinde, and then will wee perfourme our taske.

¶ A Diall pertaining to the fourth Section.

Rustici.
Pastoralis.
Shepherd’s Dog.

Villaticus, seu Catenarius.

Mastive, or Bandedog.

Dogs comprehended in ye fourth section are these

The shepherds dogge
The Mastiue or Bandogge,

which hath sundry names diriued frõ sundry circũstances as

The keeper or watch man
The butchers dogge
The messinger or carrier
The Mooner
The water drawer
The Tinckers curr
The fencer,
called in Latine Canes Rustici.
Ex degeneribus.

The fifth Section of this treatise.

Containing Curres of the mungrell and rascall sort and first of the Dogge called in Latine, Admonitor, and of vs in Englishe VVappe or VVarner.

De degeneribus, & ex horum diverso genere mixtis, quòd nullam insignem veri generis qualitatem formamque referant, non est quod velim plura scribere, sed ut inutiles ablegare, nisi quòd vel advenas latratu excipiant, etiam luce, & eorum adventus domesticos commonefaciant,

Of such dogges as keepe not their kinde, of such as are mingled out of sundry sortes not imitating the conditions of some one certaine spice, because they resẽble no notable shape, nor exercise any worthy property of the true perfect and gentle kind, it is not necessarye that I write any more of them, but to banishe them as vnprofitable implements, out of the boundes of my Booke, vnprofitable I say for any vse that is commendable, except to intertaine straũgers with their barcking in the day time, giuyng warnyng to them of the house, that such & such be newly come,

Admonitor.

unde canes admonitores appellamus:

wherevpon we call them admonishing Dogges, because in that point they performe theyr office.

Of the Dogge called Turnespete in Latine Veruuersator.

vel quòd in officio culinario, cum assandum est, inserviant, & rota minore gradiendo, verua circumagant, pondereque suo æquabiliter versent, ut ne calo aut lixa quidem artificiosius;

There is comprehended, vnder the curres of the coursest kinde, a certaine dogge in kytchen seruice excellent. For whẽ any meate is to bee roasted they go into a wheele which they turning rounde about with the waight of their bodies, so diligently looke to their businesse, that no drudge nor skullion can doe the feate more cunningly.

Versator.

quos hinc canes versatores, seu veruversatores nostrum vulgus nominat: postremos omnium generum, quæ primo memoravimus.

Whom the popular sort herevpon call Turnespets, being the last of all those which wee haue first mencioned.

Tympanista.

Of the Dogge called the Daunser, in Latine Saltator or Tympanista.

Sunt etiam canes nostri degeneres & ad tympanum saltare, & ad lyræ modos se movere docti, multaque alia erecti pronique facere, quæ à vagis quæstuosisque heris exequi didicerunt.

There be also dogges among vs of a mungrell kind which are taught and exercised to daunce in measure at the musicall sounde of an instrument, as, at the iust stroke of the drombe, at the sweete accent of the Cyterne, & tuned strings of the harmonious Harpe showing many pretty trickes by the gesture of their bodies. As to stand bolte upright, to lye flat vpon the grounde, to turne rounde as a ringe holding their tailes in their teeth, to begge for theyr meate, and sundry such properties, which they learne of theyr vagabundicall masters, whose instrumentes they are to gather gaine, withall in Citie, Country, Towne, and Village. As some which carry olde apes on their shoulders in coloured iackets to moue men to laughter for a litle lucre.

Lyciscus.

Of other Dogges, a short conclusion, wonderfully ingendredB within the coastes of this country.

Three sortes of them,

The first bred of a bytch and a wolfe,

In Latine Lyciscus.

The second of a bytche and a foxe,

In Latine Lacæna.

The third of a beare and a bandogge,

In Latine Vrcanus.

Lyciscum nullum istic in Anglia habemus nativum, ut ne lupum quidem ut est ante comprehensum, nec aliud genus ullum præter Lacænam & Urcanum:

Of the first we haue none naturally bred within the borders of England. The reason is for the want of wolfes, without whom no such kinde of Dogge can bee ingendred. Againe it is deliuered vnto thee in this discourse, how and by what meanes, by whose benefite, and within what circuite of tyme, this country was cleerely discharged of rauenyng wolfes, and none at all left, no, not to the least number, or the beginnyng of a number, which is an Vnari.

Lacæna.

illam ex cane & vulpe (quam multam habet Anglia, & domi inter canes vel animi vel morbi causa sæpè alit)

Of the second sort we are not vtterly voyde of some, because this our Englishe soyle is not free from foxes (for in deede we are not without a multitude of them in so much as diuerse keepe, foster, and feede them in their houses among their houndes and dogges, eyther for some maladie of mind, or for some sicknesse of body,) which peraduenture the savour of that subtill beast would eyther mitigate or expell.

Urcanus.

hunc ex urso & cane catenario; quos licet inimicos, pruriens tamen libido sæpè ita hic conjungit, ut alibi solet.

The thirde kinde which is bred of a Beare and a Bandogge we want not heare in England, (A straunge & wonderfull effect, that cruell enimyes should enter into ye worke of copulation & bring forth so sauage a curre.) Undoubtedly it is euen so as we haue reported, for the fyery heate of theyr fleshe, or rather the pricking thorne, or most of all, the tyckling lust of lechery, beareth such swinge and sway in them, that there is no contrairietie for the time, but of constraint they must ioyne to ingender. And why should not this bee consonant to truth? why shoulde not these beastes breede in this lande, as well as in other forreigne nations?

Nam cum tigride Hircanos, cum leone Arcadicos, cum lupo Gallicos commiscuisse legimus. In hominibus quoque quibus ratio est, inimicos animos conciliat stulta illa res & naturalis, ut Moria loquitur.

For wee reede that Tigers and dogges in Hircania, that Lyons and Dogges in Arcadia, and that wolfes and dogges in Francia, couple and procreate. In men and women also lyghtened with the lantarne of reason (but vtterly voide of vertue) that foolishe, frantique, and fleshely action, (yet naturally sealed in vs) worketh so effectuously, yt many tymes it doth reconcile enimyes, set foes at freendship, vnanimitie, & atonement, as Moria mencioneth.

Est hic urcanus, sæva bestia, & intractabilis iræ (ut Gratii poetæ verbis utar) cæteros canes nostros omnes feroci crudelitate superans, vel aspectus torvitate terribilis, in pugna acris & vehemens, tantaque mordacitate, ut citius discerpas quàm dissolvas; nec lupum nec taurum, ursum aut leonem reformidat: vel cum cane illo Alexandri Indico certe conferendus. Sed de his hactenus ut de Britannicis verba fecimus.

The Vrcane which is bred of a beare and a dogge,

Is fearce, is fell, is stoute and stronge,

And byteth sore to fleshe and bone,

His furious force indureth longe

In rage he will be rul’de of none.

That I may vse the wordes of the Poet Gratius, This dogge exceedeth all other in cruell conditions, his leering and fleering lookes, his stearne and sauage vissage, maketh him in sight feareful and terrible, he is violent in fighting, & wheresoeuer he setteth his tenterhooke teeth, he taketh such sure & fast hold that a man may sooner teare and rende him in sunder, then lose him and seperate his chappes. He passeth not for the Wolfe, the Beare, the Lyon, nor the Bull, and may wortherly (as I thinke) be companiõ with Alexanders dogge which came out of India. But of these, thus much, and thus farre may seeme sufficient.

Externi canes.

A starte to outlandishe Dogges in this conclusion, not impertinent to the Authors purpose.

Externos aliquos & eos majusculos, Islandicos dico & Littuanicos, usus dudum recepit: quibus toto corpore hirtis, ob promissum longumque pilum, nec vultus est, nec figura corporis.

Vse and custome hath intertained other dogges of an outlandishe kinde, but a fewe and the same beyng of a pretty bygnesse, I meane Iseland, dogges curled & rough al ouer, which by reason of the lenght of their heare make showe neither of face nor of body.

Externa prælata.

Multis tamen quòd peregrini sunt, & grati sunt, & in Melitæorum locum assumpti sunt: usque adeo deditum est humanum genus etiam sine ratione novitatibus. ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτρίων, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς, miramur aliena, nostra non diligimus.

And yet these curres, forsoothe, because they are so straunge are greatly set by, esteemed, taken vp, and made of many times in the roome of the Spaniell gentle or comforter. The natures of men is so moued, nay rather marryed to nouelties without all reason, wyt, iudgement or perseueraunce. Ἐρῶμεν ἀλλοτριῶν, παρορῶμεν συγγενεῖς.

Outlandishe toyes we take with delight,

Things of our owne nation we haue in despight.

Neque hoc in canibus solum, sed in artificibus quoque usu venit. Nostros enim licet doctos & peritos fastidimus, belluam è longinqua barbarie alienoque solo profectam tanquam asinum Cumani, aut hominem Thalem, nostri suspiciunt.

Which fault remaineth not in vs concerning dogges only, but for artificers also. And why? it is to manyfest that wee disdayne and contempne our owne workmen, be they neuer so skilfull, be they neuer so cunning, be they neuer so excellent. A beggerly beast brought out of barbarous borders, frõ the vttermost countryes Northward, &c., we stare at, we gase at, we muse, we maruaile at, like an asse of Cumanum, like Thales with the brasen shancks, like the man in the Moone.

Id quod Hippocrates sub initio libri sui περὶ ἀγμῶν recte sua ætate observavit, & nos libello nostro seu consilio de Ephemera Britannica ad populum Britannicum copiosius explicuimus.

The which default Hippocrates marcked when he was alyue, as euidently appeareth in the beginnyng of his booke περὶ ἀγμῶν, so intituled and named:

And we in our worcke entituled De Ephemera Britannica, to the people of England haue more plentifully expressed.

Atque in hoc genere quo quisque indoctior, audacior, incogitantior, hoc pluris fit apud nostros, atque etiam apud torquatos istos principes atque proceres. Cæterum de externis canibus nihil dico, quòd de Britannicis tantum voto tuo satisfacere studeo, Conrade vir doctissime.

In this kinde looke which is most blockishe, and yet most waspishe, the same is most esteemed, and not amonge Citizens onely and iolly gentlemen, but among lustie Lordes also, and noble men, and daintie courtier ruffling in their ryotous ragges. Further I am not to wade in the foorde of this discourse, because it was my purpose to satisfie your expectation with a short treatise (most learned Conrade) not wearysome for me to wryte, nor tedious for you to peruse.

Canis Getulus.

Inter ea tamen quæ aliàs ad te dedi, de cane Getulo seorsum scripsi, quòd rara species ejus videbatur. De cætero genere, ipse plenissimè scribis. Verum cum longius jam produximus hunc libellum quàm priorem ad te, brevius tamen quam pro natura rei, quòd habuimus rationem studiorum tuorum, memoriæ causa quæ de canibus Britannicis diximus, in diagramma reducemus.

Among other things which you haue receaued at my handes heretofore, I remember that I wrote a seuerall description of the Getulian Dogge, because there are but a fewe of them and therefore very seldome scene. As touching Dogges of other kyndes you your selfe haue taken earnest paine, in writing of them both lyuely, learnedly and largely. But because wee haue drawne this libell more at length then the former which I sent you (and yet briefer than the nature of the thing myght well beare) regardyng your more earnest and necessary studdies. I will conclude makyng a rehearsall notwithstanding (for memoryes sake) of certaine specialties contayned in the whole body of this my breuiary.

Et quia vulgaribus nominibus delectaris, ut ex literis tuis didici, ea quoque Latinis apponemus, & singulorum rationes exponemus, quo nihil tibi sit incognitum aut desideratum.

And because you participate principall pleasure in the knowledge of the common and vsuall names of Dogges (as I gather by the course of your letters) I suppose it not amysse to deliuer vnto you a shorte table contayning as well the Latine as the Englishe names, and to render a reason of euery particular appellation, to th’intent that no scruple may remaine in this point, but that euery thing may bee sifted to the bare bottome.

A Diall pertaining to the fifte Section.

Degeneres.
Admonitor.
Versator.
Saltator.
Wappe.
Turn-spit.
Dancer.

Dogges contained in this last Diall or Table are

The wapp or warner,
The Turnespet,
The dauncer,

called in Latine Canes Rustici

 

A Supplement or Addition, containing a demonstration of Dogges names how they had their Originall.

Ista vocabula nostratia cum nihil apud te, hominem peregrinum, loquantur sine interpretatione, ut Latinorum vocabulorum rationem prius reddidimus, ita Anglicorum jam reddemus, quo tibi pateant universa, eo etiam quo prius observato ordine.

The names contayned in the generall table, for so much as they signifie nothing to you being a straunger, and ignoraunt of the Englishe tounge, except they be interpreted: As we haue giuen a reason before of ye latine words so meane we to doe no lesse of the Englishe that euery thing maye be manyfest vnto your vnderstanding. Wherein I intende to obserue the same order which I haue followed before.

Sagax.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the first section.

Hunde igitur (quem inter venaticos sagacem diximus) a verbo nostro hunte, quod apud nostros venari significat, unica tantum immutata litera derivata appellatione, nomen habet. Quod si a vocabulo vestrati hunde, (quod canem in universum apud vos significat) propter vocum similitudinem appellari credas (mi Gesnere) ut non magnopere repugnabo, cum adhuc retinemus multa Germanica vocabula, a Saxonibus cum Angliam occuparunt nobis relicta, ita illud admonebo, commune quidem nomen canis apud nos dogge esse, venatici vero canis hunde.

Sagax, in Englishe Hunde, is deriued of our English word hunte. One letter chaunged in another, namely, T, into D, as Hunt, Hunde, whom (if you coniecture to be so named of your country worde Hunde which signifieth the generall name Dogge, because of the similitude and likenesse of the wordes I will not stand in contradiction (friende Gesner) for so much as we retaine among vs at this day many Dutche wordes which the Saxons left at such time as they occupyed this country of Britane. Thus much also vnderstand, that as in your language Hunde is the common word, so in our naturall tounge dogge is the vniuersall, but Hunde is perticuler and a speciall, for it signifieth such a dogge onely as serueth to hunt, and therfore it is called a hunde.

Agasæus.

Of the Gasehounde.

Similiter à verbo nostrati, Gase, (quòd fixius rem aliquam & attentius contueri est) Gasehunde appellatur nostris, quem ante Agasæum nominari diximus. Neque enim odoratu, sed prospectu attento & diligenti feram persequitur iste canis, ut jam ante memoravimus; etsi non sum nescius etiam apud Latinos Agasæi vocabulum inter canum nomina reperiri.

The Gasehounde called in latine Agasæus, hath his name of the sharpenesse and stedfastnesse of his eyesight. By which vertue he compasseth that which otherwise he cannot by smelling attaine. As we haue made former relation, for to gase is earnestly to viewe and beholde, from whence floweth the deriuation of this dogges name.

Leporarius.

Of the Grehounde.

A Gre quoque, Grehunde apud nostros invenit nomen, quod præcipui gradus inter canes sit, & primæ generositatis. Gre enim apud nostros gradum denotat. Hunc latinè Leporarium dicebamus.

The Grehounde called Leporarius, hath his name of this word, Gre, which word soundeth, Gradus in latine, in Englishe degree. Because among all dogges these are the most principall, occupying the chiefest place, and being simply and absolutely the best of the gentle kinde of houndes.

Levinarius.

Of the Leuyner or the Lyemmer.

A levitate Leviner, à loro Lyemmer, appellatur is quem Levinarium & Lorarium latinè nominavimus. Nam Lyemme nostra lingua, Lorum significat. Quod autem a levitate Leviner, hoc est a latina voce Britannicam, diducimus: cur in libris nostris sparsim a Græcis dictionibus & Latinis Italicis & Germanicis, Gallicis & Hispanicis nostratia multa derivamus, unde ortum eadem multa habuerunt:

This dogge is called a Leuyner, for his lyghtnesse, which in latine soundeth Leuitas, Or a Lyemmer which worde is borrowed of Lyemme, which the latinists name Lorum: and wherefore we call him a Leuyner of this worde Leuitas? (as we doe many things besides) why we deriue and drawe a thousand of our tearmes, out of the Greeke, the Latine, the Italian, the Dutch, the French, and the Spanishe tounge? (Out of which fountaines in deede, they had their originall issue.)

Lib. de symphonia.

& quemadmodum ab origine sua etiam multa per corruptionem jam declinarunt, libello nostro de symphonia seu consonantia vocum Britannicarum fusius explicabimus.

How many words are buryed in the graue of forgetfulnes? growne out of vse? wrested awrye? and peruersly corrupted by diuers defaultes? we wil declare at large in our booke intituled, Symphonia vocum Britannicarum.

Vertagus.

Of the Tumbler.

Postremus inter venaticos Vertagus est, quem Tumbler vocitamus; quòd tumble apud nos vertere est Latinis, & tumbiere Gallis, unde ortum habet id nomen Tumbler, mutata vocali in liquidam nostro more: contra quàm in lingua Gallica & Italica, in quibus liquida ante vocalem, magna ex parte in aliam vocalem vertitur, ut impiere & piano, pro implere & plano, quæ exempli gratia adduce, cum infinita sint.

Among houndes the Tumbler called in latine Vertagus, is the last, which commeth of this worde Tumbler flowyng first of al out of the French fountaine. For as we say Tumble so they, Tumbier, reseruing one sense and signification, which the latinists comprehende vnder this worde Vertere, So that we see thus much, that Tumbler commeth of Tumbier, the vowell, I, chaunged into the Liquid, L, after ye maner of our speache. Contrary to the French and the Italian tounge. In which two languages, A Liquid before a Vowell for the most part is turned into another Vowell, As, may be perceaued in the example of these two wordes, Implere & plano, for Impiere & piano, L, before, E, chaunged into, I, and L, before A, turned into I, also. This I thought conuenient for a taste.

Aucupatorii.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the second Section.

Post Venaticos sequuntur Aucupatorii; inter quos primus est Hispaniolus, quem ab Hispania voce nomen accepisse prius diximus. Nostri omissa aspiratione & prima vocali, Spainel & Spaniel expediti sermonis causa proferunt.

After such as serue for hunting orderly doe follow such as serue for hawking and fowling, Among which the principall and chiefest is the Spaniell, called in Latine Hispaniolus, borrowing his name of Hispania Spaine, wherein wee Englishe men not pronouncing the Aspiration H, Nor the Vowell I, for quicknesse and redinesse of speach say roundly A Spaniell.

Index.

Of the Setter.

Secundus Index, quem nostri a Setter nominare solent, a verbo sette, quod locum designare nostris Britannis significat.

The second sort of this second diuision and second section, is called a Setter, in latine Index, Of the worde Set which signifieth in Englishe that which the Latinistes meane by this word Locum designare, ye reason is rehersed before more largely, it shall not neede to make a new repetition.

Aquaticus.

Of the water Spaniell or Finder.

Post hunc subsequitur aquaticus, hoc est a Waterspainel, a vocibus Water & Spaine (hoc est aqua & Hispania) deducto nomine. Nam aqua, in qua se exercet canis iste, Water; & Hispania (unde primum genus hoc tractum ex nomine creditur) Spaine apud nostros vocitatur.

The water Spaniell consequently followeth, called in Latine Aquaticus, in English a waterspaniell, which name is compounde of two simple wordes, namely Water, which in Latine soũdeth Aqua, wherein he swymmeth. And Spaine, Hispania, the country frõ whence they came,

Non quòd isti canes non sint etiam nativi in Britannia, sed quòd generale & commune nomen canum, qui ex Hispania primò profecti putantur, istæ canum species (ut & cæteri Aucupatorii) adhuc vulgo referunt, etsi in Britannia oriantur, & peculiari aliqua vocis nota, aut qualitatis indicio secernantur apud nos; ut est ista species vocis Water, hoc est aquæ, appositione.

Not that England wanted such kinde of Dogges, (for they are naturally bred and ingendred in this country.) But because they beare the generall and common name of these Dogges synce the time they were first brought ouer out of Spaine. And wee make a certaine difference in this sort of Dogges, eyther for some thing which in theyr voyce is to be marked, or for some thing which in their qualities is to be considered, as for an example in this kinde called the Spaniell by the apposition and putting to of this word water, which two coupled together sounde waterspaniell.

Inquisitor.

Alio etiam nomine a Finder canis iste appellatur, quòd quærendo invenit res deperditas, quæ res nostris, fynde, hoc est invenire, dicitur. Nos tamen ab inquirendo latinum nomen huic fecimus, quòd præcipua pars inventionis in inquirendo est.

He is also called a fynder, in Latine Inquisitor, because that by serious and secure seeking, he findeth such things as be lost, which word Finde in English is that which the Latines meane by this Verbe Inuenire. This dogge hath this name of his property because the principall point of his seruice consisteth in the premisses.

The names of such Dogges as be contained in the thirde Section.

A venaticis & aucupatoriis transitus est ad Delicatos, Rusticos, & Degeneres.

Now leauing the suruie we of hunting and hauking dogs, it remaineth that we runne ouer the residue, whereof some be called, fine dogs, some course, other some mungrels or rascalls.

Delicati.

Delicatum, Melitæum & Spainel gentle, hoc est Hispaniolum generosum, nominavimus, à generositatis nomine data appellatione, quòd inter nobiles viros atque fœminas versari, & iis in deliciis atque ad lusus esse consuevit: ut erat illud Gorgonis κυνίδιον apud Theocritum in Syracusiis, quod discedens servæ diligentiæ pari cura cum infante commiserat, ut catellum quidem illa intro revocaret, puerum verò vagientem placaret.

The first is the Spaniell gentle called Canis Melitæus, because it is a kinde of dogge accepted among gentles, Nobles, Lordes, Ladies, &c. who make much of them vouchsafeing to admit them so farre into their company that they will not onely lull them in theyr lappes, but kysse them with their lippes, and make them theyr prettie playfellowes. Such a one was Gorgons litle puppie mencioned by Theocritus in Siracusis, who taking his iourney, straightly charged & commaunded his mayde to see to his Dogge as charely and warely as to his childe: To call him in alwayes that he wandred not abroade, as well as to rock the babe a sleepe, crying in the cradle.

Ad alia omnia inutilis canis iste est, nisi ad ea quæ jam ante diximus, nisi ad fovendum stomachum debilitatum frigore, nisi ad prodendum adulterium, quod fecisse hujus generis catellum quendam Siculum refert Ælianus, libro septimo, capite vicesimo quinto animalium.

This puppitly and peasantly curre, (which some frumpingly tearme fysteing hounds) serue in a maner to no good vse except, (As we haue made former relation) to succour and strengthen quailing and quammning stomackes to bewray bawdery, and filthy abhominable leudnesse (which a litle dogge of this kinde did in Sicilia) As Ælianus in his .7. booke of beastes and .27. chapter recordeth.

Rustici.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fourth Section.

Rusticos, Shepeherdes dogges, Mastives, & Bandedogges nominavimus: illorum quidem deducto nomine a pastore, qui Shepeherde apud nos dicitur, quòd custodit oves, quæ nostris, Shepe, appellantur: istorum a ligamento, quod Bande, & Sagina, quod maste, villicis nostris hominibus dicitur.

Of dogges vnder the courser kinde, wee will deale first with the shepherds dogge, whom we call the Bandogge, the Tydogge, or the Mastyue, the first name is imputed to him for seruice Quoniam pastori famulatur, because he is at the shepherds his masters commaundement. The seconde a Ligamento of the band or chaine wherewith he is tyed, The thirde a Sagina, Of the fatnesse of his body.

Est enim crassum genus canum, & bene saginatum catenarium hoc. Etsi non sum nescius Augustinum Niphum, Mastinum (mastivum nostri dicunt) pecuarium existimare: & Albertum Lyciscum ex cane & lupo genitum esse scribere: quamvis idem pro Molosso magna ex parte vertat.

For this kinde of dogge which is vsually tyed, is myghty, grosse, and fat fed. I know this that Augustinus Niphus, calleth this Mastinus (which we call Mastiuus.) And that Albertus writeth how the Lyciscus is ingendred by a beare and a wolfe. Notwithstanding the self same Author taketh it for the most part pro Molosso. A dogge of such a countrey.

Versator.

The names of such dogges as be contained in the fifte Section.

Ad postremum, degeneres Wappe & Turnespete nominari dicebamus: hunc a verbo nostrati turne, quòd est verto & spete, seu spede ad imitationem Italorum, quod veru dicitur; illum a naturali canis voce Wau, quam in latratu edit admonendo.

Of mungrels and rascalls somwhat is to be spoken. And among these, of ye VVappe or Turnespet, which name is made of two simple words, that is, of Turne, which in latine soundeth Vertere, and of spete which is Veru, or spede, for the Englishe word inclineth closer to the Italian imitation: Veruuersator, Turnspet.

Unde, originaliter Waupe dicendum fuit. Sed euphoniæ bonæque consonantiæ gratia, vocali in consonantem mutata, Wappe a nostris vocitatur. Etsi non me fugit Nonium, a voce naturali Bau, formare suum baubari, non a Wau, quemadmodum & Græci à suo βαύζειν.

He is called also VVaupe, of the naturall noise of his voyce VVau, which he maketh in barcking. But for the better and the redyer sounde, the vowell, u, is chaunged into the cõsonant, p, so yt for waupe we say wappe. And yet I wot well that Nonius boroweth his Baubari of the natural voyce Bau, as the Græcians doe their βάυζειν of wau

Saltator.

Jam verò quod dansare nostris, saltare sit Latinis, si didiceris, non est de canis saltatoris nostrati nomine amplius quod ipse expetas.

Now when you vnderstand this that Saltare in latine signifieth Dansare in Englishe. And that our dogge therevpon is called a daunser and in the latine Saltator, you are so farre taught as you were desirous to learne, And now suppose I, there remaineth nothing, but that your request is fully accomplished.

The winding vp of this worke, called the Supplement, &c.

Ita habes (mi Gesnere) non solum canum nostratium genera, sed & nomina quoque Latina atque Anglica, officia atque usus, differentias atque mores, naturas & ingenia, ut non sit quod desideres in hoc argumento amplius.

Thus (Friend Gesner) you haue, not only the kindes of our countrey dogges, but their names also, as well in latine as in Englishe, their offices, seruices, diuersities, natures, & properties, that you can demaunde no more of me in this matter.

Et quanquam forsan omni ex parte non satisfecerim tibi in edendo (cui in desideriis omnis festinatio in mora esse videatur) quòd inhibuerim editionem rudioris illius libelli, quem ad te tanquam ad privatum amicum, non ad editionem publicam ante annos quinque dederim; tamen in hoc spero me satisfecisse tibi, quòd mora fecit aliquanto meliorem, & δεύτεραι φροντίδες lectu commodiorem.

And albeit I haue not satisfied your minde peraduẽture (who suspectest al speede in the performaunce of your requeste employed, to be meere delayes) because I stayde the setting fourth of that vnperfect pamphlet which, fiue yeares ago, I sent to you as a priuate friende for your owne reeding, and not to be printed, and so made common, yet I hope (hauing like the beare lickt ouer my younge) I haue waded in this worke to your contentation, which delay hath made somewhat better and δευτέραι φροντίδες, after witte more meete to be perused.

Joannis Caii Britanni de Canibus Britannicis libelli finis.

Iste liber scriptus fuit ante mortem Gesneri, etsi non ante publicatus, ut est ille de rariorum animalium atque stirpium historia.

The ende of this treatise.
FINIS.

The Text

The editor’s general introduction says:

In this volume no attempt has been made to produce a facsimile reprint. Even if such a design had been entertained, the great variety of form in which the original editions were issued would have made it impossible to carry out the re-issue with any uniformity. Obvious misprints have been corrected, but where a difference in spelling in the same work or on the same page—e.g. baccalarius, baccalaureus—is clearly due to the varying practice of the writer and not to the printer, the words have been left as they stood in the original. On the other hand the accents in the very numerous Greek quotations have been corrected.

 

Transcriber’s Notes

Cicero
Abridgement
Names
Fleming’s Errata

Dog HybridsLat, Eng, Dual
and Lobster-Hunting DogsEng, Dual

In All the Year Round for September 5, 1885, Charles Dickens (son of the author) or an unnamed contributor wrote:

Dr. Caius ... had his scholar’s errors, else he would not talk of lobster-hound, and of the urcanus (dogbear), “bred of a bear and a bandog.”

The wolf-dog (lyciscus) and bear-dog (urcanus) each requires no comment. The fox-dog (lacæna) is genetically impossible.

Under Leverarius (Harier), the Latin original names eight animals hunted by dogs:

Nam alius leporis, alius vulpis, alius cervi, alius platycerotis, alius taxi, alius lutræ, alius mustelæ, alius cuniculi ...

The English translation expands these to eleven:

Some for / The Hare [lepus] / The Foxe [vulpes] / The Wolfe / The Harte / The Bucke / The Badger [taxus] / The Otter [lutra] / The Polcat / The Lobster / The Weasell / The Conny [cuniculus], &c.

The addition of Wolfe—an animal said not to exist in England—is not explained. The Harte (cervus) is the elk or red deer; the Bucke (platyceros) is the roe deer. The Lobster is not a crustacean but a regional term for “polecat”, listed in the OED with citations of appropriate date. The three-way distinction between Polcat, Lobster and Weasell (subsumed under the single Latin word mustela) is not explained.

CiceroLat, Eng, Dual

And albeit Cicero in his oration had Pro. S. Ross. be of this opinion...

Cicero, Pro S. Roscio Amerino, 20 [56 end]:

Quod si luce quoque canes latrent, cum deos salutatum aliqui venerint, opinor, eis crura suffringantur, quod acres sint etiam tum, cum suspicio nulla sit.

“Abridgement”

The translator uses this term at least six times to describe his work. The body text is about twice as long as the Latin original; note in particular the section on Delicati (the Melitæus or Maltese).

Names and Etymologies

Note that “Dutch” means “German” (Deutsch). “Boethus” is not Boethius but the Scottish John Boece, variously called Boethus and Boethius.

The word “Spaniel” does appear to mean “Spanish”, though its derivation is not exactly as described. “Hound” is related to the Germanic “Hund”, not to the English “Hunt”.

Fleming’s Errata

The form “X for Y” means is “X is a misprint for Y”, not “substitute X for Y”.

Page. 3. Grecians for Græcians

The spelling “Grecians” also occurs on p. 25, where it has been changed for consistency.

There bee also certaine Accents wanting in the Greeke words which, because we had them not, are pretermitted: so haue wee byn fayne to let the Greeke words run their full length, for lacke of Abbreuiations.

As noted above, Greek was regularized in this reprint. The “Abbreviations” or ligatures, derived from scribal shorthand, remained in use in printed Greek until the 18th century. Some that Fleming might have used—or wanted to use—are:

Greek ligature ος (-os) in οἰκουρὸς
Greek ligature ην (-ên) in ἰχνευτὴν or ῥινηλάτην
Greek ligature των (-tôn) in μεγαλοῤῥούντων
Greek ligature περὶ (the complete word or prefix “peri”)




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