The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Great Round World and What Is Going On
In It, Vol. 2, No. 5, February 3, 1898, by Various

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: The Great Round World and What Is Going On In It, Vol. 2, No. 5, February 3, 1898
       A Weekly Magazine for Boys and Girls

Author: Various

Editor: Julia Truitt Bishop

Release Date: September 7, 2006 [EBook #19203]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Emmy and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team (

Copyright, 1897, by The Great Round World Publishing Company.

The Great Round World

Published Every Thursday Throughout the Year

Single Numbers, 5c. Each

One year, - 52 numbers $2.50
Six months, 26    " 1.25
Three    "   , 26    " .65
Rate to LibrariesPer year1.75
Foreign subscriptions        "3.50

Special rates are made to schools and to active teachers.

Numbers are bound up into four parts each year. Charge for binding, 35 cents a part.

The trade is supplied by the American News Company and its branches.

Remittances should be by registered letter, or by check, express-order, or postal-order, payable to The Great Round World Publishing Co.

No receipts are sent for remittances unless requested. The number on the address label represents the number of the paper with which subscription will expire.

Ten days' notice should be given of any change of address.


Great Round World Publishing Co.
3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City

At any of the following stores copies and bound volumes of The Great Round World will be found on sale, and subscribers may exchange their numbers for bound volumes:

JOHN WANAMAKER, Philadelphia, Pa.
W. B. CLARKE & CO., Boston, Mass.
J. & R. SIMMS, 123 22d St., Chicago, Ill.
WOODWARD & LOTHROP, Washington, D. C.
BURROWS BROS. CO., Cleveland, Ohio.
PRESTON & ROUNDS CO., Providence, R. I.
H. H. CARTER & CO., Boston, Mass.
WHITAKER & RAY CO., San Francisco, Cal.
THE MARTIN & HOYT CO., Atlanta, Ga.


Pictures of
of .. ..
and Rome


Being 30 of the
best examples of
Greek and Roman


Sold in 6 Parts, (5 PLATES EACH)       -       -    $1.50 a Part

Arrangements can be made for easy payments, if desired

The plates are about 15 × 21 inches, and were selected and prepared by Feodor Hoppe with the assistance of the Austrian Royal Imperial Institute of Photography and Reproduction, and are recommended for school use by special order of the Austrian Royal Imperial Ministry of Education.

Address: The Great Round World Publ. Co.
3 & 5 West 18th Street               .. .. ..   NEW YORK CITY


$3.00 a Year
25c. a Number


Has never been anything but a delightful publication since the appearance of its first number. For the busy people who cannot read all the periodicals or the family with the limited pocketbook, who can afford only one or two each month, Current Literature is an inestimable blessing, selecting and reprinting, as it does, the best things of the month. There is a charm in the very make-up of the magazine which is altogether distinctive.—Art in Advertising.


Cut out this coupon and send with 25c.
and you will receive the last three issues
of Current Literature. This offer
includes the current number.

Current Literature,
Bryant Building,
55 Liberty St., New York


Famous Santa

Four True
Stories of
Life and

Jessie R. Smith

Captain John Smith
Captain Miles Standish
Benjamin Franklin

NET :: By Mail 50 CENTS

A Book to be read by Children
and not to them

For second year reading


RAPIDITY in learning to read depends upon the quickness with which the child's attention shall be drawn to the substance by which the process is made more or less an unconscious one. The method of this book's production has been as follows: The story was first related to pupils from seven to nine years of age, in the best form possible. Some days later, reproductions, both oral and written, were called for. These reproductions (many hundred in number) formed the material for most careful study as to essential elements of plot, salient points of interest, and especially the words and forms of expressions used by children. By this means the story has been reconstructed. Portions over which the children love to linger are brought out to the fullest extent. Their words and forms of language, within the limits of grammatical usage, are followed scrupulously. Less than seven hundred and fifty words, all of the commonest use among children, are used in the entire series.

Without attempting to formulate any principles or a philosophy of children's interests, the author has simply sought to draw the material from the child itself.

These stories, in typewritten and mimeograph form, were used in the schools of Santa Rosa, Cal., for many months, and in their present form are the product of much revision.

"It may be safely said that in these stories there is a drawing power for the child that is assurance that a resonant chord in the child nature has been struck."—Frederick Burk, Clark Univ.

The Story of WashingtonBy same author. "A children's book by children."
Illustrated by children. Cloth, 25 cents.

3 and 5 WEST 18th ST., NEW YORK

Something New

for the .. ..


Patent applied for.
Patent applied for.


A Supplementary Work
to the
Industrial Side
of the .. ..


Printed on Muslin, in beautiful designs marked where to cut out, and sew together. Use pasteboard for the backs, and cotton for the filling. A pleasant and beneficial employment for the LITTLE ONES AT HOME. .. .. ..

For the practibility of the many ideas, viz.: Design, Cutting out, Drawing, Sewing, Form, and Color. The result is an indestructible and BEAUTIFUL TOY. For sale at Dry-Goods Stores, or sent on receipt of. .. .. .. . .. .. ..

12 Cents in Stamps.

Palmer Manufacturing Co., 43 and 45 Leonard St., New York

The Everett Piano
Highest Grade
Uprights, Baby and Concert

141-143 Fifth Ave., near 21st St.,

[Pg 129]


Vol. II., No. 5.            FEBRUARY 3, 1898             Whole No. 65

With the Editor

As we go to press there is an uncertain feeling resulting from the departure of our cruiser for Cuban waters. It may provoke a crisis, or it may lead to a better knowledge of the true attitude of the administration toward Spain.

Cuba continues to furnish us with its share of current history; the news is no more encouraging than that of previous weeks, however.

In the East the situation has not materially changed. It continues interesting—so interesting that this subject is uppermost in the minds of the civilized world. While any day may witness the peaceful settlement of the whole trouble, it is by no means certain but that selfish motives of one of the Great Powers may, at any minute, cause a general European war.

England's attention is divided between China and Egypt. The Indian and Chinese questions bid fair to be merged, as there are indications that England's attitude toward China is not an unselfish one.

In France the Dreyfus clamor has grown to a disturbance, the disturbance to riot;—what next?

The short sketch of the life of Gladstone which will[Pg 130] be published in next week's number should interest all of our readers. The "Grand Old Man" is undoubtedly the grandest figure in the history of the century now closing, and his admirers are to be found in every part of the world—many in our own country, where self-achieved greatness is by no means uncommon. His has been a life of constant, unremitted labor in the advancement of the interests of his fellow-men. No minute in his long life seems to have been wasted, and to-day, when nearly ninety years of age, he continues to labor to the utmost of his remaining strength.


Our Naturalist has already received enough suggestions for his projected book to enable him to write a library, we think, but he says that he is quite in earnest in wanting to hear from many thousand boys and girls on this subject. His purpose is apparently to make a book which shall be found just right by all.

A batch of letters comes in from Baltimore, and the subjects are so varied and interesting that we give them in outline.

Jane H. wants to know about the mongoose: what kind of snakes it kills; about sun-spots and their influence on the seasons.

C. F. N. about the sky, sun, moon, and stars.

Philip H. H. about bees and crabs.

Edwin St. J. G. about horses, especially those with long manes and tails.

Sidney G. about wild animals, lions; also snakes and unfamiliar plants.[Pg 131]

Claude E. H. about Mother Carey's chickens. He writes that his uncle shot one while crossing the ocean.

Murray W. T. about birds and plants, "with pictures."

Howell G. about the quail, woodpecker, and other birds. (We wonder if he has seen Grant's book on birds, or "Bird Neighbors"?)

James M. about sea-lions and wild animals; also about cats and domestic animals.

Denison F. about ant-eaters, lions, and whales.

Tom T. about the horse, dog, and python.

You can see by the above letters—and this was but part of one mail—how many things our young people want to know about, and what a task "Naturalist" has taken upon himself.

From Sterling, Ill., comes a request from a number of boys and girls for a book about wild animals and how they live. (Ingersoll's "Wild Neighbors" is just such a book.)

E. C., of Brookline, writes a very suggestive letter. A few of his wants are as follows: chapters on garden-grubs, and insects injurious to vegetation; caterpillars, together with pictures of the butterflies that come from them; birds' nests; colored pictures of beetles, fossils, shells, etc. He says in conclusion: "Even with things to see, you often need to be shown how to look."

In this he is right, for we miss many beautiful things in this world because we do not know "how to look."

We wish to acknowledge with pleasure the well-written letters from Point Grammar School, Glou[Pg 132]cester, Mass., from "Brenda P. S.," "Alberta S. M.," "Mary S. E.," and "Susan M."


With No. 66 of The Great Round World will be issued a portrait of the young Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands. Great interest is being taken in the approaching coronation festivities, which will take place in September of this year.

[Pg 133]

Current History


The proposed annexation of the Hawaiian islands is still being actively discussed in the Senate.

The friends of the bill are doing their best to present every argument for it in the most convincing way.

Senator Morgan, however, went a little too far the other day in his zeal in its behalf. He declared that ex-President Cleveland wanted the islands to be annexed to the United States, but that he thought the ex-Queen ought first to be restored to the throne and given an opportunity to let the islands be acquired by purchase.

Mr. Cleveland promptly denied this statement. "I can hardly believe Mr. Morgan made the assertions imputed to him," he said in an interview. "He knew perfectly well that I have been utterly and constantly opposed to Hawaiian annexation. The first thing I did after my inauguration, in March, 1893, was to recall from the Senate an annexation treaty then pending before that body. I regard the annexation of these islands as a complete departure from our national mission. I did not suppose that there was any person in public life that had any doubt as to my position in this matter.

"Aside from any question of annexation, and with[Pg 134]out harboring any design of restoring the Hawaiian monarchy, I investigated the relation of our representatives to its overthrow. This investigation satisfied me that our interference in the matter was disgraceful and wrong, and I would gladly, for the sake of our national honor and fair fame, have repaired that wrong; only this, and nothing more."

These remarks are important, as they refer back to the very beginning of the troubles in Hawaii which led to the present plan of making the islands a part of the United States.

In saying that the annexation of the islands would be a "complete departure from our national mission," Mr. Cleveland meant that it was the policy of our Government not to go outside of America to acquire territory, but to let other nations alone just as we ourselves wish to be let alone.

This policy is very different from that of England, for example, who has for many years been reaching out to add to her already vast possessions. In other words, our plan is opposed to what is known as the "policy of grab."

By speaking of "our interference" in the Hawaiian revolution as "disgraceful," Mr. Cleveland means that the revolution was not only largely planned by American residents on the islands, but that American marines were called from the harbor of Honolulu to the government building to assist the revolutionists, or, as the revolutionists themselves declare, to protect American interests on the islands.

Now that the question of annexation is before the country, a prominent advocate for each side has appeared.[Pg 135]

We referred last week to the visit here of the President of the Hawaiian republic, Mr. Sanford B. Dole. He has recently stated his side of the matter, in an interview.

And the deposed Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani, or "ex-Queen," as she is called, has presented her views in the form of a book, giving an account of her whole life.

Let us first see what Liliuokalani has to say.

In the first part of the book she tells us how she was brought up. It is astonishing to read that, though she was the daughter of one of the chiefs of the island, she was sent, very shortly after birth, to the house of another chief, named Paki, where there was only one daughter, Bernice, and made a member of his family.

This chief was married to a granddaughter of one of the Hawaiian kings, Kamehameha I., so the adopted girl was considered a member of the royal family.

Here is the account Liliuokalani herself gives of her adoption:

"I knew no other father or mother than my foster-parents, no other sister than Bernice. I used to climb up on the knees of Paki, put my arms around his neck, kiss him, and he caressed me as a father would his child; while, on the contrary, when I met my own parents, it was with perhaps more of interest, yet always with the demeanor I would have shown to any strangers who noticed me.

"My own father and mother had other children, ten in all, the most of them being adopted into other chiefs' families; and although I knew that these were[Pg 136] my own brothers and sisters, yet we met throughout my younger life as though we had not known our common parentage.

"This was, and indeed is, in accordance with Hawaiian customs. It is not easy to explain its origin to those alien to our national life, but it seems perfectly natural to us.

"As intelligible a reason as can be given is that this alliance by adoption cemented the ties of friendship between the chiefs. It spread to the common people, and it has doubtless fostered a community of interest and harmony."

It is odd to think of a princess, even of an Hawaiian princess, as being educated, like other girls, in a school. But the school she attended was for those pupils only who had some claim on the succession to the throne.

Near-by, however, there was another school, where some of the children of American residents were educated. Among these was John O. Dominis, the son of a sea-captain of Italian descent, and whose mother was a Boston woman.

Young Dominis made the acquaintance of the future Queen by climbing over the wall and talking to the pupils of the Royal School, as it was called.

A number of years later, in 1862, Liliuokalani became his wife.

This long name, by the way, was not given her until 1877, when the heir to the throne died, and she became the next in succession to the reigning King Kalakaua.

This King may be said to have helped to cause the revolution that made Hawaii a republic. In 1887 he[Pg 137] was persuaded by the white residents, largely Americans or the sons of Americans, to give the country a new constitution that took away a great deal of his power.

"It may be asked," the Queen writes, "Why did the King give them his signature? I answer without hesitation, because he had discovered traitors among his most trusted friends, and knew not in whom he could trust; and because he had every assurance, short of actual demonstration, that the conspirators were ripe for revolution, and had taken measures to have him assassinated if he refused.

"His movements of late had been watched, and his steps dogged, as though he had been a fugitive from justice. Whenever he attempted to go out in the evening, either to call at the hotel or visit any one of his friends' houses, he was conscious of the presence of enemies who were following stealthily on his track.

"But, happily, Providence watched over him, and thus he was guarded from personal harm.

"He signed that constitution under absolute compulsion. Details of the conspiracy have come to me since from sources upon which I can rely, which lead to the conviction that but for the repugnance or timidity of one of the executive committee, since risen very high in the counsels of the so-called republic, he would have been assassinated.

"Then they had planned for the immediate abrogation of the monarchy, the declaration of a republic, and a proposal for annexation to be made to the United States.

"The constitution of the republic was actually[Pg 138] framed and agreed upon, but the plot was not fully carried out—more moderate counsels prevailed.

"They therefore took the very constitution of which I have spoken, the one which had been drafted for a republic, hastily rewrote it so as to answer their ends, and forced Kalakaua to affix thereto his official signature."

In 1891 Kalakaua died and Liliuokalani succeeded him. Not long afterward she determined to try to get back the power for the monarchy that had been taken away.

This soon caused the revolution. Her enemies brought a number of charges against her, and to the chief of these she replies in her book.

Though comparatively few in number, her enemies had so much power that they were able to overturn the Government with little difficulty.

Then they appealed to President Cleveland, asking that the islands be annexed.

As the President gave them no encouragement, they continued to govern Hawaii as a republic.

In 1895 an effort was made to place Liliuokalani again on the throne. It failed, and for a time the ex-Queen was held as a prisoner.

After her release she came to this country to try to secure the aid of our Government.

The Government, however, did not interfere.

Among our legislators and in our newspapers a great deal of sympathy was expressed for the revolutionists and a great deal said in favor of annexation.

At last the republic of Hawaii formally requested that it be made a part of the United States. This[Pg 139] brought the matter before Congress, where, as we have said, it is now being carefully considered.

In her book, Liliuokalani makes this strong appeal to the people of the United States not to take sides with those who have driven her from her throne:

"O honest Americans, as Christians, hear me for my downtrodden people! Their form of government is as dear to them as yours is precious to you. Quite as warmly as you love your country, do they love theirs. With all your goodly possessions, covering a territory so immense that there yet remain parts unexplored, possessing islands that, although near at hand, had to be neutral ground in time of war, do not covet the little vineyard of Naboth's, so far from your shores, lest the punishment of Ahab fall upon you, if not in your day, in that of your children, for 'be not deceived, God is not mocked.' The people to whom your fathers told of the living God, and taught to call 'Father,' and whom the sons now seek to despoil and destroy, are crying aloud to Him in their time of trouble, and He will keep His promise, and will listen to the voices of His Hawaiian children lamenting for their homes."

In view of all that Liliuokalani has to say, the recent interview with President Dole is particularly interesting.

After explaining that no special powers had been granted him on his present mission by the Hawaiian Senate, the President declared it was the belief of the friends of annexation that if the recent amendment of Senator Bacon, to let the question be decided by a vote of the Hawaiian citizens, had been accepted, the vote would be in favor of the treaty.[Pg 140]

President Dole said that, in case of annexation, Hawaii had in view no radical changes in legislation.

"The treaty provides," he said, "for the appointment by the President of the United States of a commission authorized to formulate and recommend to Congress the legislation and forms of government for Hawaii.

"The matter of franchise is now specifically provided for by our laws. For those who elect Senators there is a property and educational qualification; for those who elect Representatives an educational qualification. All electors must take an oath of allegiance to the present Government and renounce allegiance to monarchy.

"There is a strong sentiment on the island against allowing Chinese and Japanese to become citizens. There are cases where these races have acquired the ballot, but they are very few, and the sentiment is adverse to their becoming citizens.

"The natives are all citizens, and would have the right of franchise. Under the regulations now governing the franchise, about 4,000 votes were cast in the election of 1894, and about 3,000 at the more recent election."

President Dole made a glowing picture of the benefits that this country would receive from annexation. It would greatly encourage commerce between the United States and Hawaii by making the trade absolutely free, and it would open up to Americans a great many industries, the chief among them being coffee-growing.

It would also vastly improve the condition of the islands themselves.[Pg 141]

In case annexation is rejected by our Government, President Dole says the Hawaiian Government will continue much as it is at present.

Whatever happens, there is slight prospect that Liliuokalani will be restored to her throne.


At last accounts, Havana was in a state of peace. But it was feared that this peace would not last, and an outbreak against the Americans was expected.

Only the other day Representative Amos Cummings, of New York, made a fierce speech attacking the Spanish authorities and urging our Government to go to war with Spain and help to free Cuba. He compared the condition of Cuba to-day with the condition of the American colonies at the time of the Revolution.

Then, too, a great meeting was recently held in Boston to uphold Cuba's cause, and the feeling in favor of the Cubans has been strongly shown throughout the United States.

But the Cuban insurgents are suspicious of Americans, because our Government has done nothing to help them.

If the Government did do anything to assist the Cuban cause, we should probably have a war on our hands in a very short time.

In preparation for further trouble in Havana, General Blanco is said to have gathered a large body of troops in order to crush it at once.

General Blanco, however, decided not to remain[Pg 142] in Havana, but to go east and take charge of the campaign against the insurgents.

On the other hand, it is reported that many of the troops left Havana a few days after the riots, and that the only signs of the disturbance were the squads of soldiers left to guard two of the newspaper offices that had been attacked.

Some of these troops, it is reported, have been sent to Santiago de Cuba, where the insurgents have been very active of late.

It was rumored recently that the seat of the Cuban Government, near Cubitas, had fallen into the hands of the Spanish.

This rumor, however, is believed to be false. Still, the Spaniards have probably been doing some good fighting in this neighborhood.

The Cuban President and his Cabinet are not likely to be molested, as they are concealed in remote and inaccessible mountain-passes.

A good deal of newspaper talk has been created by the acceptance of General Blanco's Government by Gen. Juan Massó, cousin of President Bartolomé Massó, and his brigade, and by the surrender of five private soldiers belonging to the command of Gen. Maximo Gomez, the insurgent commander-in-chief.

These soldiers declare that General Gomez ordered Captain Nestor Alvarez to be shot for attempting to persuade insurgent soldiers to accept autonomy. They have asked permission to form a guerilla force to avenge the captain's death.

In various parts of the island the Cubans have been doing a great deal of damage to property, but it is[Pg 143] impossible to know accurately just what they are gaining by their devastations. The news sent from the Cuban and the Spanish camps does not agree by any means.

Both sides declare that they are making progress.

There is no doubt, however, that though the Cubans had lost hope of receiving help from the United States this winter, they have not lost courage.

At present they are busily engaged in transporting supplies into the centre of the island, and they propose to continue the campaign through the wet season.

The Spaniards maintain that the insurgents are at the end of their resources, that very misleading reports of the war are sent to this country, and that the Cuban Junta in New York gives information that cannot be relied upon to the papers.

The Spanish minister has gone so far as to defy Tomas Estrada Palma, who is at the head of the Junta, to mention five Cuban generals who are now in good standing.

He evidently hopes in this way to discredit the information sent out by the Junta.

On the other hand, the Junta discredits the reports sent out by the Spaniards. In the case of Gen. Juan Massó, for example, it says that several months before his surrender Massó had been degraded from the command, and that his so-called "brigade" consisted only of a few personal followers; so his acceptance of autonomy did not by any means indicate that the insurgents were giving up the cause of Free Cuba.[Pg 144]


The excitement in France over the case of Captain Dreyfus, instead of subsiding, has grown even more serious.

For several days the students have paraded the streets in small groups, uttering cries against Zola and the Jews, and have been dispersed by the police.

It is said also that cries of "Long live the Emperor" have been heard.

This suggests that the excitement may affect the Government, after all, in spite of its apparent security in recent years.

In Paris this seems to be a very easy thing to do. More than once the Government has been overturned by the mob.

In spite of their bitter experiences, the French people of to-day are very like the French people of a little more than a hundred years ago.

But the French people of a hundred years ago were very badly governed and had terrible grievances.

At present, the French are well governed by rulers of their own choosing.

It is very likely that those who cried out for the Emperor were either jokers, or people eager to add to the excitement, or else paid agents of the Imperial party, which still hopes to restore the descendants of the first Napoleon to the throne of France.

So far, the mob has accomplished nothing, and the Government has stood firm.

In the Chamber of Deputies, however, the discussion of the Dreyfus case has led to very serious complications.

One of the members, ex-Minister Cavaignac, de[Pg 145]clared that a report existed, written by Captain Lebrun-Renaud, of the French army, which gave an account of a confession of guilt made by Captain Dreyfus. Monsieur Cavaignac blamed the Government for keeping silent about this confession, on the ground that by its silence it had practically led to a reopening of the case. If the Government would declare, he said, that the publication of the confession would involve some foreign Power, this would end further discussion of the matter. Otherwise, the whole case ought to be made public.

Premier Meline replied that such a confession existed, but the Government had decided not to publish it, as it would change the character of a case that had already been settled by competent judges. There was, besides, he acknowledged, another cause for keeping silence, the very cause that had made the trial secret. This was not "excessively great," but it was customary to conduct all such trials in secrecy, and the custom was not to be violated in this instance.

The Premier then criticised the newspapers that had taken sides with Dreyfus, and added that the Government had done right in calling Zola to account for insulting the army.

The President of the Chamber, Monsieur Brisson, then leaped to his feet and implored the legislators not to make a sensation while the streets outside were in a turmoil.

Premier Meline replied that the Government would quell the turmoil in the streets, and that those men should be blamed for the scandal who had started it. Then he condemned the socialistic newspapers for their attacks on the Government.[Pg 146]

The socialistic newspapers are those papers that advocate the doctrine of Socialism, which may be said to have grown out of the French Revolution.

Socialism is founded on the theory that all rights and privileges and benefits should be shared equally by all the members of the community, and that the wealth of the world should be in the hands of the Government, which should have the power of distributing it. The citizens, instead of competing with one another, as they do now, should work together for the general good and be paid alike.

Many people believe that though this doctrine sounds very Christian-like, it would not work. The industrious would get no more for their labor than the idle. So the idle would become more idle, and the industrious would lose all incentive to do their best.

At any rate, Socialism has made great progress in France, and it is greatly feared there by its enemies. Its friends, on the contrary, think that it is going to make the world very much better than it is at present.

The friends of Socialism in the Chamber of Deputies became greatly excited by Premier Meline's censure of their papers. The excitement reached a climax when one member accused another of being a scoundrel and a coward, and several fights took place. Even the people in the galleries fought among themselves, and hurled abuse down at the members.

The scene was not unlike one of those disgraceful scenes that took place in the Reichsrath of Austria a few weeks ago.

The reporters were then asked to leave, and the rest of the session was conducted in secret. On entering[Pg 147] the corridors the reporters found them crowded with soldiers who had been called out at the beginning of the trouble in case they should be needed.

Fortunately, their interference was not required.

Think of what the excitement is likely to be when Zola is brought to trial!


There has been so much secrecy about the Egyptian troubles that it is not easy to explain England's present activity on the Nile.

The last report says that Colonel Parsons, on his way to take Kassaba from the Italians, met King Menelik. The King was very angry because the town had been surrendered to the Egyptians. He claimed that Kassaba belonged to his territory, and he was then engaged in organizing an army to fight for what he considered his right.

The situation in Egypt is further complicated by the report that General Kitchener's Soudanese troops, in whose fighting qualities he has had great confidence, have shown signs of dissatisfaction.

If they were to rebel against England's authority at this time, the consequence might be very serious.[Pg 148]


Just now England is under such terrible expense that it is thought that her present exchequer is in danger of exhaustion.

She is sending forces to the Nile to settle the Egyptian troubles there, and she has the uprisings on the Indian frontier, which are likely to cause her considerable expense.

Then, too, there is that vast loan which she has offered to China and which is creating a sensation among the European Powers.


England has taken a firm position with regard to the occupation of Kiao-Chou by Germany and the seizure of Port Arthur by the Russians.

She has openly sent two war-ships to each of these ports.

This does not mean that she wishes to provoke war. It is intended probably as a hint to Germany and Russia that if they go too far she is ready to fight.


Germany, however, has repeated that Kiao-Chou is to be a free port, and this statement is being echoed with satisfaction by the English press.

Nevertheless, the English papers show an astonishingly warlike spirit, and the English people are said to be delighted by the pluck and force which Lord Salisbury has shown in this crisis.

During the past few years Lord Salisbury has been accused of a willingness to make almost any concession to avoid dragging England into a war.

[Pg 149]


A writer in the New York Sun has lately published a very able and interesting article on the relation of the United States to the present crisis in the East.

In this country we have been so absorbed in watching the rivalry between the European Powers over China that we have given very little thought to its effect on ourselves.

The writer in The Sun shows that it may affect us very seriously.

He does not believe that there is any immediate danger of a war as a result of the seizure of Kiao-Chou, and he adds that the present excitement may be "for the purpose of finding out just what the pretensions of the various Powers are with regard to China."

"The attitude of Great Britain," he writes, "is one requiring close examination, because of the magnitude and far-reaching character of her demands on China. Briefly stated, they are:

"First, that China shall accept a loan guaranteed by Great Britain; secondly, that as security the customs administration shall be placed under her agents, with a contingent control of the likin or internal customs; thirdly, the right to push the Burmese railways at once into Yunnan and Sechuen; and, fourthly, that no cessions of territory shall be made to any other power south of the Yang-tse-kiang."

The immense importance of these demands the writer very clearly explains.


If England were to grant China the enormous loan that she needs to pay the war indemnity to Japan,[Pg 151][Pg 150] she would secure "a controlling voice in all future financial transactions which the Chinese Government might wish or be forced to undertake."

If China agreed to the second proposition, England could manage the customs in such a way as to "attract the vast bulk of the internal trade of China to herself."

He writes further:

"The third and fourth demands hang together, but have to be treated separately. The concession to Great Britain of the unrestricted right to construct railways from Burmah into the southwestern provinces of China would have the effect of turning them into commercial tributaries of Great Britain.

"A railway connecting Rangoon in Burmah by way of Bhamo with Ichang at the head of navigation on the Yang-tse-kiang would act as a suction pipe to draw away to the port of Rangoon the trade of the most prosperous and flourishing parts of China, and give products taking that route the advantage of many days in point of time and of distance in the race for the European markets. By just so much trade as might take the British route through Burmah, would the potential trade of other Powers, with no other but all sea routes from the coast at their command, be diminished.

"The advantage British manufactures would have for entry and distribution into the vast and populous regions which the British Government proposes to penetrate by means of railways constructed by British capital, and affording employment to British labor and shipping, are too obvious to need enlarging upon.

"A glance at the map will show that the better half of China proper, territorially and commercially,[Pg 152] would, by the concession of the third and fourth of England's demands, be placed under her practical control."

The writer believes that the fourth demand is aimed at stopping the advance of the French in China beyond Tonquin.

Now comes the point of his article most interesting to us as Americans.

How are our interests in China to be affected by the European encroachments there?

They would be greatly injured, the writer points out, if any European Power were to secure such control in China that our Chinese trade would be restricted.

Consequently, our interests are on the side of China and of Japan, for the Japanese must now be looking with astonishment and alarm at the possible partition by European Powers of the nation which she herself conquered only a short time ago.

"It cannot possibly be for the advantage of this country to aid in establishing the financial and commercial, with the eventual political, predominance of any one country in China."

And further:

"The protestations in the British press and by prominent members of the British Government, that England does not ask for herself any privileges that she is not willing to see extended to all other nations, is fine political rhetoric, but one has only to point to India, and ask how much Great Britain's control and administration of that country, with its vast population, have contributed to the general commerce and wealth of the world."

[Pg 153]


In the Reichstag the other day, Baron von Buelow made an important announcement regarding the killing of the German missionaries in China that led to the German occupancy of Kiao-Chou.

The negotiations between Germany and China over the affair, he said, were now practically concluded, and with very satisfactory results.

The Governor of Shan-Tung had been removed and would be forever barred from holding another public office.

Six officials, accused by Germany of taking part in the murders, had also been degraded and punished, and the actual perpetrators of the crimes would be treated as they deserved.

China had promised to pay heavy damages for the injury done to the mission, and would, moreover, provide for the erection of three churches, each marked with a tablet to indicate that they were under the protection of the Emperor.

China would also furnish the money necessary for the erection of seven residences for the Catholic prefecture of Tsao-Chou-Fu.

The Chinese Government finally agreed to issue a special Imperial edict to insure the future protection of the German missions.


Major Williams, who was sent to London by the Treasury Department to inquire into the means for enforcing the new sealskin exclusion act, has acknowledged that his inquiries have discouraged him. He believes it will be impossible for the Gov[Pg 154]ernment to enforce the law in its present form. Comparatively few of the sealskins can be identified after they have passed through the hands of the wholesale and the retail dealers.

So it looks as if the Government would have to find some other way to protect the seals from threatened extinction.


The observations of the eclipse of the sun on the 22d of January, taken at Talni, India, are said to have been completely successful.

The astronomers who had gone to Talni from Great Britain to represent the British Astronomical Association, and from the Lick Observatory at San Francisco, succeeded in taking some excellent photographs.

While the eclipse was complete, the light is said to have equalled that of the full moon.

Wherever observations were made, the results are reported to have been satisfactory.

During the eclipse, Venus, Mars, and Mercury were clearly seen.


The report that Mr. Gladstone is in very feeble health has been confirmed.

It looks now as if one of the greatest careers in the whole history of England would soon be ended.

Mr. Gladstone, however, has always had such remarkable vitality that his admirers all over the world hope that he will be spared a few years longer.

Still, there can be no doubt that his work is over. And what wonderful work it has been![Pg 155]

As Mr. Gladstone was born in Liverpool on the 29th of December, 1809, he is now in his eighty-ninth year.

Since 1894, when his failing eyesight forced him to leave public life, he has lived very quietly at his home in Hawarden.

But he has continued to take an active interest in public affairs, and he has devoted himself to the studies in which he has had a life-long interest. On several occasions, too, he has spoken out on subjects of grave importance, showing his old-time vigor and courage.

His death would be a loss not only to England, but to the world at large.

He has always taken a deep interest in the American Government and in the American people.

In this country, "the Grand Old Man," as Mr. Gladstone has long been called, is regarded with great admiration and affection.

An account of Mr. Gladstone's career will be published in a later number of The Great Round World.

It will show why he is so highly honored as a statesman, a writer, and as a friend of his fellow-men.


Many readers of The Great Round World doubtless remarked the great strike that took place in Chicago more than three years ago, and the share in it of Debs, the political agitator, which led to his imprisonment.

Within the past few months Debs has been busily engaged in making plans to found a colony for unem[Pg 156]ployed men and women, where they will be given opportunities of earning a living.

He has lately purchased 30,000 acres of land in Tennessee for this purpose.

It will be interesting to watch the outcome of this experiment.

As a rule, experiments of this kind are not successful.

It is to be hoped that this new undertaking will prove to be an exception.

Our workingmen certainly need help. All over the world they are complaining, and many people believe that, unless their condition is improved, they will resort to violence against the rich.

So all efforts in their behalf are particularly interesting at this time.


It is announced that the Emperor of Germany, who is fond of roving about the world, will start on his much-discussed trip to the Holy Land about the middle of next April.

He is to start from Hamburg on his yacht with his two eldest sons, and he will return in six weeks.

It is reported that he will then pay a visit to the Sultan at Constantinople.

Europe watches every move of the Emperor's with the greatest interest and with curiosity as to whether it has a political significance.[Pg 157]


and Discovery


A NEW SPRING-POST FOR BICYCLES.—This post does not seem to have the objectionable features that other spring-posts have. It is small, neat, compact, and at the same time does its work admirably, as we have reason to know, having had it tested. The illustration shows quite clearly how it is constructed. To the ordinary observer, when it is attached to a bicycle it appears to be an common seat-post; the spring, however, prevents the constant vibration which is so trying to the rider and so hard on the machine, especially in riding over cobblestones.[Pg 158]


Riding a machine with this spring-post, as compared with one without it, is very much like riding in a spring carriage as compared with the ordinary springless cart.

Buoy with light

A clever invention, which originated in France, is a life-saving buoy that has been used on the River Seine in Paris. Persons falling into the water at night often lose their lives because it is impossible to ascertain their whereabouts; or, if a life-saving apparatus of any kind is thrown to them in the darkness, they frequently drown before they can find it. This small apparatus consists of a combination of a buoy with an electric light; when the buoy is thrown into the water the light is lighted automatically. In connection with this invention the life-savers in Paris use a grappling-hook which we illustrate. This has an electric light near the end in the oval space; this light[Pg 159] makes it possible to grapple for persons who may have gone down beneath the water.

Grappling Hook

We have also received from France the account of an invention in the shape of a bicycle lamp in which acetylene is burned. The great difficulty with the use of acetylene has heretofore been that the gas will not burn unless under high pressure, and the receptacles in which the gas is generated could not be so made as to insure them against ex[Pg 160]ploding. Acetylene gas, as generally used, is generated by bringing water in contact with the calcium carbide. The gas forms so rapidly that it is extremely difficult to control it, therefore the attention of inventors has been directed to this question. This lamp seems to be a very clever arrangement for producing the gas in the right quantity without danger of explosion.

Acetylene lamp

It is described very clearly by the illustration herewith. The upper part, "E," is a small reservoir in which water is put; this water is released in small quantities through the tube at the right, and, flowing into the lower part of the lamp, comes in contact with the calcium carbide, which is in the receptacle "P"; the gas thus generated is held in the reservoir "G," and when sufficient pressure has been created is forced out through the burner "B."

The lamp is small and compact; it is but four inches high, and yields a beautiful bright light which will not blow out. When it is desired to put the light out, the button "R" is pressed down, thus shutting off the supply of water; this stops the generation of the gas, and the lamp soon goes out.


"C. H.," Germantown, Pa., asks if the bicycles used in the Klondike have rubber tires. We have seen no authentic account of the use of bicycles there. It is extremely improbable that any kind of a bicycle can be used to advantage in the Arctic reigons, although a bicycle may be ridden with care safely on smooth snow or ice.


There often come into our hands great bargains in DICTIONARIES, ENCYCLOPÆDIAS, &c., &c., and we are glad to give our readers the benefit of these bargains.

One set of THE AMERICAN ENCYCLOPÆDIC DICTIONARY, 4 volumes, full sheep, in all 4731 pages, illustrated, 1896 edition—published at $20.00, AS NEW,
One set. The same. Cloth, AS NEW. Published at $16.008.00

We should be glad to quote on any dictionary or encyclopædia—in fact any book.

5 WEST 18TH STREET,                     NEW YORK CITY

Dr. EDWARD JOYNES, Professor of South Carolina College, Columbia S. C., says of Thieme's Preusser's German and English Dictionary: "... a book so beautiful, so valuable, and so monumental—whose new appearance forms justly a 'Jubilee' event, in memory of its present editor and publishers. In external beauty, in paper, type, presswork, and binding, and all that belongs to solid and elegant book-making, the volume is a fine specimen of German skill, good taste, and thoroughness. And as a contribution to our lexicography, and its completeness and convenience, it takes rank with the foremost and best. Such a book is at once a boon to scholars and a new bond of union between great and kindred nations. It will give me great pleasure to recommend its use to teachers and pupils wherever I have opportunity."
Price, elegantly bound in Half Russia, $5.00; sent prepaid upon receipt of amount by
William Beverley Harison (Foreign Department), 3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York.

The School Record
is a wide-awake Monthly Journal for teacher and pupil. 36 big pages. High-class, practical, and helpful. Every department up to date. The universal testimony from subscribers is "Best paper I ever saw"; "Am delighted with it," etc. 50 cents a year. We want agents in every part of the U. S., at teachers' institutes and associations. Big commission. Send for sample copy and premium list if you are a prospective subscriber or agent.
Address The School Record...

Educational Games

Depicting the dress, manners, and customs of the nations of the world; introducing many of the Oriental characters made famous by the Chicago Columbian Exposition and the Midway.
A most exciting and entertaining United States political game. Easily comprehended by a child, yet allowing scope for unlimited skill. Contains much political information.
The inhabitants of the forest and jungle are always favorites with the children, and they will recognize many of their acquaintances of the Zoo and the Menagerie in the 53 animals shown in this interesting game.
An instructive student's game, showing many varieties of Oaks in their natural colors; beautiful enameled cards.
An interesting study of nature, illustrating a variety of Pines, in colors; enameled and highly finished surface.
A new game for young and old, introducing all kinds of Maple leaves, printed in colors; enameled surface.
In this game are grouped various illustrations of the fruits of forest trees—walnut, hickory, chestnut, etc. Enameled and highly finished.
This game embraces a series of beautiful half-tones of representative vessels of the United States Navy, together with description of each.
Colored maps of all the States and Territories of the United States; an interesting geographical game, giving population, dates or admission to the Union, principal cities, etc.
A very instructive game, showing maps and population of all the principal countries of the world; 48 accurate and reliable maps. So simple and amusing that it is a favorite with old and young.
1111. FLAGS
Showing the national flags of all the principal countries of the world; the flags are reproduced in many colors; a most instructive and useful game.
Indispensable to the student of fractions; amusing and instructive to all; 52 cards, showing fractions which are made up into various combinations by addition and subtraction, forming a very interesting home game.
One of the most beautiful games ever issued; handsome half-tone illustrations of the old world's most famous castles. Picturesque, entertaining, and instructive. Enameled and highly finished.
An entirely new and amusing game for individual and progressive play. Can be played at first sight. Equally adaptive for young and old; each game contains cards for four tables or sixteen players.
A new historical game. Half-tone portraits of all the Presidents of the United States, with principal events of each administration.
The people of the various nations of the world in colors. Bright and attractive. Interesting rules for play.
The world's most popular and famous paintings. Beautiful chromo-gravure reproductions. A fine game.
Life-like sketches from the Sunny South. Chromo-gravure illustrations of a happy people.
Portraits of 52 of the world's most famous writers. Entirely new rules for playing this famous game.
Portraits of writers dear to our young people. Such favorites as Pansy, Louisa M. Alcott, Oliver Optic, Eugene Field, etc. The game is played by the conventional Authors rules.
Depicting Puritan life and times. The Departure, and landing of the Mayflower in Plymouth harbor. The Plymouth of 1621 and to-day. Interesting rules for play.
Nos. 1114, 1117, and 1118      35c. per boxAll other games listed herein      25c. per box

If to be sent by mail, add five cents for postage on each game.

Rochester, N. Y.

List of Selected Books for School and Home

In The Story Land

By Harriett Lincoln Coolidge. 1 volume, cloth, red, or blue, and silver. Price, 75 cents. 3 parts. Boards, 25 cents each.

A series of jolly, bright, interesting stories. A fascinating book for young boys and girls.

Old Mother Earth.—Her Highways and Byways

By Josephine Simpson. Price, 36 cents.

This book tells all about the world's wonders, in simple attractive language.

Great Round World Natural History Stories

By Julia Truitt Bishop. 2 vols. (boards), price, 50 cents each; 11 parts (paper), 10 cents each.

A series of true stories and anecdotes of animals. Containing "Juan," "Clem," and Mrs. Bishop's other bright stories, gathered together now for the first time.

The Story of Washington

By Jessie R. Smith. Price, 20 cents.

With illustrations by children.

Four True Stories of Life and Adventure

By Jessie R. Smith. Price, 36 cents.

These two books are the famous Santa Rosa Reproduction Stories. They are all stories retold by children, and for this reason most attractive to them.

Classic Myths

By Mary Catharine Judd. Price, 50 cents.

The fascinating old fairy stories rewritten for young children.

Skyward and Back

By same author. Price, 30 cents.

Old favorite stories rewritten for the little ones.

Evolution of Empire Series

By Mary Platt Parmele. 4 vols. Price per vol., 60 cents.

Histories of the United States, England, France, and Germany in attractive, interesting, and fascinating style.

Simple Lessons in the Study of Nature

By Isabella G. Oakley. Price, 50 cents.

A delightful introduction to Nature Study, for school or home use.

Child's Handbook for Collecting Pictures and Stories of Animals

Price (reduced), 75 cents.

A most attractive scrap-book for collecting and classifying pictures and anecdotes of animals.

Sold by all Booksellers. Sent, postpaid, upon receipt of price, by

3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York

Justus · Perthes' · Geographical · Institute

Publishers, Gotha (Germany)


Sydow-Habenicht's Wall Maps


Maps of the world (Eastern and Western Hemispheres, Mercator
Chart, North and South Pole Charts).
2. Europe.
3. Asia.
4. Australia and Polynesia.
5. Africa.
6. North America.
7. South America.
8. Germany and adjoining countries.
9. Austria-Hungary.
10. The Balkan Peninsula.
11. Italy.
12. The Iberian Peninsula.
13. France.
14. The British Isles.
15. The Scandinavian Peninsula.
16. Russia.


Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 12—Size, 65 × 80 inches—each in 12 loose sheets, $4.50. Mounted on linen in portfolio, each, $6.50. Mounted on linen with rollers, each, $8.00. Mounted on linen with rollers and varnished, each, $9.00

Nos. 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15—Size, 56 × 66 inches—each in 9 loose sheets, $3.50. Mounted on linen in portfolio, each, $5.50. Mounted on linen with rollers, each, $7.00. Mounted on linen with rollers and varnished, each, $8.00.

The Sydow-Habenicht Wall Maps are universally acknowledged by all authorities to be THE best in existence.

Dr. Herm. Berghaus'


Chart of the World


Showing the Sea Currents and Wind Zones, the Variation of the Magnetic Needle, the Condition of Floating Icebergs, the Telegraphic Cables round the Earth, the Regular Line of Steamers, Principal Overland Routes, Most Important Sailing-Vessel Tracks, etc.

12TH EDITION, 1897

Completely Revised by H. Habenicht and B. Domann


Size, 40 × 62 inches
PRICES:Mounted on linen with polished rods and rings.    $7.50
Mounted on linen with polished rods and rings, varnished.    8.25
Mounted on linen, folded in cloth case (8×10).    7.50
Mounted on linen, folded in leather case (8×10).    9.00

3 & 5 West 18th Street                       NEW YORK



"The Great Round World"

52 numbers..

per year

The Great
Round World
Publishing Co.
3 and 5 West
18th Street
New York City
     "g. r. w."
Book Buyer1.002.25
Century Magazine4.005.00
Current Literature3.004.00
Harper's Bazaar4.004.75
Harper's Monthly4.004.75
Harper's Weekly4.004.75
Illustrated American4.004.75
Leisure Hour1.002.25
Literary Digest3.004.25
New England Magazine3.004.00
North American Review5.005.75
Our Little Ones and Nursery1.002.25
Review of Reviews2.503.50
Saint Nicholas3.004.00
Scientific American3.004.25
Short Stories2.503.75
Truth (New York)2.503.50
"The Great Round World"
will make club rates on any magazines

The Great Round World

A Weekly Newspaper For Boys
and Girls—and Others. . . .


Albert Ross Parsons, President American College of Musicians: "For the purpose of eliciting a free expression of opinion from my son Richard Percival Parsons, aged 10, I bought a copy of The Great Round World for three or four weeks in succession, and simply left it lying where he would be likely to see it. In about four weeks he had interested himself so deeply in its contents that he voluntarily asked if he might subscribe for it, a wish which I was only too glad to gratify. The bound volume of the first fifteen numbers has remained his daily mental food and amusement ever since it arrived. I thank you for your great service both to our young people and to their elders."


E. A. Carleton, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Helena, Mont.: "I have been a constant and eager reader of The Great Round World since my accession to this office, the first of this year. I regard it as unique, and of almost incomparable value, and I should be pleased to aid in its general use in all the schools of our State. You are authorized to use this letter and to quote me as strongly in favor of it."


William N. Sheats, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Tallahassee, Fla.: "I have received for several months past copies of The Great Round World. I think it is an ideal paper for children."


T. W. Harris, Superintendent of Schools, Keene, N. H.: "I find it excellent for the use we have made of it, and would heartily commend it to all schools as an aid in the study of current events."


The Great Round World Publ. Co.,
3 and 5 West 18th Street, New York City.

Transcriber's notes:

Obvious punctuation errors repaired.

The remaining corrections made are indicated by dotted lines under the corrections. Scroll the mouse over the word and the original text will appear.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Great Round World and What Is
Going On In It, Vol. 2, No. 5, February 3, 1898, by Various


***** This file should be named 19203-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Juliet Sutherland, Emmy and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team (

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS', WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email
[email protected]  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director
     [email protected]

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.